Presentation on theme: "Brendon Hauxwell. o At Independence, African nations set up governments modeled on those of departing colonial rulers. o Parliamentary systems did not."— Presentation transcript:
o At Independence, African nations set up governments modeled on those of departing colonial rulers. o Parliamentary systems did not work in the new African Countries as they did in European nations where they evolved over centuries.
o Colonial borders had left most African nations a patchwork of people with diverse cultures, languages, and histories. o Eastern European nations, African nations were plagued by ethnic and religious conflict.
o Westerners often blamed African civil wars on old tribal rivalries o In Nigeria and Zaire, civil war erupted when economically successful groups tried to set up their own nations o In Africa, civil wars unleashed terrible violence.
o Divisions that threatened national unity, many leaders turned to a one party system. o Under this political structure, a country has a single political party, or only one party that has any real likelihood of winning elections. o Multiparty systems, these leaders declared, encouraged disunity. o Most one party nations became authoritarian states. o After the struggle for independence some nationalist leaders became dictators. o Some used their position to enrich themselves and privileged elite, others used force to hold onto power.
o When bad government led to unrest, the military often seized power. o Half of African nations suffered military coups. o Military leaders claimed that they unlike politicians, who said they sought power and sought power and wealth, and were motivated by a sense of duty to their county
o By the mid 1980s political and economic woes brought Africa to the brink of crisis. o African thinkers looked for solutions to their African problems! o They did not propose returning to the past, but hoped instead to build on traditions that had worked before. o While sone Africans demanded this sort of people participation external sources called for democratic reforms.
o A key to modernization was building productive economies and raising standards of living. o Developing modern economies meant improving agriculture and developing industry! o To achieve this goals, African nations had built transportation systems, and develop literacy, and solve problems of rural poverty.
o In early years, governments pushed programs to increase earnings by growing more cash crops for export o But land used for crops such as cotton, tea, coffee, and sisal could also be used to produce food.
o Soaring oil prices in the 1970s also hurt developing economies. o Most African nations were oil importers and had to pay out large amounts of currency for much needed fuel. o The debt crisis led to the World Bank and other lenders to require developing nations to make tough economic reforms before extending new loans.
o A population explosion put a staggering burden on Africa's developing economies. o In 1965 Africa's population was about 280 million. o By 1990 that figure had increased to over 650 million. o The continents population is expected to double by 2020.
o In the early 1970s and again in the 1980s prolonged drought contributed to famine in parts of Africa. o Livestock died. o Farmland turned to dust and blew away, millions of people became refugees. o Overgrazing and farming removed topsoil and sped up desertification, or the spread of desert areas.
o Rain forest came under attack, to boost badly needed export earnings, African governments allowed hardwood trees to be cut and shipped to the North o The Aids epidemic spread rapidl across Africa. o In early 2000s the UN estimated that almost 30 million people in Africa were affected with the virus.
o Modernization disrupted old ways. o By 2000 almost half of all Africans lived in towns and cities, rural people were still migrating to cities at a rapid rate. o The great migration to the cities had some effects on women o Today as in the past Africa is still the home to many religious traditions. o Islam has long influenced the northern half of Africa and linked it to the Middle East.