Ppt on validity and reliability

MEASUREMENT: PART 4. Overview  Background  Previously  Measurement: Scales, reliability, validity  Survey methods  Today  Observational Methods,

MEASUREMENT: PART 4 Overview  Background  Previously  Measurement: Scales, reliability, validity  Survey methods  Today  Observational Methods, Practice Exercise, Challenges  Next/Confirmation bias  Stereotyping  Halo effect  Overcoming these challenges  Behavioral checklists, detailed rating forms, multiple observers (and quantification of inter-rater reliability), sampling techniques (time vs. event) Challenges in Observational Research Observer bias… 2. Observer Behavior  Self-fulfilling /


Reliability and Validity

Reliability and Validity Introduction to Study Skills & Research Methods (HL10040) Dr James Betts Lecture Outline: Definition of Terms Types of Validity Threats to Validity Types of Reliability Threats to Reliability Introduction to Measurement Error. Some definitions… Validity Reliability Objectivity Types of Experimental Validity Internal External Validity Logical Statistical Logical Validity Statistical Validity Logical/Statistical Validity Interesting Example: Breast Cancer Incidence: ~1 % (0.8 %) (i.e./


Reliability and Validity

’ around a slope line due to measurement error. Secondary Definition of Reliability from a previous slide “…or that the measured scores changes in direct correspondence to actual changes in the phenomenon” And Now Onto Validity….. Types of Validity 1. Content Validity 2. Empirical Validity Face Validity Sampling Validity (content validity) 2. Empirical Validity Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity 3. Construct Validity Face Validity confidence gained from careful inspection of a concept to see if it/


Reliability and Validity

it mean? In pairs, think of how we use the words reliability and validity in everyday life. What do these words mean? Is there a difference between them or do they mean the same thing? Reliability When assessing the reliability of a study, we generally need to ask two questions Can the study be replicated? If so, will the results be consistent? High vs low/


Ch 5: Measurement Concepts

in text) [p93] Coefficients range from 0.00 to - 1.00 and 0.00 to +1.00 Sign of the coefficient indicates direction Value of the coefficient indicates the strength Reliability of Measures - 1.00 + 1.00 0.00 Variables covary in opposite/experience increased sweating at the same time People who have happy facial expressions concurrently report feeling happy Indicators of construct validity Convergent Validity: Scores on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct. A score for happy facial /


CLASS 11. INTELLIGENC E  Anything that exists, exists in some amount.  And all amounts can be measured.  Thorndike, 1955 Psychological Measurement.

 Anything that exists, exists in some amount.  And all amounts can be measured.  Thorndike, 1955 Psychological Measurement Qualities of a good test Reliability Validity Standardization 1. Reliability are scores consistent? Test-retest Internal consistency Inter rater consistency Typical test-retest reliabilities: AFTER SIX MONTHS: Personality tests:. 75 -.85 Intelligence tests:.85 -.95 Height with tape measure:.98    2. Validity  Does it Measure what it’s  supposed/


VALIDITY vs. RELIABILITY by: Ivan Prasetya. Because of measuring the social phenomena is not easy like measuring the physical symptom and because there.

(Are we measuring the right thing?) STABILITY CONSISTENCY TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY PARALLEL-FORM RELIABILITY INTERITEM CONSISTENCY RELIABILITY SPLIT –HALF RELIABILITY LOGICAL VALIDITY (CONTENT) CONGRUENT VALIDITY (CONSTRUCT)) CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY FACE VALIDITY PREDICTIVE CONCURENT CONVERGENT DISCRIMINANT RELIABILITY Indicates the extent to which the measure is without bias (error free) and hence offers consistent measurement across time and across the various items in the instrument. In other words/


Incorporating Travel Time Reliability Data in Travel Path Estimation Sam Granato, Ohio DOT Rakesh Sharma, Belomar Regional Council.

