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Presentation on theme: "ENGINEERING ASSEMBLY: Design Of Training Module To Train F.I.R.E. /Head New Joinees. PRESENTED BY: RAJENDRA SINGH NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DURGAPUR."— Presentation transcript:



3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I owe a great many thanks to all those people who helped and supported me during the course of this project. My deepest thanks to Mr. Pramod Khot (G.M. Manufacturing), the guide of the project for guiding me whenever and wherever necessary. My deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Chandu Thosar (DIV. Manager), for his support, guidance and thoughtful insights. My warm thanks to Mr. Yogesh Kale(Sr. Manager) sir for his kind support and for being the source of information. Special thanks to Mukta Joshi mam(Corporate HR) for her support and encouragement. Thanks and appreciation to the helpful people at FIAT INDIA AUTOMOBILES LIMITED, Ranjangaon(PUNE). I would also like to thank my Institution and faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers.


5 ABOUT FIAT FIAT is an international auto group that designs, produces and sells vehicles for the mass market under the FIAT, Alfa Romeo, Lancia, Abarth and FIAT Professional brands, as well as luxury and performance cars under the Ferrari and Maserati brands. The Group has expanded its global reach through the alliance with Chrysler Group, whose product portfolio includes Chrysler, Jeep, Dodge, Ram and SRT brand vehicles. FIAT Group also operates in the components sector, through Magneti Marelli and Teksid, and in the production systems sector, through Comau. MISSION Following the acquisition of a majority interest in Chrysler, FIAT has accelerated the integration of the two groups with the objective of creating a strong and competitive global automaker. With a total of more than 4 million vehicles sold in 2011, the combined FIAT-Chrysler ranks as the 7th largest automaker globally. This new Group possesses some of the most innovative and advanced technologies in the world and, in 2011 alone, achieved synergies of close to €1 billion. In addition, the greater geographic diversification resulting from the integration has given FIAT the strength and autonomy necessary to effectively manage volatility in individual markets.

6 BACKGROUND FIAT India Automobiles Limited is a 50-50 Industrial Joint Venture between FIAT Group Automobiles S. p. A., (FIAT) and Tata Motors Limited (TATA) originally incorporated on January 02, 1997. The company presently employs about 600 employees and is located at Ranjangaon in the Pune District of Maharashtra. The definitive agreement of the Joint Venture was signed on October 19th 2007. The board of directors for this company comprises of five nominees each from FIAT and Tata. The state-of -the-art facility at Ranjangaon has an installed capacity to produce 100,000 cars and 200,000 engines, besides aggregates and components. The company is doubling the production capacity for both car units and engine. This facility is currently manufacturing the premium FIAT cars such as the Grande Punto and Linea. The facility will also manufacture FIAT’s successful 1.3 litre Multijet diesel engines and 1.2 & 1.4 litre Fire gasoline engine. Apart from FIAT cars, the facility will also produce Tata passenger and next generation cars with investment exceeding € 650 Million

7 The plant is expected to provide direct and indirect employment to more than 4,000 people. FIAT, which holds a 50% stake in the Company, also owns and controls five internationally renowned brands:- FIAT Automobiles, Alfa Romeo Automobiles, Lancia Automobiles, Abarth and FIAT Light Commercial Vehicles, the makers of renowned cars such as the Ferrari, Maserati, Alfa Romeo and Lancia besides the FIAT branded cars. Tata Motors Limited, the other partner to the Joint Venture, is the largest automobile company in India, with revenues of Rs. 32,426 crores (USD 7.2 billion) in 2006-07. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in every segment and the second largest in the passenger vehicles market with winning products in the compact, mid-size car and utility vehicle segments. The company is the world’s fifth largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer and the world’s second largest medium and heavy bus manufacturer

8 The FPT Industrial “SCR Only” technology is exclusively unique in that it not only already allows FPT's off-road engines to comply with the interim Tier 4 regulations but, thanks to its further technological evolution and without using an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR), it is also suited to satisfy the new and more stringent 2014 Tier 4/Stage IV limits. The realization of such a highly efficient “SCR Only” system, is mainly achieved thanks to the optimization of the DEF injection device management and to the improvement of the after treatment system thermal management in order to reach operating temperatures even more quickly. For specific applications or customers’ particular requests, a special DPF anti- particulate filter will be available. on passenger cars and light commercial vehicles

9 In the interim Tier 4 and afterwards in the Tier 4/Stage IV applications, the use of FPT Industrial “SCR Only” technology improves engine performance without requiring any change of cooling system dimensions and, consequently, of the engine compartment lay-out, which will therefore keep the same compactness required by the present interim Tier 4/Stage IIIB engines. Specializing in research, development, production and sale of engines and transmissions, FIAT Powertrain has 10 manufacturing sites and five R&D centers and is a major player in the global powertrain sector. Part of FIAT Group Automobiles as of 1 January 2012, the company produces and sells engines ranging in output from 65 hp to 235 hp and transmissions with torque up to 400 Nm for application

10 Divisions of FPT Department This is one of the most important shop in the automobile plant. Others being Trimming Shop, Warehouse and Engineering & Designing Departments. This has been awarded under the category of WCM( World Class Mannufacturing) where safety is the most important criteria. This shop basically can be divided into three categories: Machining of cylinder head, cylinder block, connecting rod, crankshaft. Assembly of SDE and FIRE engines with sub-assembly of cam –carrier, lower cylinder head and turbo. Machining and Assembly of transmission gear box.

11 Company expertise in the sphere of research and development and its great skill in engineering and production processes allow excellent solutions and innovations in the powertrain field. One of the most significant dates back to 1997, when Common Rail technology was first applied to a Turbo Diesel engine for passenger cars. This system revolutionized Diesel engines in terms of efficiency and driving comfort. In 2003, Common Rail evolved into the MultiJet system and in 2009 in MultiJet II technology. In 2009, the advent of MultiAir technology, a system based on electrohydraulic intake valve management, revolutionized gasoline engine setting new standards in terms of efficiency: fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions fell while driving satisfaction increased.

12 The two-cylinder TwinAir engine, launched in 2010, marks a genuine milestone in downsizing strategy and is evidence of FIAT Powertrain’s quest for innovative solutions. This commitment has been internationally acknowledged by numerous accolades including the prestigious “Engine of the Year 2011” award. The Dry Dual Clutch Transmission (TCT), also introduced in 2010, offers a significant enhancement in efficiency compared to conventional automatic torque converter gearboxes: the same driving comfort and ease of use but with much greater driving pleasure. FIAT Powertrain is also a leader in the sector of engines powered by alternative fuels. It has been developing and selling methane (CNG) engines since 1997. This is an effective and immediately feasible solution for reducing pollution and CO 2 emissions

13 ABOUT THE TRAINING MODULE The Safety Handout Training Modules are easy-to-use, customizable training materials for conducting worker safety training sessions. Use these self-contained modules in any order to train new employees or review safety topics with more experienced employees. Each module includes a handout for employees and a guide for the trainer. The employee handout provides employees with an outline of important information on the module topic. The trainer guide includes training activities, training goals, and tips for supervisors.

