Ppt on types of ram and rom

F1020/F1031 COMPUTER HARDWARE MEMORY. Read-only Memory (ROM) Basic instructions for booting the computer and loading the operating system are stored in.

software that is stored in a ROM chip. ROM Types Description ROMRead-only memory chips Information is written to a ROM chip when it is manufactured. A ROM chip cannot be erased or re-written and can become obsolete. PROM Programmable read/ off More RAM means more capacity to hold and process large programs and files, as well as enhance system performance. Types of RAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Fast Page Mode DRAM (FPM Memory) Extended Data Out RAM (EDO Memory/


Clint Johnston.  Ram = Random-access Memory.  Data storage. Picture of some Ram.

work this out.  8 bits makes a byte.  1 million bytes makes a Mb.  SO 512mb Ram = ???  Current  Dram, DDR Sdram, Sram  Upcoming  T-ram, Z-ram and TTram Top L-R DDR2 with heat-spreader, DDR2 without heat-spreader, Laptop DDR2, DDR, Laptop DDR Different types of the same type of Ram.  Current  Rom, Prom, Eprom, EEProm, Flash Memory, FeRam, Mram, Pram.  Upcoming  Cbram, Sonos, Rram, Racetrack Memory, Nram/


Memory. Semiconductor Memory Memory refers to Semiconductor Memory. Hold digital information 0s and 1s.

-3 Example 11-5 NV-RAM (nonvolatile RAM) While both DRAM and SRAM are volatile, there is a new type of RAM called NV-RAM, nonvolatile RAM. Like other RAMs, it allows the CPU to read and write to it, but when the power is turned off the contents are not lost, just like ROM. NV-RAM combines the best of RAM and ROM: the read and writability of RAM, plus the nonvolatility of ROM. NV-RAM (nonvolatile RAM) To retain its contents/


Unit 2- Computer Hardware.  Identify system components  Describe the role of the central processing unit  Define computer memory  Identify types of.

? ◦ GHz  Which memory holds your active, running programs or what you copied? ◦ RAM  Which type of monitor is shown? ◦ CRT  Which memory goes away when power is off? ◦ RAM  What holds the computer’s boot instructions? ◦ BIOS ROM  What is the brains of a computer? ◦ CPU- what does it stand for?  The CPU, RAM, and ROM are all on what component? ◦ Motherboard  Store data permanently ◦ Long-term storage  GB/


BIOS 9/5/20151. Objectives In this chapter, you will: -Learn to define the BIOS and understand how it relates to CMOS -Learn how to determine which BIOS.

(CMOS) technology, which results in a chip that runs on very little power. 9/5/201510 BIOS and CMOS RAM A battery in the system, rather than the AC wall current, provides that power. This is also why most people incorrectly / ROM Formal name for a ROM chip that can’t be modified is mask ROM (from the chip’s manufacturing mask). Hybrid ROM chips: PROM: Programmable ROM chips require a special type of machine called a “PROM programmer” or “Prom burner” and can be changed one time. The chip is shipped blank, and the/


Memory Hierarchy Registers Cache Main Memory Fixed Disk (virtual memory) Tape Floppy Zip CD-ROM CD-RWR Cost/Bit Access/Speed Capacity.

Types of RAM RAM – Random Access Memory –memory that can be both read and written during normal operation. –Contents are non-volatile, will be lost on power off. Static RAM Fast access time (used for off-processor cache) Does not have to be refreshed Dynamic RAM Slower access time Must be refreshed much more dense Static RAM Fastest access time of memory types. Typically the type of RAM/ Memory Hybrid of RAM/ROM Have basically replaced EEPROMs Memory parts can be electrically erased and reprogrammed without /


UNIT IV MEMORY DEVICES 1. Integrated Circuits A collection of one or more gates fabricated on a single silicon chip is called an integrated circuit (IC).