unless the same as shortest time path). Why? Plenty of day-to-day variability in both link-level volumes and travel delays (as well as differences in traveler perceptions). Use of variability of travel times in models born out of/ shows “bottom line” for volume) Overall Impact of Incorporating Reliability in the Model Update? Little impact on overall validation v. counts or travel times Regardless of option taken, superior validation Few differences overall due to relative lack of congestion Modeled Travel/


Reliability & Validity

validity cannot exceed measures of reliability validityreliability Replicability Can the result be repeated? Drachnik (1994) 43 children abused; 14 included tongues 194 not abused – only 2 … d = 1.44 Replicability Does it replicate? Chase (1987) 34 abused, 26 not abused d = 0.09 2. Grobstein (1996) 81 abused, 82 not abused d = 0.08 Reliability in designed research Use reliable measurement instruments Standardized questionnaires Accurate and reliable/


Design, Measurement, Information Sources

Design, Measurement, Information Sources Conceptualization What is a concept? Dimensions of a concept Indicators of a concept Validity and reliability of indicators Operationalization Factors to consider Levels of measurement Concept = mental image Name for a category of things General, abstract Meaning is agreed upon by a group no $, run-down /


Reliability and Validity

has no Olympic equivalent Therefore, solution = choose your DV carefully. Reliability Reliability is a pre-requisite of validity e.g. Direct versus Indirect measures of VO2 max -Gold Standard -Expensive -Complex (i.e. valid and reliable) -Predictive -Cheap -Easy Reliability Valid and Reliable Subject 1 60 ml.kg-1.min-1 60 ml.kg-1/1 Subject 3 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 Valid and Reliable Reliability Not Valid but Reliable Subject 1 60 ml.kg-1.min-1 65 ml.kg-1.min-1 65 ml.kg-1.min-1 /


Aran Bergman Eddie Bortnikov, Principles of Reliable Distributed Systems, Technion EE, Spring 2006 1 Principles of Reliable Distributed Systems Recitation.

, …, p n } of processes t-out-of-n Byzantine (arbitrary) failures Authentication Messages between correct processes cannot be lost Aran Bergman/Eddie Bortnikov, Principles of Reliable Distributed Systems, Technion EE, Spring 2006 4 Validity and Byzantine Failures Validity – Decision is input of one process Why is that a problem when Byzantine failures can occur? –What is the input of a Byzantine process? Why would/


Validity 4 For research to be considered valid, it must be based on fact or evidence; that is, it must be "capable of being justified."

conditions).  The use of a single measurement instrument and procedure. Example #2: External Validity Elementary School #1 15 Randomly Selected Teachers Elementary School #2 15 Randomly Selected Teachers Elementary School #3 15 Randomly Selected Teachers Elementary School #4 15 Randomly Selected Teachers Survey Conducted Results: All Teachers Schools 1-5 Reliability 4 Research is reliable to the extent that –(1) its components are consistent/


Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 14 Measurement and Data Quality.

. Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Key Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Measures Reliability Validity Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Reliability The consistency and accuracy with which an instrument measures an attribute Reliability assessments involve computing a reliability coefficient –Most reliability coefficients are based on correlation coefficients Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins/


Transport Layer 3-1 Chapter 3b outline 3.1 connection-oriented transport: TCP  segment structure  reliable data transfer  flow control  connection.

receiver  point-to-point:  one sender, one receiver  reliable  pipelined:  TCP congestion and flow control set window size Transport Layer 3-3 TCP segment structure source/ port # dest port # 32 bits application data (variable length) sequence number acknowledgement number receive window Urg data pointer checksum F SR PAU head len not used options (variable length) URG: urgent data (generally not used) ACK: ACK # valid/


Unit 11 – Testing and Individual Differences ASSESSING INTELLIGENCE.

Unit 11 – Testing and Individual Differences ASSESSING INTELLIGENCE The Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet: Predicting School Achievement Alfred Binet Indentifying French/ Principles of Test Construction Standardization Flynn effect Principles of Test Construction Standardization Flynn effect Principles of Test Construction Reliability Reliability Scores correlate Test-retest reliability Split-half reliability Principles of Test Construction Validity Validity Content validity Criterion Predictive/


Validity and Reliability THESIS. Validity u Construct Validity u Content Validity u Criterion-related Validity u Face Validity.