14 Simple steps for a successful safety training session Choose the module most relevant to your work situation. Review the information in both the supervisor guide and the employee handout, paying particular attention to “Training Goals.” Gather materials you will need for the suggested activity (video, props, examples of safety equipment, etc.) or plan an alternate activity. Make copies of the employee handout for each participant attending the safety training session. Conduct the safety training session






20 SAFETY Safety covers different areas which are as follow.................. safety and its effect personal protective equipment proper handelling of tool and Tackles

21 its purpose safety can be make an effect on the organisation as well as the respective person. Some points which should folowed by the person as well as organisation.. each should follow the rules of PPE. without PPE no oneshould toallow to their work station. for any one PPE should be compulsry not optional. person feels self in confidenance with the presense of proper safety precaution drastically ZEROthe number of accidents develop a culture of prevention of accidents constantly improve workplace ergonomics develop specific professional skills to improve safety

22 Expected results workplaces improvement elimination of conditions for potential condition at workplace increased.Work efficiency increases due to no injuries (first aid cases)

23 Main activities periodic internal audits of safety risk identification and assessment systematic analysis of accidents technical improvements to machines and to the workplace education, training and control

24 Training on PPE (personal protective equipment) Shoes Gloves Goggles Ear plugs Helmets Masks

25 IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY EQUIPMENTS TOWARDS A PERSON ON JOB. 1. SHOES:-. On falling of any heavy thing on the feet it can save to damage 2. GLUBES:-Since on job many sharp edges thins are used for various purpose whichcan damage respective person’hands so it can be save the damahge

26 3 GOGGLES:-.Since we know that eyes are very soft in human’s body so any smallest thing can be make harm so goggls should be used on the job. 4. EAR PLUGS:- In any plant many operation takes place like machining, cleaning, cutting, drilling, boring, reaming, griinding etc along with a high intensity of noise so it save us. 5.HELMETS:- On missing of any parts from its place it comes towards down and can damage yours head and you can not be recognised at that time so using of it we can save. 6. MASKS:- Since in industry many many gases are produced at time of process which can directly goes to our internal parts of boby and make effect on our breathing system so we have to use it..

27 PROPER HANDELING OF TOOL AND TACKLES Method - Materials - Man – Machines. 5 “S” 5 “S” Activities 5W1H 5 WHY AM Tag NVAA – Not Value Added Activity

28 1.4M technique (machine – material – method – man) To classify the causes of a problem, Ishikawa proposed, as general Definition A tool used to analyze a phenomenon by making a list of possible factors 1.causes 2. contributory causes 3.sub-causes) at the origin of the phenomenon (effect) and subsequently organizing the factors listed incategories.

29 Its purpose Represent the concept of relationship and cause. The most widely-used 4Ms technique is the one developed by Ishikawa (fishbone diagram): its diffusion has been promoted by its intrinsic ability to steer the work group towards stratification of the factors intobroader categories. method, that of the four Ms: Method - Materials - Man – Machines. In some cases, the Environment, Measurement, Management (management factors) or Market (customers – competitors) are added. 4M FLOW CHART FOR SOLVING PROBLEM:-


31 Method of application The 4Ms technique (also known as Cause-Effect diagram) is an instrument that promotes high level aggregation of a multi-disciplinary work team and can be used in all phases of the PDCA cycle: in the diagnostic phase, to generate possible theories regarding the causes of a deviation in the decision-making phase, to generate possible solutions and to assess the risks of the solutions in the planning phase, to forecast potential problems.

32 Standardize Understand the problem Verfiey reason Identify solutions and give priorities Apply solutions Verify solutions and monitor them PLAN DO CHEC K AC T

33 POKA YOKE. Definition A technique for preventing human errors when carrying out any production activity. The solutions adopted should be as simple as possible and of reduced cost, defined starting from the outset, from attentive design of the workplace, of equipment and, in particular, of the product. In this way, Poka Yoke at zero cost are possible. The underlying conviction of Poka Yoke is that production of even a single faulty part is not acceptable and the zero cost quality is obtained only by preventing defects and never recovering these.

34 Its purpose Prevent errors or to highlight the error when this occurs using specific devices. 8.principles for application of Poka Yoke 1.Build quality in the processes 2. All errors and defects due to inattention can be eliminated 3. Stop making mistakes and start doing things correctly 4. Don't search excuses: think how to avoid errors 5. 60% hope of success is sufficient – apply your idea immediately! 6. Errors and defects can be reduced to zero when everyone cooperates in eliminating these 7. Ten heads are better than one 8. Find the real cause of the problem using the 5W1H method

35 5S Definition This is the name of a workplace improvement method developed in Japan. The 5 ‘S’ are the initials of the Japanese words that express the basic concepts of the method. Seiri: sort Seiton: set in order Seiso: sweep and clean Seiketzu: discipline Shitzuke: keep tidy (yourself) TOOLS

36 Its purpose Instil a general mental attitude of keeping the workplace clean and tidy, making minor but continuous improvements to working conditions improve productivity and quality, reducing search times and non value added activities reduction of searching times reduction of quality problems creation of a safer, more comfortable environment involvement of everybody in improvement activities Method of application The 5 ‘S’ approach is methodical - it defines principles and rules to be applied Permanent - must be constantly applied to guarantee good results

37 . Sort Separate and remove clutter and items unneeded in the workspace.  Extraneous items impede the flow of work. Set in Order  Organize what is left to minimize movement and make things clear. Shine (and inspect)  Clean area, storage, equipment, etc. and inspect for warning signs of breakdowns. Standardize  Set up an area with 5-S supplies (cleaning supplies, labels, colored tape, other organizational items) and schedule time and responsibility for restoring work area to its proper condition regularly. Sustain

38 work station before work station after

39 5 S EXAMLPE FOR NEW NEW TRIANEES Some ideas that may help your work flow: Get someone else to look at your work area and make suggestions Rearrange your furniture-make it easy to get to things you use in youR work Remove things in your work area you don’t use Getmorestorage(files,etc)ifneeded. Purge files periodically Do a filing system that works good for your area and keep it up Use a tickler system at your desk Use folders in IE and Outlook for better organization

40 5W1H Definition A logical analysis tool used in quality improvement techniques in order to guarantee that a problem or topic under discussion is analyzed taking a complete view of all its essential aspects: Who, What, Where When, Why, How.

