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Himalaya Regions Covering about 7,41,706 km area. stretches in arc shape from northern Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and the north-western and north-eastern.

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Presentation on theme: "Himalaya Regions Covering about 7,41,706 km area. stretches in arc shape from northern Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and the north-western and north-eastern."— Presentation transcript:

1 Himalaya Regions Covering about 7,41,706 km area. stretches in arc shape from northern Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and the north-western and north-eastern states of India.

2 Home to world's highest peak Mt. Everest or Sagarmatha, this mountain range has been divided into two regions: -The Eastern Himalaya, which covers parts of Nepal Bhutan, the north-east Indian states of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh, south-east Tibet (China), and northern Myanmar; -The Western Himalaya, covering the Kumaon-Garhwal, north-west Kaslunir and northern Pakistan.

3 Due to the abrupt rise of the Himalayan Mountains from less than 500 meters to more than 8,000 meters, diversity of ecosystems is seen. The hotspot is home to important populations of numerous large birds and mammals, including vultures, tigers, elephants, rhinos, and wild water buffalo. Home to 10,000 species of plants, of which about 3,160 are endemic. 980 bird species of which 15 are endemic 300 mammal species of which a dozen are endemic.

4 Indo-Burma Regions The Indo-Burma hotspot encompasses 23,73,000 km of tropical Asia. situated in the east of the Ganges-Brahmaputra lowlands and the associated foothills in Nepal, Bhutan and India, were considered in the Indo-Burma hotspot. Now it has been excluded from it and forms the Indo-Chinese sub region of Himalayan hotspot.

5 The pattern of biological diversity in Indo-Burma is the result of the interaction of topography, climate changes, soil characteristics, and the patterns of seasonal rainfall. The hotspot contains many centers of endemism, which are due to montane barriers areas of lowland wet evergreen forest that were isolated at some stage, and river basins. home of 13,500 species of plants, of which about 7,000 (52%) are endemic, 1,260 birds species of which more than 60 of are endemic 430 mammal species of which more than 70 species and seven genera are endemic.

6 The Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Region cover an area of about 160,000 km2 stretch for 1,600 kilometers in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala.

7 Due to wide varied rainfall patterns in the Western Ghats. complex geography, Great variety of vegetation types Supports a large variety of life-fauna and flora Harbour approximately 5,000 species of vascular plants belonging to nearly 2,200 genera of which 1,700 species (34 per cent) are endemic,

8 more than 450 bird species, of which about 35 are endemic about 140 mammal species, of which less than 20 are endemic; 260 reptile species, of which about 175 (66 per cent) are endemic 175 amphibian species, of which roughly 130 are endemic. The Ghats are known for their amphibian diversity, some monotypic genera (e.g Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis) which occur in this region.

9 Reasons for biodiversity loss in hotspots There are four main reasons why species are being threatened in these biodiversity hotspots Habitat destruction: -Now, due to better infrastructure, contact of these areas with humans has increased. -Anthropogenic activities such as mining, construction of large dams, highway construction has also caused significant destruction of habitats -These factors are causing species ranges to reduce and habitats to become choppy. Activities such as

10 Resource mismanagement: -Increased tourism without proper regulation -example are pilgrimage destinations likeRishikesh and hill stations like Dehradoon.Rishikesh -Religious destinations in the Himalayas, where devotees flock in millions now, are also hot destinations for medicinal plant trade, which has threatened plant life in the area.

11 Poaching: -Large mammals such as the tiger, rhinoceros and the elephant once faced the distinct possibility of complete extinction due to rampant hunting and poaching.tigerrhinoceroselephant Climate change: -Climate change may significantly affect the temperatures, rainfalls etc. -Ex. In the Western Ghats, studies have shown that the deciduous and the evergreen forests of Karnataka are the most at risk due to climate change

12 Due to wide varied rainfall patterns in the Western Ghats. complex geography, Great variety of vegetation types Supports a large variety of life-fauna and flora Harbour approximately 5,000 species of vascular plants belonging to nearly 2,200 genera of which 1,700 species (34 per cent) are endemic,

13 more than 450 bird species, of which about 35 are endemic about 140 mammal species, of which less than 20 are endemic; 260 reptile species, of which about 175 (66 per cent) are endemic 175 amphibian species, of which roughly 130 are endemic. The Ghats are known for their amphibian diversity, some monotypic genera (e.g Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis) which occur in this region.