Validity and Reliability THESIS Validity u Construct Validity u Content Validity u Criterion-related Validity u Face Validity Construct Validity Is the underlying construct or theoretical foundation of the survey consistent with research and information on the topic? Content Validity Does the content of the items in the instrument accurately reflect the underlying construct? Criterion-related Validity Does the instrument contain the proper criteria for measuring the traits or constructs of interest? Face/


Political Science 104 Wednesday, October 15 Agenda Reliability vs. Validity Groupwork: Applying what we’ve learned to the newspaper articles Assignment.

concepts appearing in political research. Pick two of these. For each of these, list one or more variables that might be used as an indicator of the concept, and briefly discuss the variables in terms of the validity and reliability with which they represent the concept. You might need several variables to capture the meaning of some of the concepts; if so, explain why/


Types of Validity Content Validity Criterion Validity Construct Validity Predictive Validity Concurrent Validity Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity.

Types of Validity Content Validity Criterion Validity Construct Validity Predictive Validity Concurrent Validity Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity Adapted from Sekaran, 2004 Construct Validity Extent to which hypotheses about construct are supported by data 1. Define construct, generate hypotheses about construct’s relation to other constructs 2. Develop comprehensive measure of construct & assess its reliability 3. Examine relationship of measure of construct to other, similar and dissimilar /


Chapter 9 Correlation, Validity and Reliability. Nature of Correlation Association – an attempt to describe or understand Not causal –However, many people.

the target; but you know where it’s going to shoot (just not at the target!) Reliable but is it Valid? Valid but is it Reliable? Valid but Unreliable Confidence that when you hit something, it’s what you want, but you can’t depend upon consistency. Reliable but is it Valid? Valid but is it Reliable? Valid and Reliable Confident that when you hit a target, it’s what you want/


Design, Measurement, Information Sources Conceptualization What is a concept? Dimensions of a concept Indicators of a concept Validity and reliability.

Design, Measurement, Information Sources Conceptualization What is a concept? Dimensions of a concept Indicators of a concept Validity and reliability of indicators Operationalization Factors to consider Levels of measurement Concept = mental image  Name for a category of things  General, abstract  Meaning is agreed upon by a group no $, run-down /


31-03-2010 Seminar on VALIDATION OF EQUIPMENT Prepared by: Jayesh P. Dobariya M.Pharm. Sem-II Roll no. 04 Department of Pharmaceutics, Maliba Pharmacy.

Sem-II Roll no. 04 Department of Pharmaceutics, Maliba Pharmacy College, Bardoli. Outlines  Introduction  Parts/steps of qualification  Role of FDA in equipment validation  Example of equipment validation  Future of equipment validation  References Introduction Objectives:  Improvement of overall production reliability and availability  Safety  Fewer interruptions of work  Lower repair costs  Elimination of premature replacements  Less standby equipment  Identification of high maintenance cost/


7/13/03Copyright Ed Lipinski and Mesa Community College, 2003-2009. All rights reserved. 1 Research Methods Summer 2009 Using Survey Research.

Survey Influence the Outcome? How? Thoughts on Collecting Data Description of Participants Where Participants Will Be Found How Many Participants and Why?. 6 Class Discussion Application Exercise Give an example of face validity Give an example of content validity Give an example of reliability Give an operational definition of one variable Thoughts on Using Surveys On Campus Description of Questionnaire Administering the Questionnaire Acquiring/


Reliability and Validity Themes in Psychology. Reliability Reliability of measurement instrument: the extent to which it gives consistent measurements.