time. The 28F256A CMOS IC is an example of flash memory chip, which has a capacity of 32K  8. Types of RAM RAM SRAM DRAM RAM is volatile. It will lose information when the power is turned off. 24 Memory (cont.) Random Access Memory (RAM): Write/Read operations Volatile: Data is lost when power is turned off Read Only Memory (ROM): Read operation (no write) Non-Volatile: Data is/


Overview of Computer Hardware CS 1 Introduction to Computers and Computer Technology Rick Graziani Fall 2006.

information on a single-sided, single-layer disc the same diameter and thickness of a current CD-ROM. DVD-RAM - ReWritable drive type that uses a phase-change technology like the CD-RW drives. However, DVD-RAM discs cannot be read by standard DVD-ROM drives because of the differences in both reflectivity of the medium and the data format. Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu96 http://www.videohelp.com/dvd/


BIOS Objectives In this chapter, you will: -Learn to define the BIOS and understand how it relates to CMOS -Learn how to determine which BIOS is running.

occurs on the chip, it must be replaced. ROM Chip Formal name for a ROM chip that can’t be modified is mask ROM (from the chip’s manufacturing mask). Hybrid ROM chips: PROM: Programmable ROM chips require a special type of machine called a “PROM programmer” or “Prom burner” and can be changed one time. The chip is shipped blank, and the programmer “burns in” specific instructions. From/


The x86 PC Assembly Language, Design, and Interfacing By Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillespie Mazidi and Danny Causey © 2010, 2003, 2000, 1998 Pearson.

, 1998 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 10.4: DATA INTEGRITY IN RAM AND ROM parity bit generator/checker in the PC Parity is used to detect two types of DRAM errors: –Hard error - some bits, or an entire row of memory cells in the memory chip get permanently stuck high or low. Thereafter always producing 1 or 0, regardless/


ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Lecture 11 Memories in Xilinx FPGAs.

end behavioral; 29 Distributed ROM with asynchronous read architecture behavioral of rominfr is type rom_type is array (2**r-1 downto 0) of std_logic_vector (w-1 downto 0/RAM with asynchronous read architecture syn of raminfr is type ram_type is array (2**r-1 downto 0) of std_logic_vector (w-1 downto 0); signal RAM : ram_type; begin process (clk) begin if (clkevent and clk = 1) then if (we = 1) then RAM(conv_integer(unsigned(a))) <= di; end if; end process; spo <= RAM(conv_integer(unsigned(a))); dpo <= RAM/


Memory. Memory Capacity of Computers/Chips The number of bits that a computer/chip can store is called its capacity. While the memory capacity of a memory.

-3 Example 11-5 NV-RAM (nonvolatile RAM) While both DRAM and SRAM are volatile, there is a new type of RAM called NV-RAM, nonvolatile RAM. Like other RAMs, it allows the CPU to read and write to it, but when the power is turned off the contents are not lost, just like ROM. NV-RAM combines the best of RAM and ROM: the read and writability of RAM, plus the nonvolatility of ROM. NV-RAM (nonvolatile RAM) To retain its contents/


Memory and Register. Memory terminology read/write operation volotile/non volatile determine the capacity from input and output timing requirements of.

the RAM data to Data BUS ROM – Read Only Memory designed : holding permanent data / not change frequently Data may enter during manufacturing process Store microcomputer program because it is not volatile also programmed and data such as calculator, appliances, security system etc. ROM block diagram ROM architecture 4 basic part row decoder column decoder register array output buffer Type of ROM Mask-Programmed ROM Programmable ROM (PROM) Erasable Programmable ROM (EPROM/


Processador 8 bits de dados e 16 bits de endereço ROM RAM I/O x”0000” ----------- x”3FFF” x”4000” ----------- x”7FFF” x”8000” ----------- x”FFFF” master.

of arb is begin -- rtl comb : process (msto, slvo) variable slave : integer range 0 to slaves - 1; begin -- process comb -- Check the upper two address bits, and select a slave case msto.addr / (2 ** (addr_width - 2)) is when 0 => slave := 0; -- ROM : 0x0000 - 0x3FFF when 1 => slave := 1; -- RAM/DataOut : out STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(DataBits - 1 downto 0)); end RAM; architecture Behavioral of RAM is type MemMatrix is array (0 to 2**AddressBits - 1) of STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (DataBits - 1 downto 0); signal Memory : /


Microprocessor Fundamentals Week 3 Mount Druitt College of TAFE Dept. Electrical Engineering 2007.

