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UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION Differences between Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing – Contexts and Names -Functions – Applications and Services – New Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION Differences between Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing – Contexts and Names -Functions – Applications and Services – New Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION Differences between Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing – Contexts and Names -Functions – Applications and Services – New Applications – Making Legacy Applications Mobile Enabled – Design Considerations – Integration of Wireless and Wired Networks – Standards Bodies – Pervasive Computing – Basics and Vision – Principles of Pervasive Computing –Categories of Pervasive Devices 1

2 What Is Mobile Computing?
What is computing? Operation of computers (according to oxfords advance learner’s dictionary) What is the mobile? That someone /something can move or be moved easily and quickly from place to place What is mobile computing? Users with portable computers still have network connections while they move 2 2

3 What Is Mobile Computing?(con..)
A simple definition could be: Mobile Computing is using a computer (of one kind or another) while on the move Another definition could be: Mobile Computing is when a (work) process is moved from a normal fixed position to a more dynamic position. A third definition could be: Mobile Computing is when a work process is carried out somewhere where it was not previously possible. 3

4 Mobile Computing Mobile Computing is used to describe technologies that enable people to access network services anyplace, anytime, and anywhere. Enabling Technologies for Mobile Computing Hardware and software infrastructures that support the wireless connection include Network access points Mobile communications server switches Cellular transmitters and receivers 4

5 Differences between Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing Comparison to Wired Net.
Wired Networks high bandwidth low bandwidth variability can listen on wire high power machines high resource machines need physical access(security) low delay connected operation Mobile Networks low bandwidth high bandwidth variability hidden terminal problem low power machines low resource machines need proximity higher delay disconnected operation 5

6 Mobile/wireless communication
Two aspects of mobility: user mobility: users communicate (wireless) “anytime, anywhere, with anyone” device portability: devices can be connected anytime, anywhere to the network Transmission medium Guided Media Signals are guided along a solid medium e.g., copper twisted pair, copper coaxial cable, optical fiber 6

7 Electromagnetic waves are produced and received via antennas
Unguided Media Provides means of transmission but does not guide electromagnetic signals Usually referred to as wireless transmission e.g., atmosphere, outer space, water Electromagnetic waves are produced and received via antennas Transmitting antenna - a transmitter delivers radiates alternating current into the surrounding environment in the form of radio or microwave signals 7

8 Receiving antenna - converts signals from the environment into alternating current and delivers it to the receiver. A wireless communication does not use wires (cables) for communications, but by the transmission of electromagnetic waves through ‘the air’. Michael faraday, James C. Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz Wireless communication has a long history, started in Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph Advances in wireless technology include radio, television, mobile telephone, communication satellites. 8

9 Wireless vs. mobile Wireless vs. mobile Examples   stationary computer   notebook in a hotel   wireless LANs in historic buildings   Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) 9

10 Context and names Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves, and by extension, the environment the user and applications are embedded in. A system is context-aware if it uses context to provide relevant information and/or services to the user, where relevancy depends on the user’s task Context is typically the location, identity and state of people, groups and computational and physical objects. 10

11 Information that is used to characterize the situation of an entity
What is context? Information that is used to characterize the situation of an entity Examples of Context: Temperature User preferences Lighting Location Nearby resources (such as printers) History 11

12 What is Context-Aware Mobile Computing?
Applications that can detect their user’s situations and adapt to their behaviors accordingly. A software that adapts according to it’s context! 12

13 Context-Aware applications use context to:
Present services and information to a user Examples: The time of day and restaurants near the user Automatically execute a service for a user Example: A phone automatically setting a weekly alarm for the user Tag information to retrieve at a later time Example: Phone keeps track of recent calls 13

14 Examples Smartphone adjusts the screen to the orientation of the device Orientation is determined by using both a gyroscope and an accelerometer. 14

15 Device uses GPS to display the user’s location
Phone display adjusts the brightness of the display based on the surrounding area Uses a light sensor Device uses GPS to display the user’s location Can use to find nearby stores Get directions 15