Reliability and Validity Themes in Psychology Reliability Reliability of measurement instrument: the extent to which it gives consistent measurements Reliability of methodology: the extent to which it can be repeated and produce the same result. Consistency! How can we increase the reliability of; – 1) Experiment? – 2) Questionnaire? – 3) Observations? Checking Reliability 1) Controlled Experiment: An experiment with careful control of extraneous variables and an appropriate sample should ideally have high /


Reliability and Validity in Testing. What is Reliability? Consistency Accuracy There is a value related to reliability that ranges from -1 to 1.

a value Types of validity Face validity Construct validity Concurrent validity Predictive validity Content validity Issues with Validity Types of validity often independent of each other Other types of validity exists or can be created Validity is often a matter of degree, not whether the test is valid or not valid. Validity and Reliability Does one require the other? Can a test be valid but not reliable? Can a test be reliable but not valid? How does one affect/


PS 366 4. Measurement Related to reliability, validity: Bias and error – Is something wrong with the instrument? – Is something up with the thing being.

reliability, validity: Bias and error – Is something wrong with the instrument? – Is something up with the thing being measured? Measurement Bias & error with the instrument – Random? – Systematic? Measurement Bias & error with the thing being measured – Random? failure to understand a survey question – Systematic? does person have something to hide? Measurement Example: – Reliability, validity/looking for work – retired Measurement Example: – Reliability, validity, error & bias in measuring victims of /


Language Assessment Lecture 7 Validity & Reliability Instructor: Dr. Tung-hsien He

Validity & Reliability: a. For validity, reliability is a necessary but not sufficient conditions (i.e. there are other factors involved in the degrees of validity) b. A valid measurement must be a reliable one. (validity entails reliability) The degree of validity is presented by validity coefficient (Not all types of validity are presented in coefficient): Threats to Validity/ scores on the same respondents at different points of time and/or on different occasions. (An Ideal Situation: The consistency/


Planning an Applied Research Project Chapter 9 – Validity, Reliability, and Credibility in Research © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

interest »Discriminate between scholarly articles and other publications © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Terms »Concurrent validity »Convergent validity »Construct validity »Content validity »Criterion validity »Credibility »Dependent variable »Discriminant validity »Equivalent form reliability »External validity »Face validity »General validity »Golem effect »Independent variable »Instrumentation »Instrument validity »Internal consistency reliability © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc/


WHS AP Psychology Unit 7: Intelligence (Cognition) Essential Task 7-3:Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and.

-3:Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity and interpret the meaning of scores in terms of the normal curve. Essential Task 7-: Explain how psychologists design tests –Standardization interpret the meaning of scores in terms of the normal curve. –reliability Split half Test – retest Different tests –Validity Content Predictive Convergent Outline Principles of Test Construction For a/


ESTABLISHING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF RESEARCH TOOLS Prof. HCL Rawat Principal UCON,BFUHS Faridkot.

extent to which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure “To be a measuring instrument (test) must be both valid and reliableRELIABILITY The quality and adequacy of quantities data can only be assessed by establishing the reliability of an instrument. Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure of instrument If a research instrument yields similar or close to similar results on repeated administration/


The meaning of Reliability and Validity in psychological research

your notes Draw a picture of a tape measure measuring a head explain why it is Reliable but not Valid Testing validity The easiest way to discover whether a test is valid is to examine it and decide whether it looks as though it is. If a test which was supposed to measure intelligence contained a large memory test section then it would not have/


Reliability and Validity of Researcher-Made Surveys.

Comparing Responses to Data from Other Sources Asking the Same Question Twice and Comparing Results Evidence of Validity Reliability Patterns of Association Evidence of Validity Patterns of Association Scores from different measures believed to measure similar things should/ sample. Examine variance among respondents. Refine answer options. Time how long it takes. Group Assignment Produce a Valid and Reliable Attitude or Psychological Scale in 90 Minutes Write a 7 to 10 item scale.30 minutes Pilot test your/


Measurement Concepts Operational Definition: is the definition of a variable in terms of the actual procedures used by the researcher to measure and/or.

divide items into 2 subsets and examine the consistency in total scores across the 2 subsets (any drawbacks?) Cronbach’s Alpha: conceptually, it is the average consistency across all possible split-half reliabilities Cronbach’s Alpha can be directly computed from data Estimating the Validity of a Measure A good measure must not only be reliable, but also valid A valid measure measures what it is/