41 Method of application The 5W1H help to understand specific circumstances each time a deeper comprehension is necessary. They help to focus on key problems. These questions can be used at several levels The Five W’s and H, are an influential, inspirational and imaginative checklist

42 EXAMPLE ON 5 Whys + 1 H 5 Whys is a question-asking method used to explore the cause/effect relationships underlying a particular problem. Ultimately, the goal of applying the 5 Whys method is todetermine a root cause of a defect or problem.Example: The following example demonstrates the basic process: My car will not start.

43 . (The problem) 1. Why? - The battery is dead. (First why) 2. Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (Second why) 3. Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (Third why) 4. Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and has never beenreplaced. (Fourth why) 5. Why? - I have not been maintaining my car according to the recommended serviceschedule. (Fifth why, root cause)

44 Five Ws (also known as the Five Ws (and one H)or simply the SixWs) is a concept in news style, research, and in police investigations that most peopleconsider to be fundamental. It is a formula for getting the "full" story on something. Themaxim of the Five Ws (and one H) is that in order for a report to be considered completeit must answer a checklist of six questions, each of which comprises an interrogativeword:Who?What?Where?When?Why?How?The principle underlying the maxim is that each question should elicit a factualanswer — facts that it is necessary to include for a report to be considered complete.Importantly, none of these questions can be answered with a simple "yes" or "no".

45 5WHYS Definition A Problem-solving tool intended to trace the root causes of an abnormal phenomenon through a consecutive set of questions (whys) which must be answered. Stopping at the first why’s, there is a risk of not tracing the real cause of the problem Its purpose identify the ‘root’ cause of a specific problem so as to eliminate it completely get people used to asking themselves questions and finding answers, i.e. using their own intelligence. One of the many definitions of intelligence is in fact the ability to ask oneself and answer questions

46 Benefits Of The 5 Whys Help identify the root cause of a problem. Determine the relationship between different root causes of a problem. One of the simplest tools; easy to complete without statistical analysis. When Is 5 Whys Most Useful? · When problems involve human factors or interactions. · In day-to-day business life; can be used within or without a Six Sigma project. How To Complete The 5 Whys 1. Write down the specific problem. Writing the issue helps you formalize the problem and describe it completely. It also helps a team focus on the same problem. 2. Ask Why the problem happens and write the answer down below the problem. 3. If the answer you just provided doesn’t identify the root cause of the problem that you wrote down in step 1, ask Why again and write that answer down. 4. Loop back to step 3 until the team is in agreement that the problem’s root cause is identified. Again, this may take fewer or more times than five Whys.

47 5 Whys Examples on customers for shipped product to new joinees:- Problem Statement: Customers are unhappy because they are being shipped products that don’t meet their specifications. 1. Why are customers being shipped bad products? - Because manufacturing built the products to a specification that is different from what the customer and the sales person agreed to. 2. Why did manufacturing build the products to a different specification than that of sales? - Because the sales person expedites work on the shop floor by calling the head of manufacturing directly to begin work. An error happened when the specifications were being communicated or written down.

48 3. Why does the sales person call the head of manufacturing directly to start work instead of following the procedure established in the company? - Because the “start work” form requires the sales director’s approval before work can begin and slows the manufacturing process (or stops it when the director is out of the office). 4. Why does the form contain an approval for the sales director? - Because the sales director needs to be continually updated on sales for discussions with the CEO. In this case only four Whys were required to find out that a non-value added signature authority is helping to cause a process breakdown. Let’s take a look at a slightly more humorous example modified from Marc R.’s posting of 5 Whys in the iSixSigma Dictionary.

49 Problem Statement: You are on your way home from work and your car stops in the middle of the road. 1. Why did your car stop? - Because it ran out of gas. 2. Why did it run out of gas? - Because I didn’t buy any gas on my way to work. 3. Why didn’t you buy any gas this morning? - Because I didn’t have any money. 4. Why didn’t you have any money? - Because I lost it all last night in a poker game. 5. Why did you lose your money in last night’s poker game? - Because I’m not very good at “bluffing” when I don’t have a good hand. 5 Whys And The Fishbone Diagram

50 5 WHYS EXAMPLE FOR NEW JOINEES ON ROBOT PROBLEM AS ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS:- the creator of the 5-Why technique, is quoted using the following example to demonstrate using 5-Why’s for root cause analysis: 1. “Why did the robot stop?” The circuit has overloaded, causing a fuse to blow. 2. “Why is the circuit overloaded?” There was insufficient lubrication on the bearings, so they locked up. 3. “Why was there insufficient lubrication on the bearings?” The oil pump on the robot is not circulating sufficient oil.

51 4. “Why is the pump not circulating sufficient oil?” The pump intake is clogged with metal shavings. 5. “Why is the intake clogged with metal shavings?” Because there is no filter on the pump. What do you think? Is “NO FILTER ON THE PUMP” a root cause ?

52 AM TAG Definition A suitably compiled cardboard tag attached to the machine close to any defect that has been detected. Defects are usually tagged during the initial phases of Autonomous Activities, during specific stoppages for inspection and cleaning. However, tagging of defects is a continuous activity carried out each time the operator or maintenance technician identifies a problem that cannot be solved immediately or which tends to reoccur.

53 Points requiring particular attention 1.Highlight machine problems of any type even if they appear to be trivial 2. Fill in the tag writing clearly all the necessary data to facilitate the subsequent analysis phase

54 NVAA (Not Value Added Activity) Definition An instrument for identifying activities that do not add value (for the customer and/or the company). Examples of non-valued added activities of a process, procedure or a service are unnecessary movements, waiting, counting, reworking, inspections and controls. Warning! non-value added activities remain such even if defined in the operation sheet and therefore is considered part of the standard time according to Work Analysis.

55 Method of application To apply the instrument, a computer application has been developed that permits: - display, division and classification of the activities carried out by an operator - selection of those that are value added and those that are not - measurement of the portion of non-value added Activities - quantification of possible improvement margins.


57 QUALITY QUALITY X matrix, POKA YOKE, OP FMEA,4M TECHNIQUE, 5 S, 5WHYS, 5YIH, ABC CLASSIFICATION It covers the areas in which properties and behavier of any materials comes. It also covers the followings points which should be provided to any new joinee before Going to their respective stations

58 Why it is applied because customer satisfaction is not appropriate because sometimes faulty products reach customers because reject and reworking costs are high Its purpose guarantee product quality for customers, minimizing costs define production process conditions able to prevent occurrence of non-conformities maintain the conditions defined in order to guarantee conformity in time improve operators’ problem solving knowledge

59 Expected results improved customer satisfaction a significant reduction in defects, rejects and reworking and therefore in the costs of non quality deployment of quality improvement skills increase in product quality improvement proposals

60 HERE SOME STEPS ARE GIVEN WHICH HELPS TO ANY ONE ON QUALITY SYSTEM STEP- 1 select the theme STEP- 2 understand the situation and objective STEP- 3 plan activities STEP- 4 analyse causes STEP -5 define and apply corrective action STEP -6 check results STEP – 7 standerize and apply