14 Reasons for biodiversity loss in hotspots There are four main reasons why species are being threatened in these biodiversity hotspots Habitat destruction: -Now, due to better infrastructure, contact of these areas with humans has increased. -Anthropogenic activities such as mining, construction of large dams, highway construction has also caused significant destruction of habitats -These factors are causing species ranges to reduce and habitats to become choppy. Activities such as

15 Resource mismanagement: -Increased tourism without proper regulation -example are pilgrimage destinations likeRishikesh and hill stations like Dehradoon. -Religious destinations in the Himalayas, where devotees flock in millions now, are also hot destinations for medicinal plant trade, which has threatened plant life in the area.

16 Poaching: -Large mammals such as the tiger, rhinoceros and the elephant once faced the distinct possibility of complete extinction due to rampant hunting and poaching.tigerrhinoceroselephant Climate change: -Climate change may significantly affect the temperatures, rainfalls etc. -Ex. In the Western Ghats, studies have shown that the deciduous and the evergreen forests of Karnataka are the most at risk due to climate change

17 MEGA BIODIVERSITY CENTERS By, Dr. M. David. Department of zoology Karnatak University Dharwad.

18 Mega Biodiversity of India India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries in the world. The country is divided into 10 biogeographic regions. The diverse physical features and climatic situations have formed ecological habitats like forests, grasslands, wetlands, coastal and marine ecosystems and desert ecosystems, which harbor and sustain immense biodiversity

19 India is a mega diverse country with 2.4% of the land area, and 4% of water accounts for 7-8% of the recorded species of the world. In India 45,968 species of plants and 91,364 species of animals have been documented so far.

20 India’s location and realms Biogeographically, India is situated at the tri- junction of three realms - Afro-tropical, Indo- Malayan and Paleo-Arctic realms. This assemblage of three distinct realms makes the country rich and unique in biological diversity.

21 As India is a country which is also one of the 12 primary centers of origin with cultivated plants and domesticated animals. India is considered to be the homeland of 167 important plant species of cereals, millets, fruits, condiments, vegetables, pulses, fibre crops and oilseeds It has 114 breeds of domesticated animals.

22 About 4,900 species of flowering plants are endemic to the country. These are distributed among 141 genera belonging to 47 families. These are concentrated in the floristically rich areas of North-East India, the Western Ghats, North-West Himalayas and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

23 These areas constitute two important of the 34 hot spots identified in the world. It is estimated that 62 per cent of the known amphibian species are endemic to India of which a majority is found in Western Ghats.

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25 Approximately 65 per cent of the total geographical area has been surveyed so far. Based on this, over 46,000 species of plants and 81,000 species of animals have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) established in 1890 and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) established in 1916, respectively.

26 This list is being constantly upgraded, especially in lower plants and invertebrate animals. The Forest Survey of India established in 1981 assesses the forest cover with a view to develop an accurate database for planning and monitoring purposes.

27 NATIONAL PARKS AND SANCTURIES India has a wealth of about 80 National Parks and 441 sanctuaries. Many of the wildlife sanctuaries and a few national parks have been established in erstwhile private hunting reserves of the British Raj and Indian aristocracy.

28 Often, a national park is better known for a particular animal. Like Gir (in Gujarat) is famous for its Asiatic lions, the Indian rhinoceros is the pride of Kaziranga (Assam), elephants in Periyar (Kerala), and tigers are synonymous with Kanha (Madhya Pradesh) and Bandavgarh (Madhya Pradesh).

29 The mangrove forests of Sunderbans are the unique habitat of the Royal Bengal Tiger. These are literally a living museum of nature's creations with a variety of animals, plants, landscapes and rock formations.

30 Though the Indian subcontinent has a great variety of wildlife, but the thick and dense forests account for poor visibility. The spotting of wild animals depends greatly on their habit and distinct daily and seasonal patterns of activity. The frequency of wildlife sightings in national parks and sanctuaries varies depending on the time of the year.

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32 WILDLIFE NATIONAL PARKS International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources defined national park as the combination of following three definitions a b and c Definition 1: a) As a relatively large area where one or several ecosystems are not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educative and recreative interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty.

33 Definition 2: b) National park is the one where the highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate as soon as possible exploitation or occupation in the area and to enforce effectively the respect of ecological, geomorphological or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment.

34 Definition 3: c) where visitors are allowed to enter under special conditions, for inspirational, cultural and recreative purposes.