16 Mobile Computing Functions
A computing environment is defined as mobile if it supports one or more of these characteristics: User mobility: User should be able to move from one physical location to another location and use same service Network mobility: User should be able to move from one network to another network and use same service 16

17 Host mobility: The user should can be either a client or server.
Device mobility: User should be able to move from one device to another and use same service Session mobility: A user session should be able to move from one user-agent environment to another. Service mobility: User should be able to move from one service to another Host mobility: The user should can be either a client or server. 17

18 1- User with device: fixed, portable
Mobile computing functions can be logically divided into the major segments: 1- User with device: fixed, portable 2- Network: different networks: GSM, CDMA, Ethernet, Wireless LAN, …etc. 3- Gateway: Interfacing different transport bearers 4- Middleware: handling the presentation and rendering of the content on a particular device. 5- Content: it is the domain where the origin server and content is. 18

19 Mobile Computing Functions
Application Server Device Origin Server Adaptation Framework Datastore User with device Middleware Framework Content Networks & Gateways 19

20 Applications of Mobile Computing
For Estate Agents In courts In companies Stock Information Collection/Control Credit Card Verification Taxi/Truck Dispatch Electronic Mail/Paging 20

21 New Applications Mobile Banking and Financial Services
Customers can use their mobile handsets to access account balances, pay bills, and transfer funds using SMS Wireless Electronic Payment Systems Wireless payment systems transform mobile phones into secure, self-contained purchasing support tools capable of instantly authorizing payments over the cellular network m-wallet (mobile wallet) Technologies that enable cardholders to make purchases with a single click from their wireless device 21

22 Wireless Bill Payments
A number of companies are now providing their customers with the option of paying their bills directly from a cell phone Closing the digital divide Using WWANs, mobile devices, and even regular cell phones, are closing the digital divide in developing countries such as China, India, and the Philippines 22

23 Mobile and Targeted Advertising
Wireless Shopping An increasing number of online vendors allow customers to shop from wireless devices, especially cell phones and PDAs Mobile and Targeted Advertising Knowing the real-time location of mobile users and their preferences or surfing habits, marketers can send user-specific advertising messages to wireless devices 23

24 Mobile Computing Services
Short Message Service (SMS) A service that supports the sending and receiving of short text messages on mobile phones Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS) An extension of SMS that can send simple animation, tiny pictures, sounds, and formatted text 24

25 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
The emerging generation of wireless messaging; MMS is able to deliver rich media micropayments Electronic payments for small-purchase amounts (generally less than $10) 25

26 Location-based services global positioning system (GPS)
A worldwide satellite-based tracking system that enables users to determine their position anywhere on the earth Voice-support services interactive voice response (IVR) A voice system that enables users to request and receive information and to enter and change data through a telephone to a computerized system voice portal A Web site with an audio interface that can be accessed through a telephone call 26

27 Making Legacy Applications Mobile Enabled
Businesses across virtually all industry sectors are leveraging mobility to move computing power off the desktop and into the hands of workers. With a mobile computer in-hand, workers have the real-time information required to streamline business processes and improve business agility, response times and overall productivity. 27

28 While new tools allow the creation of business applications designed to run on mobile computers and maximize mobile computer functionality, nearly every enterprise in virtually every industry has an existing investment in critical mainframe-resident applications that are typically accessed via ‘dumb’ desktop terminals. The backbone of many business processes, these applications are often a first step in a mobility strategy — the first tier of applications extended to a mobile computer. As a result, terminal emulation becomes a critical requirement for today’s mobility solutions. 28

29 Terminal emulators allow enterprises to protect this existing technology investment by enabling the extension of these host applications to mobile computers Thick client-devices that offer a wealth of processing power instead of thin client terminals — without the time and cost associated with modifying the original application 29

30 Several IT organizations have spent huge amounts of resources on their existing legacy applications
It have huge amount of knowledge stored within them and day to day business processes are intricately woven around these systems. But with the advent of internet and collapsing of boundaries, these legacy systems have become huge bottle necks for companies looking to expand over the internet and take their business processes to a higher level. 30