/program that is stored and cannot be changed or overwritten. Non-volatile. ROM: Read only memory. Data/program that is stored and cannot be changed or overwritten. Non-volatile. Write: To store data into memory Write: To store data into memory Read: To extract/read it out of memory Read: To extract/read it out of memory © Mike Stacey 2007 Types of RAM (p1) RAM RAM Static: storage element is/


© 1998 Altera Corporation 1 ® Achieving High Performance and Optimal Utilization in Alteras FLEX 10K Family.

and Implementation LPM_ ROM –Synchronous or Asynchronous ROM –Can Register Data out of ROM –Initialize ROM Contents Initializes to All “0”s if No Initialization File Specified © 1998 Altera Corporation ® 101 Memory Elements and Implementation LPM_ RAM_DQ –Synchronous or Asynchronous Single-Port RAM –Can Register Data out of RAM –Initialize RAM/ ® 211 Configuration Data MAX+plus II Can Convert SOFs to Other File Types for Various Configurations –Serial Bitstream File (.sbf) Used When Downloading from DOS/


Processador 8 bits de dados e 16 bits de endereço ROM RAM I/O x”0000” ----------- x”3FFF” x”4000” ----------- x”7FFF” x”8000” ----------- x”FFFF” master.

process comb -- Check the the upper two address bits, and select a slave case msto.addr / (2 ** (addr_width - 2)) is when 0 => slave := 0; -- ROM : 0x0000 - 0x3FFF when 1 => slave := 1; -- RAM : 0x4000 - 0x7FFF when others => slave := 2; --/proc_pack.all; entity ram is generic ( depth : integer := 256); port ( clk : in std_logic; busi : in bus_slv_in_type; buso : out bus_slv_out_type); end ram; architecture rtl of ram is -- RAM storage signal type mem_type is array (0 to depth - 1) of data_type; signal mem/


SYLLABUS Section B Real Time and Embedded Operating Systems: Real Time and Embedded Operating Systems: – Introduction, – Hardware Elements, – Structure.

, retains its content only when the power is on. As technology improved, the boundary between ROMs and RAMs blurred and many recent versions of memory have attractive properties of both. As technology improved, the boundary between ROMs and RAMs blurred and many recent versions of memory have attractive properties of both. 121 HARDWARE ELEMENTS Memory Elements… These new types of memories are known as hybrid memories. Hybrid memories can be accessed (that is, read/


1 RAM. 2 PS2_Keyboard: entity work.Keyboard generic map (AddressBits => ADDRESSLENGTH) port map (Reset => Reset, Clock => ClockVGA, PS2Clock => PS2Clock,

ASCII code WriteAddress ---------- APPLICATION-SPECIFIC BLOCK B e g i n ---------- Input from keyboard and output to VGA RAM Arithmetic: entity work.ArithmeticBlock generic map (AddressBits => ADDRESSLENGTH, StateMaxValue => 52, NumberOfColumns /Difference = "; sum = Op1 + Op2; Difference = Op1 - Op2; 7 type rom_type is array (0 to 99) of std_logic_vector (7 downto 0); constant ROM : rom_type := ("00000000","00000001","00000010","00000011","00000100","00000101","00000110","00000111","00001000", "00001001", /


George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL ECE 448 Lecture 10 Memories: RAM, ROM.