61 in production area the quality performance of any product tells the behaviour of product so the new joinees should have knowledge about the following phenomenon so that thay make the product at its standerd. Since any change in standerd makes a effect on PQC. PQC = PRODUCT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS CP meaning:-Process capability, a simple and straight forward indicator of process capability. CPK meanng:- process cability index adjustment of cp for the effect of non centered distri bution. Pp:-process performance,a simpleand srraight forward indicator of process performance. PpK:-Process performance index adjustment of ppk


63 SPC:- SPC its aim to provide defective work being priduced by focusing on process rather than on tne final product by using simple statistics and cointrol chart It provide the operator an oppotunity for correcting /tunning the process in time and encourages continual improvement CHARTS P chart np chart U chart C chart X & MR CHART:-IT is used when the measurements are expensive or output at any point of time is relatively homogeneous

64 Common Cause and Special Cause Variation SPC Charts are used to analyze process performance by plotting data points, control limits, and a centerline. A process should be in control to assess the process capability. Common cause variation is natural and inherent variation with the process and occurs with every data point (or part being measured). Before assessing the process capability the variation must be common cause variation. It is important to have a meaningful process capability that won't be subject to outliers and unique variation from an unstable process. Special cause variation is usually identified by points lying outside the upper control limit and lower control limit. However, there are many cases that points may lie within the control limits and still represent special cause variation. Such as trends and other typical influenced variation


66 AT THE TIME OF TRAINING TRAINEES MUST HAVE TO KNOWLEDGE OF CPk AND ITS STANDERD AND PERFORMANCE. “ C pk measures how close you are to your target and how consistent you are to around your average performance. A person may be performing with minimum variation, but he can be away from his target towards one of the specification limit, which indicates lower C pk, whereas C p will be high “You must have a C pk of 1.33 [4 sigma] or higher to satisfy most customers

67 Interpreting Pp, Ppk “Process Performance Index basically tries to verify if the sample that you have generated from the process is capable to meet Customer requirements). It differs from Process Capability in that Process Performance only applies to a specific batch of material Differences Between C pk and P pk “C pk is for short term, P pk is for long term

68 RUN CHARTS:- What is it? A run chart is a line graph of data plotted over time. By collecting and charting data over time, you can find trends or patterns in the process. Because they do not use control limits, run charts cannot tell you if a process is stable. However, they can show you how the process is running. The run chart can be a valuable tool at the beginning of a project, as it reveals important information about a process before you have collected enough data to create reliable control limits.

69 What does it look like? Run charts show individual data points in chronological order.

70 When is it used? Run charts are often used with baseline data at the beginning of a project. If you do not have enough data for control limits, CHARTrunner let you switch the control chart display to a run chart and switch back when you have enough data. Use run charts when you can answer yes to these questions: 1.Is the data collected over time? 2.Is the time order of the data preserved? IMPORTANCE OF RUN CHARTS :- Run charts are good way to illustrate and share information with other Departments. Run charts should be used as a quick test of system performance

71 P urpose of a control chart Minimize the chance of making two types of mistakes. Overcontrol Undercontrol Help you decide when to react and when not to react. Special cause variation Common cause variation

72 Types of PI or control charts Measurement control charts: Individuals and Moving Range (X-Mr chart) X-Bar & Range chart X-Bar & Sigma chart Others: Median, Cusum, Moving Average Attributes control charts: Nonconforming items (p-chart, np-chart) Nonconformities per subgroup (c-chart, u-chart)

73 P chart. In this chart, we plot the percent of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine, etc.) as in the U chart. However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events but rather on the binomial distribution (of proportions). Therefore, this chart is most applicable to situations where the occurrence of defectives is not rare (e.g., we expect the percent of defectives to be more than 5% of the total number of units produced).

74 Common problems with p-charts Large samples (denominator) Small samples Rare events Understanding of control limits Detecting sample-to-sample variation Plotting positive vs. negative occurrences & effect on control limits

75 Benefits of attributes charts Easy to understand data in percent form Percent of _____ measure is common Ratios are commonly used – per 1,000 patient days Puts data in perspective c-charts are easy to create and use

76 Common Types of Charts The types of charts are often classified according to the type of quality characteristic that they are supposed to monitor: there are quality control charts for variables and control charts for attributes. Specifically, the following charts are commonly constructed for controlling variables: X-bar chart. In this chart, the sample means are plotted in order to control the mean value of a variable (e.g., size of piston rings, strength of materials, etc.). R chart. In this chart, the sample ranges are plotted in order to control the variability of a variable.

77 C chart. This chart assumes that defects of the quality attribute are rare, and the control limits in this chart are computed based on the Poisson distribution (distribution of rare events).

78 U chart. In this chart we plot the rate of defectives, that is, the number of defectives divided by the number of units inspected (the n; e.g., feet of pipe, number of batches). Unlike the C chart, this chart does not require a constant number of units, and it can be used, for example, when the batches (samples) are of different sizes. Np chart. In this chart, we plot the number of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine) as in the C chart. However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events, but rather on the binomial distribution P chart. In this chart, we plot the percent of defectives (per batch, per day, per machine, etc.) as in the U chart. However, the control limits in this chart are not based on the distribution of rare events but rather on the binomial distribution (of proportions).

79 Operating Characteristic (OC) Curves A common supplementary plot to standard quality control charts is the so-called operating characteristic or OC curve Operating characteristic curves are extremely useful for exploring the power of our quality control procedure.

80 Pressure measurement IN THE TRAINING PERIOD TRAINEES MUST KNOW ABOUT THE PRESSURE PARAMETER SO THAT THEY CAN USE IT AND MAY ABLE TO APPLY THIS. A manometer could also refer to a pressure measuring instrument usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric Absolute, gauge and differential pressures - zero reference

81 Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure. Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted. Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points.

82 GAUGES:- In engineering, a gauge or gage, is used to make measurements. A wide variety of tools exist which serve such functions, ranging from simple pieces of material against which sizes can be measured to complex pieces of machinery. Various types of gauges include

83 NameDescription bore gauge a device used for measuring holes. caliper a device used to measure the distance between two opposing sides of an object. center gauges and fishtail gauges are engineering gauges used in lathe work for checking the angles when grinding the profiles of single-point screw- cutting tool bits and centers. dial indicator, also known as a dial test indicator, dial gauge, or probe indicator is an instrument used to accurately measure small linear distances.

84 feeler gauge is a simple tool used to measure gap widths. gauge block, (also known as a gage block, Johansson gauge, slip gauge, or Jo block) is a precision ground and lapped length measuring standard. It is used as a reference for the setting of measuring equipment used in machine shops, such gauge pin is similar to a gauge block. It is a precision ground cylindrical bar for use in Go/no go gauges or similar applications. go/no go gauge is an inspection tool used to check a workpiece against its allowed tolerances. Its name derives from its use: the gauge has two tests; the check involves the workpiece having to pass one test (Go) and fail the other (No Go).