31 Also web enabling a legacy system would be "fast to market"
Several companies look forward to leverage their legacy systems over the internet because they can re-use the existing logic supporting their various business organizations. Also web enabling a legacy system would be "fast to market" since the new system is based on existing legacy elements. Shorter "time to market" and 'reuse' of existing logic means lower costs to the company and also a system developed based on an existing system will be much more stable and secure. 31

32 Challenges Mobility/context aware applications Naming and locating
Routing data and messages Reliability in presence of disconnection Data management Transaction models Security 32

33 Design considerations
Need new solutions to old / new problems to overcome the above constraints Need to Reduce communication and operational cost Need to manage mobility Need to conserve energy Need to design special interfaces for small devices Need to enforce wireless security Need to have new computing paradigms asynchronous interactions handling of disconnections adaptation (may need user’s involvement) mobile code and mobile agent Cope with challenges 33

34 The challenges can be tackled in various system components including
Mobile devices Mobile wireless networks and protocols Location tracking techniques Mobile computing models, application architectures, and software infrastructure Protocols, OS, and programming languages Application / user requirements, business models Cope with challenges 34

35 Integration of Wireless and Wired networks
Integrating wireless equipment with wired portions of a given solution is usually quite simple, since both types of equipment almost always have wired interfaces that meet industry standards. For example, the ubiquitous 8-pin modular connector used in 10Base-T Ethernet applications is present on both wired and wireless equipment, making interconnection a trivial matter in all but the most complicated situations. Other common interfaces include the RJ-11 connector used in voice applications, the RS-232 in a variety of connector configurations, and a wide range of fiber and cable connections as well. 35

36 36

37 Integration Framework

38 Vertical Versus Horizontal Integrations
App1 Platform1 App2 Platform2 App1 Platform1 Network1 App 2 Platform2 Network2 Integrated Physical Network b). Horizontal Integration at Network Level a). Total Vertical Integration App1 Network1 App 2 Network2 Integrated Applications Platform1 Network1 Platform2 Network2 Integrated Platform + IP c). Horizontal Integration at Platform Level d). Horizontal Integration at Application Level 38

39 Integration of Wireless and Wired networks(con)
Higher loss-rates due to interference Restrictive regulations of frequencies Low transmission rates Higher delays, higher jitter Lower security, simpler active attacking Always shared medium 39

40 Standards Bodies List of standards bodies in which Extreme Networks is actively engaged in order to create, develop, publish and promote standards. IEEE 802 The IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC) 802.11b The most popular Wi-Fi standard; it is inexpensive and offers sufficient speed for most devices; however, interference can be a problem 40

41 This Wi-Fi standard is faster than 802.11b but has a smaller range
This fast but expensive Wi-Fi standard is mostly used in businesses IEEE Committee The IEEE Working Group develops standards for CSMA/CD (Ethernet) based LANs. Technologies that have been added to the standard over the years include Ethernet 10Base-2, 10BaseT, FastEthernet, 100Base-T, Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet 41

42 IEEE 802.3ah project, Ethernet in the First Mile
This project has developed a set of standards to enable Ethernet deployment over fiber optic cable and voice grade copper in the Telecom access network. IEEE 802.3ae (10 Gigabit Ethernet) - Ratified and now part of 802.3 Supplement to CSMA/CD Access Method & Physical Layer Specifications - Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, and Management Parameters for 10 Gb/s Operation. 42

43 IEEE 802.3z (Gigabit Ethernet) - Ratified and now part of 802.3
-An IEEE extension of the standard, to address Gigabit Ethernet (1,000 Mb/s). - It includes specifications for media access control (MAC) parameters, as well as physical layer, repeater, and management parameters for Gigabit Ethernet. IEEE 802.3u (Fast Ethernet) - Ratified and now part of 802.3 -Supplement to Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications: Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment, and Repeater for 100 Mb/s Operation, Type 100 Base-T. 43

44 Pervasive computing basics
What is pervasive computing? An environment in which people interact with embedded (and mostly invisible) computers (processors) and in which networked devices are aware of their surroundings and peers and are able to provide services or use services from peers effectively 44