35 Some of the national parks in India As per the year 2004 a total of 98 national parks have been established. Some of the important ones are mentioned as follows:

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37 1. Anshi National Park Karnataka 2. Balphakram National Park Meghalaya 3. Bandhavgarh National Park Madhya Pradesh 4. Bandipur National Park Karnataka 5. Bannerghatta National Park Karnataka 6. Vansda National Park Gujarat 7. Betla National Park Jharkhand 8. Bhitarkanika National Park Orissa 9. Velavadar National ParkGujarat 10. Buxa Tiger Reserve West Bengal 11. Campbell Bay National Park Andaman and Nicobar 12. Chandoli National Park Maharashtra 13. Corbett National Park Uttarakhand 14. Dachigam National Park Jammu and Kashmir 15. Darrah National ParkRajasthan

38 16. Desert National Park Rajasthan 17. Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Assam 18. Dudhwa National Park Uttar Pradesh 19. Eravikulam National Park Kerala 20. Fossil National Park Madhya Pradesh 21. Galathea National Park Andaman and Nicobar 22. Gangotri National Park Uttarakhand 23. Gir National Park Gujarat 24. Gorumara National Park West Bengal 25. Govind Pashu Vihar Uttarakhand 26. Great Himalayan National Park Himachal Pradesh 27. Gugamal National Park Maharashtra 28. Guindy National Park Tamil Nadu 29. Gulf of KachchhNational Park Gujarat 30. Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park Tamil Nadu

39 National parks Attention is not given on biotic community as a whole, The approach is not based on scientific principles. Attention on biotic community not given; conservation being species oriented. Not based on scientific principles. Sanctuary Attention not given on biotic community as a whole, The approach is not based on scientific principles. Biosphere reserves

40 The size ranges from 0.04 to 3162 sq. kms; the usual size being between 100 and 500 sq. kms Boundaries circumscribed by state legislation Size ranges well over 5670 sq. kms. Boundaries circumscribed by state legislation The size ranges from 0.04 to 3162 sq. kms; the usual size being between 100 and 500 sq. kms Limits are not sacrosant. National parks Sanctuary Biosphere reserves

41 Details of some of the national parks Gir Lion national park: – Location: Junagadh and Amereli district – Area of national park: 258.71 sq. Kms The last abode of asiatic Lions (Panthera leo persica) in the entire world. The habitat represents the best example of the dry decidious forests in the country.

42 It has got the highest concnetration of the two largest predators in the country. – i.e Asiatic Lions (304) – Panthers (230) Other wild animals include cheetah, sambar, chowsingha, chinkara, nilgai, ratel, rusty-spotted cat, pangolin and the wildboar etc. Gir in the state of Gujrat is one of the best managed national park and sanctuary in the country.

43 Marine National park Gujarat: – Location: Sea coast Jamnagar District – Area: 548 sq. Kms. It is the first Marine national park in the country with rich flora and faunal diversity. There are 40 species of corals and 70 species of sponges. Bonnelia which is recorded in only three places in the world is found here. Three of the worlds six marine turtles are found here they are, leather back turtle, green turtle and Oliver Ridley’s turtle.

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46 ANSHI NATIONAL PARK- KARNATAKA It is notable that Anshi National Park and Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary were together granted the status of Project Tiger tiger reserve, being declared as 'Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve' in January, 2007. The 340 km 2 (130 sq mi) Anshi park adjoins the Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, and together with six adjacent protected areas in the states of Goa and Maharashtra, forms an almost uninterrupted protected forest area of over 2,200 km 2 (850 sq mi).

47 LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY Located in the Western Ghats range from l4°54' to l5°07' N latitude and 74°l6' to 74°30’ E longitude, Anshi's elevation varies from 27– 927 m (89–3,041 ft) above Sea Level. Despite high rainfall in this area, water holes go dry very early in the summer because the soil is laterite, with minimal water-holding capacity.

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49 Floral biodiversity at Anshi – 'bintangur', – Calophyllum(wightianum), – Malabar tamarind, – Garcinia morella, – Knema attenuata, – Hopea wightiana, – Tetrameles nudiflora, – Blackboard tree, – Flacourtia (Montana), – Machilus (macrantha), – Carallia (brachiata), – Aini-maram, – mulberry (lakoocha), – true cinnamon, – Bamboo, – Bauhinia, – Eucalyptus, – Lantana, – Silver Oak, – Teak and – Jamba Some common trees and plants here include:

50 Faunal biodiversity at Anshi The black panther, elephants and tigers live in the park but are rarely seen. Other large mammals here are Indian bison, Sloth bear, Indian wild boar,Bonnet Macaque, Northern plains gray langur, Gray slender loris, several deer including: Barking deer (Muntjac) mouse deer, (Chevrotain), Sambar, deer and Spotted deer (chital or axis deer). Reptiles in the park include the King Cobra, Spectacled Cobra, Russells Viper, Saw-scaled Viper, Common Krait, Indian Rock Python, Rat snake, Vine Snake, Green or Bamboo Pit Viper and Monitor Lizards.