Survey Methodology Reliability and Validity EPID 626 Lecture 12.

majority of this lecture was taken from –Litwin, Mark. How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity. Sage Publications. 1995. Lecture objectives To review the definitions of reliability and validity To review methods of evaluating reliability and validity in survey research Reliability Definition The degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions Lack of reliability may arise from divergences between observers or instruments of measurement or instability of/


Measurements and Validity Julia Braverman, PhD Division on Addictions.

everyone who takes the test. Groups with the same ability obtain different scores on the test. Reliability and Validity If reliable May be valid or not. If not reliable Not valid Threats to measurement validity Using non-validated measures Solution Validate the measure Use pre-validated measures Threats to measurement validity Loose connection between theory and method. Disagreement between conceptional and operational definitions. E.g. putting more pepper as a measurement of aggression? Solution/


Reliability And Validity

dependable measure or observation in a research context? In research, the term reliability means "repeatability" or "consistency". A measure is considered reliable if it would give us the same result over and over again (assuming that what we are measuring isnt changing!). And we want to be able to distinguish between reliability and validity. Exploring Reliability Lets explore in more detail what it means to say that a/


Defining, Measuring and Manipulating Variables. Operational Definition  The activities of the researcher in measuring and manipulating a variable. 

insight into the generality of observations Internal Validity  Experiments aim to determine cause-effect relations in the world.  Internal Validity  Extent to which we can make causal statements about the relationship between variables.  Confounding variables reduce the internal validity of a study.  Cannot infer causality Reliability and Validity  Study can be reliable, but not valid  Rorschach test  But if a study is valid, it is also reliable.  Beck Depression Inventory


Survey Methodology Reliability & Validity

The majority of this lecture was taken from How to Measure Survey Reliability & Validity by Mark Litwin, Sage Publications,1995. Lecture objectives To review the definitions of reliability and validity To review methods of evaluating reliability and validity in survey research Reliability Definition The degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions. Lack of reliability may arise from divergences between observers or instruments of measurement or/


Part II Sigma Freud & Descriptive Statistics

are collecting represents what it is you want to know about. How do you know that the instrument you are using to collect data works every time (reliability) and measures what it is supposed to (validity)? Scales of Measurement Measurement is the assignment of values to outcomes following a set of rules There are four types of measurement scales Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio/


What is a Good Test Validity: Does test measure what it is supposed to measure? Reliability: Are the results consistent? Objectivity: Can two or more.

? Objectivity: Can two or more people administer the test to the same group and get similar results? Administrative Feasibility: cost, time, ease of administration Criteria for a Good Test Validity Objectivity Administrative Feasibility Reliability Criteria for a Good Test Validity Objectivity Administrative Feasibility Reliability Criteria for a Good Test Validity Objectivity Administrative Feasibility Reliability Purpose of Assignment Know when to “punt” Start thinking about how these criteria/


Synthesize, Analyze, Evaluate, Validity & Reliability LA.8.6.2.2.

’s understanding.  LA.8.6.2.2 The student will assess, organize, synthesize, and evaluate the validity and reliability of information in text, using a variety of techniques by examining several sources of information, including both primary and secondary sources.  Content/focus Analyze/evaluate information Validity/reliability of information Synthesizes information (from multiple sources and within text) Definitions  Analyze- examine in detail the text.  Evaluate- form an idea/


© A. Taylor Do not duplicate without author’s permission 1 Reliability and Validity.