85 load cell is a transducer that is used to convert a force into electrical signal. This conversion is indirect and happens in two stages. Through a mechanical arrangement, the force being sensed deforms a strain gauge. The strain gauge converts the deformation (strain) to electrical signals. A load cell usually consists of four strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. Load cells of one strain gauge (quarter bridge) or two strain gauges (half bridge) are also available. The linear variable differential transformer(LVDT) is a type of electrical transformer used for measuring linear displacement. The transformer has three solenoidal coils placed end-to-end around a tube. The center coil is the primary, and the two outer coils are the secondaries. A cylindrical ferromagnetic core, attached to the object whose position is to be measured, slides along the axis of the tube.

86 micrometer, sometimes known as a "micrometer screw gauge" is a device incorporating a calibrated screw used widely for precise measurement of small distances in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers. Micrometers are often, but not always, in the form ofcalipers. pressure gauge or vacuum gaugeis used for pressure measurement. profile gauge or contour gauge is a tool for recording the cross-sectional shape of a surface. radius gauge, also known as a fillet gauge is a tool used to measure the radius of an object. Radius gauges require a bright light behind the object to be measured. The gauge is placed against the edge to be checked and any light leakage between the blade and edge indicates a mismatch that requires correction.

87 radius gauge, also known as a fillet gauge is a tool used to measure the radius of an object. Radius gauges require a bright light behind the object to be measured. ring gauge is a cylindrical ring of steel whose inside diameter is finished to gauge tolerance and is used for checking the external diameter of a cylindrical object. strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain of an object. stream gauge is a site along a stream where measurements of water surface elevation ("stage") and/or volumetric discharge (flow) are made.

88 Quality Control is a group of activities that define:- process conditions so as to prevent the generation of nonconformities; maintain previously defined conditions over time to ensure a perfectly conforming production. New joinees should be introced with the quality control,its mission and its effect on organisation Quality Control Mission of Quality Control because customer’s satisfaction is not appropriate because sometimes customers receive faulty products because of the high cost of scraps, reworking and end-of-line inspections.

89 to ensure quality products to customers at minimum costs; to define production system conditions in order to prevent nonconformities; to maintain defined conditions to ensure conformity over time; to increase skills of operators on the solution of quality problems Targets of Quality Control Within the Quality Control principles, the characteristics of product that are perceived as “Quality” by the market are logically and strictly related to material specifications, production methods, manpower knowledge and machine / process characteristics (4M).

90 Expected results customer satisfaction growth significant reduction of faults, scraps and reworks and therefore of non-quality costs Problem Solving skill diffusion increase of product quality improvement proposals

91 Investigation tools used in 4M analysis for quality control M1 – direct and indirect MATERIALS M2 – WORK MEANS (line machineries, equipment, servo means, gages, fasteners,...) M3 – MANPOWER (skills and human resource employment...) M4 – METHOD (required cycle/operation, fulfillment time and modes, workplace layout, ergonomy,...)

92 ABC Classification:- it is the most important phenomenon towards the training for new joinees So that they can understand the Tool used to classify equipment according to priority in order to optimize the use of maintenance resources Its purpose Align maintenance priority with company objectives according to Cost Deployment. Identify the most critical machines for the plant as they have a significant impact on safety,productquality, maintenance costs, energy consumption, on the environment and on the performance of the entire production process with, at the same time, a high coefficient of use.

93 Method of application:- define and list all the machines, using a worksheet classify the machines using the TGPC method: T – Time to Repair G – Gravity P – Probability of Failure C – Critical impact divide the machines into 4 classes according to the results of the analysis: >95% Class AA 80%-95% Class A 20%-80% Class B < 20% Class C check consistency of the results of the classification with Cost Deployment. The result must be balanced with its related valuation so that the work team concentrates only on equipment with a significant loss or which is critical for business.

94 Since before applying this trainees should have the knowledge of faillure,gravity And critical impact. T + G + P + C = Plant Priority Score

95 In ABC Classification MTTR,MTBF are used. Some discription of TGPC for trainnes Gravity:- Effect on othermachines/equipmentin terms of safety, Production,environment,costs. Probability of Failure (P):- Mean Time Between Faults based on past data (if available) –MTBF Critical nature ofthe plant (C):- Based on the critical impact of the equipment as Regards consequent line stoppages Time to Repair:- Mean Time to Repair calculated according to the failure data collection system(ticket; etc.)

96 X MATRIX:-Since it is the correlations between one list and two adjasent list for improvement of quality of a product so it sould be introduced with new joinees at their training time so that they can find the relation and improve the quality of product. Definition It is, generally speaking, a quality improvement instrument that makes it possible to compare two pairs of lists of elements in order to highlight the correlations that exist between one list and the two adjacent lists. Its purpose when analyzing the causes of product quality defects and the link between the anomaly and the machine component responsible for this, it is applied to establish the relationship between: the type of defect (defect mode), the abnormal phenomenon that causes this defect (process variables or abnormal phenomenon), the part of the machine on which it is generated (machine group) machine components on which to carry out prevention activities see with related operating conditions and parameters to be verified.

97 Method of application Using conventional symbols, the four areas considered are correlated with each other, in cyclical fashion: Defect mode Abnormal phenomenon or Process variables Section or Machine group Q Point or Components In this way, it is possible to observe which item, referring to each area, is critical for application of subsequent corrective, maintenance and training actions. If correctly applied, the X Matrix is a powerful analysis tool that, however, requires in-depth knowledge of the physical phenomena and of the links between the product and the process.

98 Points requiring particular attention Five rules for defining the machine operating conditions that guarantee zero defects (‘5 conditions for 0 defects’): 1.Clearly defined zero defects conditions 2. Zero defects conditions that are easy to establish 3. Zero defects conditions that do not change easily 4. Any changes in conditions that are easy to recognize 5. Zero defects conditions that are easy to restore.

99 FMEA ( Failure Mode and Effects Analysis):-for the new joinees it helps in searching of failure so that solution become not so expensive. Definition A preventive product or process analysis technique used to define, identity and eliminate ‘failures’,problems and errors before it is too late and therefore too expensive. For each ‘failure’, it is possible to estimate: the effect of the ‘failure’ on the system the probability that the ‘failure’ will occur the means available to detect that a ‘failure’ has occurred.