– 1 downto 0) ); END ram; 23ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Single-port RAM with asynchronous read (2) ARCHITECTURE async_read_ram OF ram IS TYPE vector_array IS ARRAY (0 TO words-1) OF STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(bits – 1 DOWNTO 0); /; data_out: OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(bits – 1 DOWNTO 0) ); END rom; 30ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Generic ROM (2) ARCHITECTURE behavioral OF rom IS TYPE vector_array IS ARRAY (0 TO words-1) OF STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(bits – 1 DOWNTO 0); CONSTANT memory: vector_array := ("/


IST 228Ch7: Managing Cisco...1 Router Components: ROM Read-only memory (ROM) Stores: –the bootstrap program, also called the ROM Monitor, that initializes.

POST (power-on self test), that checks the basic functionality of the router hardware and determines interfaces. –Mini-IOS, which is used to bring up an interface. ROM monitor mode –Router mode that allows to configure your router / NVRAM) (5) Tables ARP and routing tables (6) Buffers used for routing incoming and outgoing packets RAM stores following components: IST 228Ch7: Managing Cisco...3 Router Components: NVRAM Nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) –Special type of RAM –Not cleared when the router /


Copyright (c) 2003 by Valery Sklyarov and Iouliia Skliarova: DETUA, IEETA, Aveiro University, Portugal.

: in std_logic; rst : in std_logic; error: buffer std_logic; end Data_LCD; architecture Behavioral of Data_LCD is -- begin for ROM that keeps input data and the datapath RAM type ram_type is array (0 to RAM_words-1) of std_logic_vector (RAM_data+2*RAM_address_size-1 downto 0); type rom_type is array (0 to ROM_words-1) of std_logic_vector (5 downto 0); constant ROM : rom_type := ("110000","010100","001001", -- 30,14,9,7,13,9,37,2/


William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8th Edition Chapter 5 Internal Memory.

Organization and Architecture 8th Edition Chapter 5 Internal Memory Semiconductor Memory Types Memory TypeCategoryErasureWrite MechanismVolatility Random-access memory (RAM) Read-write memoryElectrically, byte-levelElectricallyVolatile Read-only memory (ROM) Read-only memoryNot possible Masks Nonvolatile Programmable ROM / not have to wait, it can do something else Burst mode allows SDRAM to set up stream of data and fire it out in block DDR-SDRAM sends data twice per clock cycle (leading & trailing edge)/


Memory Many types of memory RAM, ROM, Cache, Dynamic RAM Static RAM, Flash, BIOS Created by Maoz Loants 1.

Many types of memory RAM, ROM, Cache, Dynamic RAM Static RAM, Flash, BIOS Created by Maoz Loants 1 Created by Maoz Loants 2 Created by Maoz Loants 3 How the computer is using memory You turn the computer on. The computer loads data from read-only memory (ROM) and performs a power- on self-test (POST) to make sure all the major components are functioning properly. As part of/


MEMORY is part of the Central Processing Unit, or CPU, where data and information are stored. There are two main types of memory in a computer – RAM.

’s memory every time you turn on your computer. megahertz (MHz) – millions of cycles per second. Used to measure speed of computer devices. gigahertz (GHz) – billions of cycles per second. Used to measure speed of computer devices. TERMINOLOGY memory – part of the CPU where data and information are stored. There are two types of memory chips – RAM & ROM. RAM – Random Access Memory; temporary memory that is erased when the computer is/


Memory and Programmable Logic 08. 232 - Logic Design / 082 RAM: Random Access Memory  All sequential circuits depend upon the presence of memory. ◦A.

output. V2V1V0V2V1V0 A2A1A0A2A1A0 Spring14 232 - Logic Design / 0851 ROMs vs. RAMs  There are some important differences between ROM and RAM. ◦ ROMs are “non-volatile”—data is preserved even without power. On the other hand, RAM contents disappear once power is lost. ◦ ROMs require special (and slower) techniques for writing, so they’re considered to be “read-only” devices.  Some newer types of ROMs do allow for easier writing, although the speeds still/


CCE-EDUSAT SESSION FOR COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

some ROMs can be read and modified. Nonvolatile Memories(ROM) Types of ROMs Programmable ROM (PROM) Eraseable programmable ROM (EPROM) Electrically eraseable PROM (EEPROM) Flash memory (used in portable digital devices) Firmware (Program instruction used frequently) Program stored in a ROM Boot time code, BIOS (basic input/output system) graphics cards, disk controllers. Memory 3. Storage Vs. Memory Memory (e.g., RAM) Keep the information for a shorter period of time/


CS1102 Lec04 Hardware – Inside the Box Computer Science Department City University of Hong Kong.

DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) High capacity optical disk capable of storing 4.7 GB to 17 GB Single speed (1X) is 1.32 MBps, and recent models are at 18X or 20X Many types of recordable and rewritable DVDs are available Read-Only (ROM) Recordable (+R, -R) Rewritable (+RW, -RW, RAM) Blu-ray Disc (BDs) 100 GB storage capacity For high-definition (high/


Chapter Programming in C

} Integer 16-bit data type The range of unsigned int: 0-65535 The range of signed int: -32,768-32,767 Since the 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller and the int data type takes two bytes of RAM, we must not used the int data type unless we have to./(void) { unsigned char mydata[]=“HELLO”; unsigned char z; for (z=0; z<5; z++) P1 = mydata[z]; } Data is stored in RAM and does not occupied ROM. Example 7-33 (3/3) Solution (c): #include void main(void) { code unsigned char mydata[]=“HELLO”; unsigned char z; for (z=0;/


Memory Devices and Interfacing – (Chapter 9)

controlled by the microprocessor through the higher address lines via an address decoding circuit. Control Connections: RAM chips have two control input signals that specify the type of memory operation: the Read (RD) and the Write (WR) signals. Some RAM chips have a common Read/ Write (R/W) signal. ROM chips can perform only memory read operations, thus there is no need for a Write (WR/


Slide 1CPU Emulator Tutorial This program is part of the software suite that accompanies the book The Digital Core, by Noam Nisan and Shimon Schocken 2003,

tool: Breakpoints Use the + and - buttons to add and remove breakpoints The CPU Emulator recognizes the following variables:  A – the contents of the address register.  D – the contents of the data register.  PC – the contents of the program counter.  RAM[i] – the contents of the RAM at location i.  ROM[i] – the contents of the ROM at location i.  Time – number of time units since the beginning of the script. When the variable/


Department of Computer Engineering

computer specifically for data acquisition and control applications Microcomputers All Microcomputers consist of (at least) : Microprocessor Unit (µP) Program Memory (ROM) Data Memory (RAM) Input / Output ports (IO) Bus System (External) (and Software) MPU is the brain of microcomputer The Input/Output /kbit 2 kbyte RAM (Random Access Memory) µP can read the data from RAM quickly µP can write new data to RAM quickly RAM forgets its data if power is turned off Two type is available : Static RAM(SRAM): ff base/


Hardware, Input, Processing, and Output Devices

memory) refers to special memory used to store programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. Most personal computers have a small amount of ROM (a few thousand bytes). In fact, both types of memory (ROM and RAM) allow random access. To be precise, therefore, RAM should be referred to as read/write RAM and ROM as read-only RAM. ROM ‘Discussion’ (1) Pronounced “rahm”, acronym for read-only memory, computer memory on which/


Computers and Computer Systems – Lesson1

Can’t afford that new computer, but need more speed? Try adding more RAM or purchasing an optimizer software program. L1: Computer and Computer Systems Read-Only Memory (ROM) Another type of memory you will find on the motherboard is read-only memory, or ROM, which is permanent storage of data, usually burned onto chips. ROM chips are found throughout a computer system. The computer manufacturer uses a/


Computer Basics.

allows the computer to temporarily store commands and data. The CPU reads data and commands from RAM to perform specific tasks. RAM is volatile, which means it is available only while the computer is turned on. The contents of RAM must be copied to a storage device if you want to save the data. Memory Type 2: ROM Read only memory (ROM). It is the memory that retains its/


What is memory? Memory is used to store information within a computer, either programs or data. Programs and data cannot be used directly from a disk or.