Yes No Yes, the thermometer only changes if the temperature changes No Yes Reliable but Not valid Not reliable Not valid Reliable and Valid © A. Taylor Do not duplicate without author’s permission 25 What can be said of the reliability and validity of the following? A spelling test with the following item: 2 + 5 = ____ –Probably reliable, if you get it wrong once you will probably get it wrong again/


Jamie DeLeeuw, Ph.D. 5/7/13. Reliability Consistency of measurement. The measure itself is dependable. ***A measure must be reliable to be valid!*** High.

a test adequately represent the construct. Ex: Grief Matches study guide? Course objectives/outcomes? Includes “face validity” ConstructItem DepressionDo you often feel sad or blue? OptimismDo you generally expect good things to happen? Classic Representation of Reliability and Validity Not Reliable Not Valid Reliable Not Valid Reliable Valid Must be reliable to be valid! Culture and Validity Important questions: Does the construct exist in all cultures? Are items interpreted the same in each culture/


VALIDITY OF MEASUREMENT S P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Justification for Selection of Concepts to Hardware ?????

is reliable and valid. Let us look at test validity first. Test Validity Test Validity refers to the degree to which a measuring strategy (instrument, machine, or test) measures what is to be measured. This sounds obvious; right? A valid measure is the one that accurately measures the variable being studied. There are four/five ways to establish that your measure is valid: Content validity Construct validity Predictive validity Concurrent validity Convergent validity and/


Reliability and Validity in Experimental Research ♣

Reliability and Validity in Experimental Research ♣ Chapter 7 Back to Brief Contents Introduction  Relationship between Reliability and Validity  Experimental ReliabilityReliability and the Independent Variable  Reliability and the Dependent Variable  Measurement Error  Methods of Assessing Reliability  Experimental Validity  Statistic Conclusion Validity  Internal Validity  7.0 Introduction -1 Reliability Experimental reliability Back to Chapter Contents Reliability Consistency, stability, or/


Issues in Measuring Behaviour: Why do we want to quantify everything? Types of psychological test. Factors affecting test reliability. Factors affecting.

it measures what it is supposed to be measuring. Important - a test can be reliable without being valid (but not vice versa). Example of reliable but invalid measurements: Paul Broca (1870s): Searched for anthropometric measurements that correlated with the known ranking of human races in terms of intelligence and civilisation. e.g. ratio of forearm to upper arm: more “ape-like” in negroes than/


Manipulation and Measurement of Variables

have different names. Measurements on a nominal scale label and categorize observations, but do not make any quantitative distinctions between/Reliability & Validity Reliability =consistency Validity = measuring what is intended unreliable reliable reliable invalid invalid valid Reliability & Validity Example: How can we measure intelligence? Reliability True score + measurement error A reliable measure will have a small amount of error Multiple “kinds” of reliability Reliability Test-restest reliability/


Research Methods in MIS

examines prior to purchase. Possible Conditions of Validity and Reliability When examining an instrument for validity and reliability remember that three types of conditions may exist. An instrument might show evidence of being: Both valid and reliable or Reliable but not valid or Neither reliable nor valid NOTE: An instrument which is valid will also have some degree of reliability. About Reliability and Validity Coefficients Validity and reliability are estimated by using correlation coefficients. These/


Rosnow, Beginning Behavioral Research, 5/e. Copyright 2005 by Prentice Hall Ch. 6: Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research.

Rosnow, Beginning Behavioral Research, 5/e. Copyright 2005 by Prentice Hall Ch. 6: Reliability and Validity in Measurement and Research Rosnow, Beginning Behavioral Research, 5/e. Copyright 2005 by Prentice Hall Validity and Reliability Validity: How well does the measure or design do what it purports to do? Reliability: How consistent or stable is the instrument? Is the instrument dependable? Rosnow, Beginning Behavioral Research, 5/e. Copyright 2005 by Prentice/


Validity and Reliability Neither Valid nor Reliable Reliable but not Valid Valid & Reliable Fairly Valid but not very Reliable Think in terms of ‘the purpose.

-product) Question… In the context of what you understand about VALIDITY and RELIABILITY, how do you go about establishing/ensuring them in your own test papers? Indicators of quality Validity Reliability Utility Fairness Question: how are they all inter-related? Types of validity measures Face validity Construct validity Content validity Criterion validity 1. Predictive 2. Concurrent Consequences validity Face Validity Does it appear to measure what it is supposed to measure? Example/


Ads by Google