100 Its purpose prevent potential product and production process failures, reducing as far as possible their effects on the company and customer identify and highlight critical product/process parameters characteristics in order to permit suitable management during manufacture and customer assistance identification of weak points in safety, reliability, manufacturing technology reduction of the number of product or production equipment modifications reduction of the cost of any modifications reduction of new product development times

101 reduction of warranty assistance costs reduction of the costs of internal production failures (costs of non quality) lower risk as regards the manufacturer’s objective liability improved customer satisfaction

102 WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING:- It covers the following points which is very much importent for any new joinees. New joinees should have the advantages,disadvantages and their importance and what are effects on the industry,all the information should be introduced to new joinees at their training time. 1.AM 2.PM 3.HOUSE KEEPING tags 5. DETERMINATION OF MACHINES


104 Mission and World Class Manufacturing Principles WCM is based on important, challenging principles: it is introduced and deployed top down with the constant commitment of the management it is based on the constant, widespread contribution of all those who work at the company (and not consultancy driven) it is a way of working (and not a project) it is reinforced and developed with the involvement of all concerned it requires methods, tools, standards and rigorous application of these it results in the setting up of a visible, transparent system it is effective as it aims to ‘keep it simple’ Mission


106 AM. It is the most important phenomonon to improving global efficiency and it should be provided to new joinees the time of their training so that they can implement it. Why it is applied because equipment is often in deteriorated conditions because machine efficiency does not comply with objectives because people’s motivation can certainly be improved Its purpose Improve the global efficiency of the production system: stopping accelerated deterioration and restoring and maintaining basic conditions involving people improving product and equipment knowledge.

107 Main activities creation of the teams, training and preparation for the activity initial cleaning (cleaning for inspection and for knowledge) elimination of sources of contamination and inaccessible areas definition and application of efficient, sustainable cleaning, inspection, lubrication and re-tightening cycles improvement of inspection methods through development of operators’ skills focus operators’ activities also through product quality control Expected results improvement of overall equipment efficiency (OEE) and of product quality extension of the useful life of the equipment improvement of climate, motivation and proactiveness

108 Step 1 Initial cleaning and inspection Step 2 Measures against sources of contamination Step 3 General inspection Step 4 Autonomous inspection Step 5 Improvement of standards Step 6 Autonomous Maintenance system Step 7 Full-scale application of the

109 Points requiring particular attention Highlight machine problems of any type even if they appear to be trivial Fill in the tag writing clearly all the necessary data to facilitate the subsequent analysis phase Attach the tag beside the defect. If the problem affects a mobile part of the machine, attach it as close as possible Record the data in the forms to be indicated on the board

110 Autonomous Activities - Workplace Organization (WO)(5 S) Why it is applied because workplaces, materials and equipment are often downgraded, dirty and untidy because product quality is obtained with too many inspections and reworking because people’s motivation can certainly be improved Its purpose Improve production efficiency and productivity: restoring and maintaining basic conditions eliminating non-value added activities operators involvement improving product and equipment knowledge.

111 Main activities setting up of the teams, training and preparation for the activity elimination of everything that is not necessary, tidying and cleaning definition and application of maintenance cycles analysis and elimination of non-value added activities improvement of work cycles and of product quality through development of operators’ skills Expected results elimination of labour and material losses improvement of product quality through application of a sturdy, error-proof process improvement of productivity and process costs reduction ergonomics and safety on the job improvement of climate, motivation and proactivenes

112 PM:-PM is time based maintenence so it would be introduced with new joinees,so that maintainence become not so much costly. Preventive maintenance can be defined as follows: A) Actions performed on a time- or machine-run-based schedule that B) detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of a component or system C) with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life through controlling degradation to an acceptable level. Preventive Maintenance (PM) is a calendar drive or scheduled program. Based on prior experience. This is a time and/or operation count based maintenance where a piece of equipment gets maintained whether itneeds it or not. This time based maintenance is labor intensive, ineffective in identifying problems that develop between scheduled inspections and is not cost effective. The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects..

113 Maintenance, including tests, measurements, adjustments, and parts replacement, performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring. While preventive maintenance is generally considered to be worthwhile, it is important to note that there are risks such as equipment failure or human error involved when performing PM, PM is also sometimes augmented by Reliability Centered Maintenance Preventive Maintenance is conducted to keep equipment working and/or extend the life of the equipment.

114 HOUSE KEEPING The maintenance of the machines is very important. It needs to be visited regularly. Under housekeeping the plant is maintained in good hygeine. The machines are kept clean and nearby area is also kept tidy. Advantages of Hosekeeping are endless. helps to maintain an aesthetic environment and improves the working conditions of the workers. This is inturn helps to increase productivity indirectly

115 OPL - One Point Lesson Definition A simple but effective training instrument that makes it possible to focus the topic of the training at a single point, in a short time and in a single sheet. The secret of assuring that an OPL is clear consists in preparing a text that is easy to understand, with sketches, drawings and photos. Its purpose Describe and deploy the best practices of a plant. There are three types of OPL: 1. Basic lessons. Improve operators’ basic knowledge with the technical or management information they need to know; they teach how to carryout a certain activity, how a plant component works, etc.


117 2. Problem. Teach operators what to do in specific situations in order to avoid errors, faults, defects or accidents; to do this, sketches or photos are prepared to describe the problem and clearly indicate the steps to be taken to prevent it from occurring again. 3. Improvement. Deploy knowledge of improvements to the plant, equipment, method of work or to the product so that they become shared know-how and are applied across the organization to similar situations; they usually show two phases: Before – After.

118 OPL is given in following circumstances- To communicate any Quality Defect To communicate any Improvement To communicate Basic Knowledge OPL should be in Visual format showing OK / Not OK conditions It should be communicated to all the operators working on the related stage.

119 Early Equipment Management :-the most important phenomenon of EEP isto reducing life cycle cost so that maintenence does not go so much expensive so it would be introduced to trainees. Why it is applied because new equipment start-up times are often longer than expected because equipment is not designed to optimize operational running costs Its purpose start new equipment in the defined time guarantee fast, stable start-up reduce Life Cycle Cost (LCC) design equipment that is easy to operate, maintain and inspect

120 Main activities formal insertion of EEM in the product development process through specific design reviews definition of quotes and specifications of supply consistent with user’s needs (operation, maintenance, inspection, disposal) Co-design initiatives Expected results reduced life costs of the equipment reliable, maintainable, accessible, easy to operate, inspect, clean, low noise equipment definition of economically sustainable Preventive Maintenance cycles in the design phase fast set-up and start-up high product quality

121 Cost Deployment SINCE THE COST SELECTION FOR ANY ORAGANISATION MATTERS IN EVERY CASE SO THE NEW JOINEES SHOULD BE INTRODUCED WITH IT Why it is applied So that the management can apply an effective improvement plan addressing major causes of losses with maximum effectiveness, applying the most correct methods with the greatest impact. Its purpose scientifically and systematically address the main items of loss of the plant production-logistics system quantify potential expected economic benefits direct resources and managerial commitment toward activities with the greatest potential