45 What is pervasive computing?
Several terms that share a common vision Pervasive Computing Ubiquitous Computing Ambient Intelligence Wearable Computing Context Awareness 45

46 Pervasive Computing Environments
Network camera Handheld Devices Berkeley Motes Laptops Pervasive computing devices communicate and take actions. 46

47 Goals of Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing
Ultimate goal: Invisible technology Integration of virtual and physical worlds Throughout desks, rooms, buildings, and life Take the data out of environment, leaving behind just an enhanced ability to act 47

48 Pervasive Computing Phase I
Smart, ubiquitous I/O devices: tabs, pads, and boards Hundreds of computers per person, but casual, low-intensity use Many, many “displays”: audio, visual, environmental Wireless networks Location-based, context-aware services Using a computer should be as refreshing as a walk in the woods 48

49 Smart Objects Real world objects are enriched with information processing capabilities Embedded processors in everyday objects small, cheap, lightweight Communication capability wired or wireless spontaneous networking and interaction Sensors and actuators 49

50 Smart Objects (cont.) Can remember pertinent events They have a memory
Show context-sensitive behavior They may have sensors Location/situation/context awareness Are responsive/proactive Communicate with environment Networked with other smart objects 50

51 Pervasive (Ubiquitous) Computing Vision
“In the 21st century the technology revolution will move into the everyday, the small and the invisible…” “The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabrics of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” Mark Weiser (1952 –1999), XEROX PARC Small, cheap, mobile processors and sensors in almost all everyday objects on your body (“wearable computing”) embedded in environment (“ambient intelligence”) 51

52 Pervasive Computing Enablers
Moore’s Law of IC Technologies Communication Technologies Material Technologies Sensors/Actuators 52

53 First Enabler: Moore‘s Law
Processing speed and storage capacity double every 18 months “cheaper, smaller, faster” Exponential increase will probably go on for the next 10 years at the same rate 53

54 Generalized Moore’s Law
Most important technology parameters double every 1–3 years: computation cycles memory, magnetic disks bandwidth Consequence: scaling down Problems: • increasing cost • energy 54

55 2nd Enabler: Communication
Bandwidth of single fibers ~10 Gb/s 2002: ~20 Tb/s with wavelength multiplex Powerline coffee maker “automatically” connected to the Internet Wireless mobile phone: GSM, GPRS, 3G wireless LAN (> 10 Mb/s) Bluetooth Room networks, body area networks Internet-on-a-chip 55

56 Body Area Networks Very low current (some nA), some kb/s through the human body Possible applications: Car recognize driver Pay when touching the door of a bus Phone configures itself when it is touched 56

57 Spontaneous Networking
Objects in an open, distributed, dynamic world find each other and form a transitory community Devices recognize that they “belong together” 57

58 3rd Enabler: New Materials
Important: whole eras named after materials e.g., “Stone Age”, “Iron Age”, “Pottery Age”, etc. Recent: semiconductors, fibers information and communication technologies Organic semiconductors change the external appearance of computers “Plastic” laser Opto-electronics, flexible displays,… 58

59 Smart Paper, Electronic Ink
micro capsules, white on one side and black on the other oriented by electrical field substrate could be an array of plastic transistors Potentially high contrast, low energy, flexible Interactive: writable with magnetic pen 59

60 Interactive Map Foldable and rollable You are here! 60

61 Smart Clothing Conductive textiles and inks
print electrically active patterns directly onto fabrics Sensors based on fabric e.g., monitor pulse, blood pressure, body temperature Invisible collar microphones Kidswear game console on the sleeve? integrated GPS-driven locators? integrated small cameras (to keep the parents calm)? 61

62 Smart Glasses By 2009, computers will disappear. Visual information will be written directly onto our retinas by devices in our eyeglasses and contact lenses -- Raymond Kurzweil 62

63 4th Enabler: Sensors/Actuators
Miniaturized cameras, microphones,... Fingerprint sensor Radio sensors RFID Infrared Location sensors e.g., GPS ... 63

