Integrating HIV Care and Treatment into Primary Health Care in Mozambique: Re-defining the role of non-governmental organizations James Pfeiffer PhD, MPH.


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Presentation transcript:

Integrating HIV Care and Treatment into Primary Health Care in Mozambique: Re-defining the role of non-governmental organizations James Pfeiffer PhD, MPH Associate Professor, Department of Health Services School of Public Health and Community Medicine University of Washington, Seattle

Emergence of Global Civil Society (World Bank, 2003) - [T]he number of international NGOs was reported to have increased from 6,000 in 1990 to 26,000 in Intended civil society involvement in World Bank operations has risen steadily over the Bank operations has risen steadily over the past decade, from 21.5 percent of the total past decade, from 21.5 percent of the total number of projects in fiscal 1990 to nearly 72 number of projects in fiscal 1990 to nearly 72 percent in fiscal percent in fiscal 2003.

The New Scenario: Funding for AIDS Treatment PEPFAR Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria Clinton Presidential Foundation World Bank

Where Does the Money Go? NGOs, Centers of Excellence, and Universities (e.g. Columbia, Vanderbilt, UCSD, UW among others) Purchasing of drugs and commodities Data gathering and M&E High salaries for lots of foreigners Some building of new infrastructure. Some technical assistance for health systems

NGO Vertical Programs Set up shop often at local district levels Often employ their own doctors who provide clinical care Rarely foster strong ties to wider health systems Develop parallel M&E systems and data reporting. May use norms and procedures that differ from national health systems.

Where funding is actually needed: Strengthening national health systems Why the public sector has a “comparative advantage” Health work force – many, many, many more healthworkers needed Bricks and mortar infrastructure Management capacity Logistics, M&E, IT systems Linkages to communities Operations research

A Positive Role for NGOs: Case Study Mozambique Technical and material support to national, provincial, and district levels for integration of ART into primary health care system Training and capacity building for management, M&E, clinical care clinical care Foster linkages between communities and the health system Operations research Advocacy

HIV prevalence in Mozambique 7.5%11.1% 8.1% 12.5% 14.2% 26.5% 19.0% 16.4% 8.6% 17.4% 17.3% North 8.4% Central 16.7% Beira ~56,250 adults HIV+ South 17.0% Country = 15.6% (1.26m)

District-level project-by-project approach v.s. System strengthening approach

MOH Sant’Egidio MOH Sant’Egidio

Guro Tambara Chemba Maringue Macossa Sussundenga Machaze Machanga Muanza Cheringoma Chibabava HF Providing HAART (new) 1 (1) PLWHA Registered (%) 2,000 (1) Eligible in HAART (%) 94 (0) HIV Treatment Expansion Plan

Guro Tambara Chemba Maringue Macossa Sussundenga Machaze Machanga Muanza Cheringoma Chibabava HF Providing HAART (new) 2 (1) PLWHA Registered (%) 7,300 (2) Eligible in HAART (%) 600 (1) HIV Treatment Expansion Plan

Guro Tambara Chemba Maringue Macossa Sussundenga Machaze Machanga Muanza Cheringoma Chibabava HF Providing HAART (new) 5 (3) PLWHA Registered (%) 18,600 (5) Eligible in HAART (%) 2,500 (4) HIV Treatment Expansion Plan

Guro Tambara Chemba Maringue Macossa Sussundenga Machaze Machanga Muanza Cheringoma Chibabava HF Providing HAART (new) 17 (13) PLWHA Registered (%) 36,270 (9) Eligible in HAART (%) 5,250 (9) Children <15 y in HAART (% of those in HAART) 420 (8) HIV Treatment Expansion Plan

Guro Tambara Chemba Maringue Macossa Sussundenga Machaze Machanga Muanza Cheringoma Chibabava HF Providing HAART (new) 47 (30) PLWHA Registered (%) 63,390 (16) Eligible in HAART (%) 13,225 (22) Children <15 y in HAART (% of those in HAART) 1,323 (10) HIV Treatment Expansion Plan

Guro Tambara Chemba Maringue Macossa Sussundenga Machaze Machanga Muanza Cheringoma Chibabava HF Providing HAART (new) 53 (7) PLWHA Registered (%) 100,490 (25) Eligible in HAART (%) 23,903 (40) Children <15 y in HAART (% of those in HAART) 3,585 (15) HIV Treatment Expansion Plan

Constraints Caps on public sector wage bill Funding channeled through NGOs who don’t support the national health system Few aid funds going to basic institutions Continuing increases in social inequality Lack of food and public sector safety nets

NGO Code of Conduct