122 Main activities localization of losses (losses/processes matrix) identification of sources of losses (source of losses/consequences matrix) valorization of losses (source of losses/cost matrix) selection of methods for eliminating losses valorization of expected benefits Expected results objective knowledge of the main causes of loss improvement of managerial skills towards clear understanding of priorities and planned management of activities and benefits improvement of the ability to plan all the skills necessary for application of the methods chosen

123 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Separate root causes of losses from the resulting losses Step 4 Calculate the costs of losses and waste Step 5 Identify methods for recovery of losses and waste Step 6 Estimate improvement costs and corresponding reduction of losses and waste Step 7 Define and apply the improvement plan Follow-up and restart from step 4 Quantify total transformation costs Assign cost reduction objectives Know total transformation costs by process. Identify losses and waste from the point of view of quality Quantify losses and waste according to previous measurements

124 Focused Improvement IT IS THE MAIN PHEWNOMENON WHICH IS VERY MUCH IMPORTANT FOR NEW JOINEES SO THEY HAVE TO INTRODUCED WITH IT. Why it is applied To eliminate the main wastes and losses identified previously through Cost Deployment, to avoid dedicating commitment and resources to non-priority problems and to create know how to attack each specific loss. Its purpose drastically reduce major production losses, eliminating process inefficiencies eliminate non-value added activities in order to increase product cost competitiveness develop specific professional problem-solving skills

125 Main activities define the activities to be carried out, objectives and resources for project implementation train the groups and monitor project progress implement the projects provide the groups with the necessary specialist support certify and actualize results Expected results A significant reduction of costs through: improvement of overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) reduction of set-up times reduction of waste professional growth and acquisition of the method development of a wide-spread improvement-driven attitude

126 Step 1 Step 2 Stratification of losses Step 3 Selection of the theme Preparation of the plan and deployment Step 4Project Team: Line manager (Leader) ProductionEngineering Step 5 Selection of the theme Preparation of the plan and deployment Stratification of losses Design Maintenance Others Project activities with identification of the correct method Step 6 Costs/benefits analysis Step 7 Monitoring and horizontal deployment Definition of the area or model machine Bottleneck processes Major Losses

127 Logistics/Customer Service Why it is applied because stocks of material at the plant are high with heavy financial charges because there is a considerable risk of damage and obsolescence also due to the condition of the containers and the need for sequencing because production has to be rescheduled frequently due to shortage of materials Its purpose establish JIT conditions inside the plant and with suppliers considerably reduce stock levels level volumes and production mix and improve line saturation minimize internal handling, also with direct deliveries by suppliers to the assembly lines integrate the sales networks, manufacturing and purchasing

128 Main activities application of the Value Stream Map to identify losses and opportunities improvement of the internal and external logistics redesign packaging systems deployment of the main materials handling methods (synchronous JIT, Kanban, two bins system, FIFO, shared external transport, etc.) Expected results prompt filling of orders reduction of stocks and work in process reduction of damage and obsolescence of materials improvement of plant logistics skills

129 People Development Why it is applied because skills and methods of work are often unable to guarantee error-free operations because of shortcomings in the skills assessment and improvement system because knowledge and motivation to improve are insufficient to enable the development of the required skills to support the improvement projects Its purpose provide correct knowledge and skills for each workplace through a structured training system develop the roles of maintenance technician, technologist, specialist as the main agents of training assure simple, effective documentation of knowledge and operating skills owned and developed that are to be deployed and maintained

130 Main activities mapping of skills required and possessed analysis of gaps and definition of training plans development of tools (4M, AM tags, OPL…) and training skills setting up of the Training Center with the necessary materials and equipment Expected results application of Quality Control for effective process control by operators: improvement of quality good maintenance skills: improvement of efficiency application of Autonomous Maintenance: knowledge and application of cleaning, inspection and lubrication by operators zero human errors: application and deployment of error-proofing techniques (Poka Yoke) reduction of the risk of accidents improvement of climate and motivation

131 Environment NEW JOINEES MUST BE INTRODUCED WITH THE IT AS ITS MANAGEMENT,REGULATIONS AS APPLY TO CIVIL SOCIETY Why it is applied To meet the needs of operators and of civil society, guaranteeing correct management of the environment. Its purpose comply with environmental management requirements and regulations develop a culture of prevention as regards the environment continuously improve the conditions of the working environment, also over and above regulatory and legal obligations develop specific professional skills

132 Main activities periodic internal audits on the impact of the factory on the surrounding environment identification and prevention of risks application of ISO 14000 standards technical improvements to equipment Training, education and control Expected results reduction in energy consumption reduction in the generation of polluting substances and noise increase in the amount of material recycled improvement of the working environment elimination of the conditions for potential environmental accidents


134 PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR. Since we know than self behaviour makes a man perfect. So that at the time of training new joinees must introduced with it. Simply personal behaviour is the main reason behind the development of any employee. Personal behaviour includes some points.......... 1.Better communication 2.proper guindance 3. improvment in work 4. distribution of knowledge 5. supports from seniors 6. proper use of skills

135 Personal behavier comes as the fully devoplmrnt of any employe. Why it is applied because skills and methods of work are often unable to guarantee error-free operations because of shortcomings in the skills assessment and improvement system because knowledge and motivation to improve are insufficient to enable the development of the required skills to support the improvement projects Its purpose provide correct knowledge and skills for each workplace through a structured training system develop the roles of maintenance technician, technologist, specialist as the main agents of training assure simple, effective documentation of knowledge and operating skills owned and developed that are to be deployed and maintained

136 Main activities mapping of skills required and possessed analysis of gaps and definition of training plans development of tools (4M, AM tags, OPL…) and training skills setting up of the Training Center with the necessary materials and equipment Expected results application of Quality Control for effective process control by operators: improvement of quality good maintenance skills: improvement of efficiency application of Autonomous Maintenance: knowledge and application of cleaning, inspection and lubrication by operators zero human errors: application and deployment of error-proofing techniques (Poka Yoke) reduction of the risk of accidents improvement of climate and motivation

137 PLANT OPRATIONAL TRAINING(POT)/ SHOP FLOOR TRAINING(SFT):- POT/SFT is very important phenomenon and it should be clear to the new joinees at their training period. since POT follows the rule same as the SFT but but there are some points which can added specialy in pot Lockout is a technique used to prevent the release of hazardous energy, or to prevent the hazardous energy from escaping. A padlock is placed on the appropriate energy isolating device that is in the off or closed position. The “Fatal Five” Main Causes of Lockout/Tagout Injuries

138 1.Failure to stop equipment 2.Failure to disconnect from power source 3.Failure to dissipate (bleed, neutralize) residual energy 4.Accidental restarting of equipment 5.Failure to clear work areas before restarting

139 SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITION WHICH COMES IN LOCKOUT/TAGOUT:-in any industry what are the importance of lockout/tagout we have to provide information to new joinees Authorized Employee - one who locks out machines or equipment in order to perform the servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. Affected Employee - one whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed. Energy Isolating Device - A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy. Energy Control Procedure -. Safety program adopted by the employer that includes energy control procedures plus provisions for inspecting the procedures and training employees for lockout/tagout.