64 Example: Radio Sensors
No external power supply energy from the actuation process piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials transform changes in pressure or temperature into energy RF signal is transmitted via an antenna (20 m distance) Applications: temperature surveillance, remote control (e.g., wireless light switch),... 64

65 RFIDs (“Smart Labels”)
Identify objects from distance small IC with RF-transponder Wireless energy supply ~1m magnetic field (induction) ROM or EEPROM (writeable) ~100 Byte Cost ~$ $1 consumable and disposable Flexible tags laminated with paper 65

66 Lego Making Lego Smart:
Robot command Explorer (Hitachi H8 CPU, 32KB RAM, IR) 66

67 Lego Mindstorms 67

68 Putting Them Altogether
Progress in computing speed communication bandwidth material sciences sensor techniques computer science concepts miniaturization energy and battery display technologies Enables new applications “Post-PC era” business opportunities Challenges for computer scientists, e.g., infrastructure 68

69 Example Projects ETH Zurich The Smart Its Project HP Cooltown project
AT&T Sentient System Berkeley’s Wireless Sensor Network Intel Mote/RFID Project 69

70 Idea: Making Objects Smart
The Smart Its Project Vision: make everyday objects as smart, interconnected information artifacts by attaching “Smart-Its” Smart labels Atmel microcontroller: (ETH Zurich) 4 MIPS, 128 kB flash 70

71 Magnifying Glass An object as a web link
e.g., by displaying a dynamically generated homepage Contents may depend on circumstances, e.g., context and privileges possibly mediated by different name resolvers HP Cooltown project 71

72 Smart Environment, Dumb Object
A context-sensitive cookbook with RFID RFID 72

73 Can be Context-Aware Properties of the ingredients
Check whether there is enough of an ingredient Prefer ingredients with earlier best-before date Properties of the kitchen Check whether required tools and spices are available Preferences and abilities of the cook Prefers Asian dishes Expert in vegetarian dishes 73

74 AT&T Sentient System Timeline-based context storage Location tracking
Position monitoring 74

75 Berkeley’s Wireless Sensor Network
MICA Motes, sensors, and TinyOS: 75

76 Principles of Pervasive Computing
“The most profound technologies are those that dissappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” Creation of environments saturated with computing and communication capability, yet gracefully integrated with human users. Mark Weiser (July 23, April 27, 1999) was a chief scientist of Xerox PARC and widely considered to be the father of Ubiquitous computing (also known as Ubicomp) and calm technology. Weiser authored more than 75 technical publications. In addition to computer science, Weiser was also the drummer in the first band to perform live on the Internet, Severe Tire Damage. When articulated, this was a vision too far ahead of its time - the hardware technology needed to achieve it simply did not exist. Not surprisingly, the implementation attempted by Weiser and his colleagues at Xerox PARC fell short. 76 76

77 Principles of Pervasive Computing(con..)
During one of his talks, Weiser outlined a set of principles describing pervasive computing (also called ubiquitous computing): The purpose of a computer is to help you do something else. The best computer is a quiet, invisible servant. The more you can do by intuition the smarter you are; the computer should extend your unconscious. Technology should create calm. Calm technology “A technology that which informs but doesn't demand our focus or attention”. (Designing Calm Technology, Weiser and John Seeley Brown) In Designing Calm Technology, Weiser and John Seeley Brown describe calm technology as "that which informs but doesn't demand our focus or attention". (Bizi bilgilendiren ancak ilgi ve dikkatimizi gerektirmeyen teknoloji.) 77 77

78 Principles of Pervasive Computing(con..)
“My colleagues and I at PARC believe that what we call ubiquitous computing will gradually emerge as the dominant mode of computer access over the next 20 years. Like the personal computer, ubiquitous computing will produce nothing fundamentally new, but by making everything faster and easier to do, with less strain and fewer mental gymnastics, it will transform what is apparently possible.” -- Mark Weiser. Figure 1. The major trends in computing. 78 78