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52 Balphakram National Park, Meghalaya Fast Facts Balphakram National Park, Meghalaya is one of the well known national parks in India. It is home to wide species of plants and animals and is located in the midst of the Garo Hills in Meghalaya. Did You Know Balphakram National Park, Meghalaya is located around 3000 meters above sea level. It is also known as "abode of perpetual winds" and also the "land of spirits."

53 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND AREA Balphakram National Park is a national park located about 3,000 metres above sea level, near the Garo Hills in Meghalaya. It is often referred to as the "abode of perpetual winds" as well as the "land of spirits." It is also the home of the barking deer and the golden cat.

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55 Flora and fauna It is home to wide species of plants and animals and is located in the midst of the Garo Hills in Meghalaya. It is an ideal habitat for various species of animals like elephants, deer and so on. The park is famous for the golden cat and the barking deer. There are wide species of mammals, reptiles and birds in the forest. Wide species of baboons and monkeys are also found in the forest.

56 The rivers and lakes in the wildlife reserve are home to various species of birds. The best time to come to Balphakram National Park, Meghalaya is from the months of October to March when the weather is pleasant with little rainfall. It is the perfect time to watch animals as they come to drink water in the lakes and rivers.

57 Bandhavgarh National Park Bandhavgarh National Park is one of the popular national parks in India located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh was declared a national park in 1968, with an area of 105 km². The area is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and Katni and totals 437 km².

58 The density of the tiger population at Bandhavgarh is one of the highest known in India. The park has a large breeding population of leopards, and various species of deer.

59 Zones in Bandhavghar national park The four main zones of the national park are Tala, Magdhi, Khitauli, and Panpatta. Tala is the richest zone in terms of biodiversity, mainly tigers.

60 Together, these four ranges comprise the 'Core' of the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve constituting a total area of 694 km². The buffer zone is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and Katni and totals another 437 km².

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62 SOME OF THE AVIAN FAUNA IN BANDHAVGARH Plum-headed Parakeet Orange-headed Thrush Brown-headed Barbet Coppersmith Barbet Common Myna Alexandrine Parakeet Indian Grey Hornbill Rock Pigeon House Crow Carrion Crow Little Egret Cattle Egret Great Egret Black Drongo Pond Heron Common Snipe Black-winged Stilt Red-wattled Lapwing Indian Peafowl Greater Coucal Oriental Magpie Robin Indian Roller Indian Robin

63 Bandipur National Park Bandipur National Park, established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, It is a national park located in the south Indian state ofKarnataka. Bandipur is known for its wildlife and has many types of biomes, but dry deciduous forest is dominant.

64 Area The park spans an area of 874 square kilometers (337 sq mi), protecting several species of India's endangered wildlife. Together with the adjoining Nagarhole National Park (643 km 2 ), Mudumalai National Park (320 km 2 ) and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary(344 km 2 ) It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve totaling 2,183 km 2 making it the largest protected area in southern India.

65 Location Bandipur National Park located between 75° 12’ 17” E to 76° 51’ 32” E and 11° 35’ 34” N to 11° 57’ 02” N where the Deccan Plateau meets the Western Ghats and the altitude of the park ranges from 680 meters (2,230 ft) to 1,454 meters (4,770 ft). Bandipur is located in Gundlupet taluq of Chamarajanagar district. It is about 80 kilometers (50 mi) from the city of Mysore on the route to a major tourist destination of Ooty.

66 MAP WITH BANDIPUR NATIONAL PARK

67 Fauna Bandipur supports a good population of endangered and vulnerable species like Indian elephants, gaurs, tigers, sloth bears, muggers, Indian rock pythons, four-horned antelopes and dholes. Mammals like gray langur are commonly seen mammals along the public access roads in the park include Other mammals like chital, gray langurs, Indian giant squirrels and elephants are also seen.

68 Birds like Peafowl are among the most commonly seen birds in Bandipur along with grey junglefowl, crows and drongos. Bandipur is home to over 200 species of birds including honey buzzards, red-headed vultures, Indian vultures, flower peckers, hoopoes, Indian rollers, brown fish owls, crested serpent eagles and changeable hawk-eagles. Other fauna like Reptile species include Spectacled cobra, Indian rock python, vipers, rat snake, muggers, monitor lizards, Indian chameleon, Indian pond terrapin, agamids and flying lizards.

69 Other species Ant species include Anenictus, Anoplolepis longipes,Camponotus parius, Crematogaster biroi, Crematogaster, Crematogaster, Diacamma rugosum, Lepisiota capensis,Leptogenys chinesis

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