140 Training goals At the end of the training session, employees should be able to Understand the importance of shop safety. Maintain a clean work environment. Use pneumatic tools safely. Store and dispose of hazardous materials properly. Use safe painting techniques. Use proper ventilation. Prevent fires and explosions. Identify the locations of a first aid station and emergency eye wash station.

141 Supervisor responsibilities Maintain a clean work environment Designate storage space for everything. Provide sufficient housekeeping tools, including brooms, clean rags, and spill absorbers. Define areas for scrap storage and schedule regular collection, removal, and disposal. Assign clean-up responsibilities and make sure work sites are cleaned and cleared before quitting time.

142 Keep the worksite safe Install non-slip treads on ramps and steps. Remove excess vegetation around combustible storage areas. Clearly mark aisles and passageways. Be sure shop lighting is adequate in all areas. Allow a minimum of 18 inches of clearance between storage and sprinklers. Secure all storage racks to the floor, wall, and each other. Check functioning of ventilation equipment for effective removal of exhaust, paint spray, and other fumes. Store full propane cylinders outside or in a non-heated, well-ventilated structure. Keep them secure from tampering. Make sure they’re marked according to National Fire Protection Association standards.

143 Store oxygen tanks and acetylene tanks for welding and cutting separately. See OSHA regulation 1910.253 for details. Check the condition of power tool cords and hoses. Monitor noise in the shop. Review guidelines for safe equipment operation. Review the contents and hazards of the materials your crew may handle and coach them on proper protective procedures. Use Hazardous Material Identification Maintain safety equipment Check fire extinguishers monthly and maintain a record of inspection. Have a qualified company check fire extinguishers yearly.

144 Prevent tripping Keep access ways and aisles free from debris. Return tools, especially small hand tools, to their storage areas after use. Minimize the use of extension cords. Prevent slips Clean up spills promptly with the appropriate (nonvolatile) solvents. Remove grease, oil, ice, snow, and mud from walkways, steps, and ladders. Prevent fires and explosions Clean up gas and flammable liquid spills immediately. Do not wear clothing that has been in contact with flammable liquids. Remove all ignition sources from the fuel area. When welding, eliminate fire hazards and adequately ventilate the area. Paint and painting Avoid prolonged exposure to paint fumes. Wear a properly designed ventilator to avoid inhaling paint and solvent fumes. When sanding or grinding paint, wear a ventilator or mask. Do not heat paint inside an enclosed structure unless the ventilation equipment meets the National Fire Protection Code.

145 When spraying paint, be sure to do the following: Use designated paint booths. Keep out of the direct spray area. Paint sprayed at a pressure of only 30lbs/in 2 can become embedded in your skin. Do not use high-pressure air to blow dust from your clothing. Dust, like paint, can become embedded in your skin.

146 WORKSITE SAFETY at the time of training new joinees should introduced with the effect of worksite safety Training goals At the end of the training session, employees should be able to Follow an internal traffic control plan. Back a vehicle safely. Stay safe as a worker on foot around moving vehicles in the worksite Training activities 1. Show one or more videos and discuss. (13–35 min.) 2. Distribute a sample plan/map of a work site. Ask employees to work in teams and draw up an internal traffic control plan. Each plan should have the following basic elements: Parking areas for workers and visitors. Areas around heavy equipment and operations where workers on foot are not allowed (for equipment turnarounds and swing radius areas). Locations for equipment and materials storage and servicing. Any internal traffic control devices or signs. Speed limits.

147 Discuss any differences in the teams’ plans and why they chose to organize their plans as they did. (15–20 min.) Review the safety equipment on a truck, paying special attention to backup alarms. (8–12 min.) Set up cones in the yard and have everyone practice backing with the box up and down. Use spotters to help every driver check blind spots. (20–30 min.) Supervisor responsibilities Ensure that heavy equipment operators always remain aware of the location of workers around their machines. Ensure that communication exists among equipment operators and workers on foot. Ensure that operators do not permit riders on industrial equipment or vehicles that are not designed for passengers. Immediately repair equipment when problems, such as broken backup alarms, arise. Ensure that workers who are not fit for duty due to illness or fatigue are not assigned to hazardous tasks.

148 Provide appropriate safety equipment: Safety glasses or face shields. Hard hats. Ear plugs or muffs. Highly visible safety apparel. Warning lights for work vehicles. Rubber gloves and aprons. Dust masks or ventilators. Cones and barricades. Proper warning signs.

149 Internal traffic control plan (ITCP) :- In the industry what are effect of itcp it would be in knowledge of new joinees An ITCP is a tool project managers can use to coordinate the flow of construction vehicles, equipment, and workers operating in work zones to prevent vehicular accidents and fatalities. Establishing safe construction traffic control principles is the foundation for setting up and maintaining an effective ITCP. These principles include the following: Reducing the need to back up. Limiting access points to work zones. Establishing work zone layout according to equipment types. Providing signs within the work zone that give guidance to pedestrians and vehicle operators. Designating buffer spaces to protect pedestrian workers from errant vehicles and work zone equipment. PDCA CYCLE FOR THE NEW JOINEES:-

150 Standardize Understand the problem Identif y reason s Verify reasons Identify solutions and give priorities Apply solutions Verify solutions and monitor them PLAN DO CHEC K AC T

151 Suggestion Scheme New joinees should have introduce with the suggestion scheme that An employee can give any number of suggestions. Employees should give suggestions in their own area of operation. A Suggestor will get a token benefit on prima facie acceptance of the suggestion by Divisional Manager concerned. All suggestions have to be approved by Department Head for implementation. Only implemented suggestions will be evaluated by the committee and eligible for Reward. The benefits accrued will be approved by respective Controllers. In case of group suggestions, the reward amount will be equally distributed among all the members of the group.


153 Evaluation Committee Evaluation Committee will consist of members from following Departments :-  Concerned Department  Finance Department  Manufacturing Engineering Department / Production Technology  HR Department - Convenor Based on nature of suggestion, the Committee can co-opt members from other departments. The Suggestion Scheme will be coordinated by HR department along with WCM. Evaluation Method All implemented suggestions will be evaluated by giving marks out of 100.The distribution of marks is as below:  Innovation – 10 marks  Cost Benefit – 40 Marks  Quality / Process Improvement – 20 Marks  EHS Improvement – 20 Marks  Efforts put for implementation –10 Marks If any of the above points is not applicable then the marks will be given on applicable points & final score will be arrived on pro-rata basis. Guidelines will be made for giving marks on each point.



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