79 Principles of Pervasive Computing(con..)
Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing, just now beginning. First were mainframes, each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era, person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. Next comes ubiquitous computing, or the age of calm technology, when technology recedes into the background of our lives." 79

80 Principles of Pervasive Computing
Promoters of this idea hope that embedding computation into the environment and everyday objects would enable people to interact with information-processing devices more naturally and casually than they currently do, and in ways that suit whatever location or context they find themselves in. 80

81 Principles of Pervasive Computing
Pervasive computing integrates computation into the environment, rather than having computers which are distinct objects. Other terms for pervasive computing: Ubiquitous computing Calm technology Things that think Everyware Pervasive internet Ambient intelligence Proactive computing Augmented reality 81

82 Principles of Pervasive Computing
Central aim of pervasive computing: invisibility One does not need to continually rationalize one's use of a pervasive computing system. Having learnt about its use sufficiently well, one ceases to be aware of it. It is "literally visible, effectively invisible" in the same way that a skilled carpenter engaged in his work might use a hammer without consciously planning each swing. Similarly, when you look at a street sign, you absorb its information without consciously performing the act of reading. 82

83 Categories of Pervasive Devices
Very Small Screen Devices (up to 4 inches) Small Screen Devices (up to 8 inches) Medium Screen Devices (up to 15 inches) 83

84 Very Small Screen Devices
Among the many mobile and wireless connected devices those with very small screen seem at first useless. The user is limited to a typically four-line colorless LCD display. The devices offer a simple keyboard that allows a simple interaction. Typical examples of these devices are the web enabled mobile phones (WAP), and the popularBlackberry device of RIM. 84

85 Examples of Very Small Screen Devices

86 The main characteristic of these devices is that they allow the user to send and receive virtually everywhere text messages and/or text-based web content. They offer only minimal computational resources and a set of preinstalled applications ( , text only HTTP-client). They are small, continuously connected ultra-thin clients 86

87 Small Screen Devices This category of devices is characterized by displays that range between 5 and 8 inches. Typically these devices expect the user to interact using a special pen (stylus). Clicking on the screen and recognizing the user’s hand writing offers a simple & efficient interaction. Typical examples of small screen devices are the Palm, Visor, and the Windows CE Pocket PCs. The small screen devices offer between 2 and 32 MB of RAM, and an energy efficient but often slow processor. They all can be equipped with additional programs and offer as a standard communication device a simple Infrared port. Data exchange between the devices is simple and reliable as long as the distance between the devices is only a few inches. To enhance the usability of these devices all of them support wireless modem-connection and/or a wireless Ethernet connection (802.11b). 87

88 Example 88

89 Medium Screen Devices Devices with screens between 9 – 15 inches as are considered medium sized. Two types of devices are found in this category, notebook computers and web-pads. While the notebook computer tends to be a miniaturized version of a desktop machine, the web-pad represents a new development. Web-Pads can be described best as notebooks without keyboard and other external devices. Using a touch sensitive display and a good wireless Ethernet connection (802.11b) these devices are typically far lighter and thinner than notebooks. Unlike the notebook that can be configured anyway the user pleases, the Web-pad is typically a thin HTTP-client. Offering energy efficient processor and up to 32 MB of RAM the web-pad is not designed as a platform to run applications. It is a truly thin web-client that depends on a good Internet connection. 89

90 Example 90

91 WebPad The most interesting feature that distinguishes the web-pad from the notebook computer is that it targets users with no or only minimal computer experiences. Web-pads are in a way a kind of hardware version of a standard http browser. The advantage of limiting a machine to being only a browser is that such a device can be switched on and off without any harm. Unlike a PC that needs typically minutes to boot up, the web-pad is instantly ready and can be switched off safely at any moment in time. Web pages are light, compact and relatively robust. The touch-screen allows for interactivity, and the size of the screen allows it to be used as a convenient, nearly normal size keyboard. Thus the web-pad represents the long promised web-pc. Due the simplicity of its design the costs per unit can be kept below 1000 $ (US) which will ensure a successful penetration of the mass market. 91

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