Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 4.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 4

2 Sounds in context Why doesn’t synthetic speech sound natural? All sounds tend to be pronounced in all words Stress patterns are not natural, or all words are stressed equally much Pauses between words tend to be of same length

3 Sounds in context Sounds in isolation are sometimes different from sounds in words Words in isolation are sometimes pronounced differently from words in sentences Neighbouring sounds affect each other

4 Some important sound changes in English are... Assimilation Elision Strong and weak forms in connected speech (vowel reduction) Word stress

5 Assimilation the pronunciation of a sound is influenced by a sound that comes immediately after or before it the sounds become more similar can be regressive or progressive assimilation also common in Swedish

6 Regressive assimilation A sound is influenced by the following sound Examples: gunman /'gummæn/ /n/ → /m/ can be/kæm bi:/ pancake /pæŋkeık/ /n/ → /ŋ/ this shop/ðıʃ ʃɒp//s/ → /ʃ/ have to/hæf tu://v/ →/f/

7 Progressive assimilation A sound is influenced by the previous sound Examples: washed/wɒʃt/ /d/ → /t/ tricks/trıks//z/ → /s/ happen/hæpm//n/ → /m/

8 Assimilation pun: ”Why do you spend so much time with the mushroom?” ”He’s such a fungi!”

9 Elision one sound is omitted (or several sounds) common in rapid or casual speech especially noticeable in consonant clusters to “economise”; make a word or phrase easier to pronounce

10 Elision Examples: fifth/fıfθ/ → /fıθ/ clothes/kləʊðz/ → /kləʊz/ dustbin/dʌstbın/ → /dʌsbın/ asked/ɑ:skt || æskt/ /ɑ:st || æst/ handbag/hændbæg/ → /hæmbæg/ don’t know/'dəʊnt 'nəʊ/ → /də'nəʊ/

11 Strong and weak forms most function words have a strong and a weak form closed word classes: auxiliary verbs (e.g. do, has, can) conjunctions (and, but, as) prepositions (to, from, of) determiners (the, a, some) pronouns (him, her, them)

12 Strong forms used at the end of sentences (but pronouns can have weak form here too) used for emphasis or contrast Compare: Have some more. vs.I’ve had some. We must meet. vs.Must I do this? He’s so nice. vs.How nice he is!

13 Weak forms Characterised by: omitted or reduced vowel to /ə/ or /ı/ omitted or reduced /h/ initially omitted end consonant (esp. in and) Examples: Do you know him?/djə/ You and me/ən, n/ I’d love some coffee/səm/

14 Strong and weak forms strong Ask her, not him. I can do it, but I won’t. I said fish and chips, not fish or chips! I know where he’s from. I said I didn’t want to! But I have told you! weak Have you asked her? Can you pass the milk? I’d like fish and chips. Did you hear from him? Do you want to go? I’ve quit smoking.

15 Stress syllable = a sound unit with a vowel sound at the centre Examples: one syllable: stress, sound, with two syllables: unit, centre, English one syllable in a word pronounced more strongly = stressed syllable

16 Word stress stress is marked with a vertical line before the stressed syllable in the transcription Examples: England /'ıŋglənd/ sofa /'səʊfə/ machine /mə'ʃi:n/ police /pə'li:s/

17 Word stress Words with two or three syllables are often stressed on the first syllable Examples: 'balance 'menu 'model 'article 'principle 'democrat

18 Word stress more than three syllables = normally stressed on third syllable from the end Examples: a'nalysis pa'renthesis de'mocracy ther'mometer bi'ology a few exceptions: propa'ganda, dia'gnosis, peni'cillin

19 Word stress Words with Romance suffixes normally stressed on the last syllable. Examples: refer'ee train'ee chimpanz'ee shamp'oo tab'oo kitchen'ette

20 Words ending in –ry and –ny are normally stressed on fourth syllable from the end. Examples: 'February 'temporary 'category 'dictionary 'ceremony

21 Word stress words ending in suffixes = stressed on syllable before suffix (e.g.-ic, -ian,-ial, - ion) Examples: ener'getic, phy'sician, col'lision a few words have two main stresses Examples: 'thir'teen, 'four'teen (cf. thirty, forty) 'Chin'ese, 'Japan'ese

22 Double or single stress? Note the difference between compounds and phrases! CompoundPhrase a 'blackbirda 'black 'bird a 'rednecka 'red 'neck a 'French teachera 'French 'teacher the 'White Housethe 'white 'house

23 Regular stress shifts words with two syllables that can be both a noun/adjective and a verb have a regular stress shift the noun/adjective is stressed on the first syllable the verb is stressed on the second syllable

24 Examples: 'export (n)ex'port (v) 'present (n)pre'sent (v) 'progress (n)pro'gress (v) 'perfect (adj)per'fect (v) 'conduct (n)con'duct (v) 'suspect (n)sus‘pect (v)

25 Stress shift in related words Note! 'origino'riginalorigin'ality 'physicsphysi'ologyphysio'logical 'industryin'dustrialindustriali'sation 'grammargram'maticalgrammaticali'sation

Download ppt "Introduction to English pronunciation and phonetics Lecture 4."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google