is measured in bytes (or multiples such as kilobytes (KB) or megabytes (MB)). The two main types of memory (RAM and ROM) act as if they were two parts of a continuous list of memory addresses. 0 1600 ROM RAM Read only Memory (ROM) This is memory whose contents are not lost if the machine is switched off. This is also called non-volatile memory. There are variations on this/


Department of Information Technology,

three types of mapping: Associative mapping Direct mapping Set-associative mapping Cache memory To help understand the mapping procedure, we have the following example: Memory Address Map Memory Address Map is a pictorial representation of assigned address space for each chip in the system To demonstrate an example, assume that a computer system needs 512 bytes of RAM and 512 bytes of ROM The RAM have 128 byte and need/


Ki-Hyung Kim Division of Information and Computer Eng. Ajou University

of executing programs directly from long term storage rather than copying it into RAM. It is an extension of using shared memory to reduce the total amount of memory required. 메모리 - RAM Random Access Memory 전원이 인가되는 상태에서만 데이터를 유지 Two main types: Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM) 비트가 저장되는 방법 상에 차이점이 존재 Static RAM/4 KB Second-level descriptor Translating large page references Access permissions System (S) and ROM (R) in CP15 register 1 TLB functions Invalidate instruction TLB Invalidate instruction /


Lesson 15 – INSTALL AND SET UP NETWARE 5.1. Understanding NetWare 5.1 Preparing for installation Installing NetWare 5.1 Configuring NetWare 5.1 client.

and application files. Network card certified for NetWare 5.1. CD-ROM to install NetWare. MS-DOS version 3.3 or greater. Check hardware configuration Hardware: Processor(s) System board components RAM Disk space Test the server hardware Considerations: Disk controller model Slot number of/ the mouse type and video type. Choose Continue. Choose the country code, code page, and keyboard type. Choose Continue. Install Netware 5.1 Steps: The installation program copies NetWare files from the CD- ROM to the /


Unit 6- Operating Systems.  Identify the purpose of an OS  Identify different operating systems  Describe computer user interaction with multiple operating.

fix errors  POST (verifies hardware)  ROM passes boot instructions to RAM  OS located on HD, loaded into RAM ◦ C: Drive Check Hardware ROM passes boot instructions to RAM Find OS on the Hard Drive Run OS & load into RAM  How you interact with OS  Command/get loaded onto when the computer boots? ◦ RAM  Which OS is free and allows users/programmers to change coding to improve it? ◦ Linux  Name a mobile OS. ◦ iPhone, Android, Windows Mobile, others  Which type of user interface is Windows? ◦ GUI  What /


MEMORY DEVICES Week 13.

also remains stored at that address and is not destroyed .This is called non destructive read. RAMs AND ROMs RAM(RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY) : A type of memory in which all addresses are accessible in an equal amount of time and can be selected in any order for a read or write operation .All RAM’S have both read and write capability. ROM(READ ONLY MEMORY): A type of memory where data can be stored/


Kazi Fall 2006 EEGN 4941 EEGN-494 HDL Design Principles for VLSI/FPGAs Khurram Kazi Some of the slides were taken from K Gaj’s lecture slides from GMU’s.

-1 DOWNTO 0)); END ram ARCHITECTURE ram of ram IS TYPE vector_array is ARRAY (0 to words -1) of STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (bits-1 DOWNTO 0); signal memory: vector_array; BEGIN PROCESS (clk, wr_ena) BEGIN IF (wr_ena = 1) THEN IF (clkEVENT AND clk = 1) THEN /ROM and RAM (slides 6 & 7) For the ROM the testbench should read all the memory locations as listed in the lecture code Modify the constants in the ROM and read the all the locations RAM: Write arbitrary data in RAM and read it back Modify the code to make the RAM/


1 Introduction to Computers Day 6. 2 Main Circuit Board of a PC The main circuit board (motherboard or system board) is the central nervous system of.

and DOS programs can’t access it. Programs to be able to use this, they must being written with DOS extenders. 12 Upper memory Conventional memory Extended memory 64MB 1MB 640KB 0 Types of RAM Expanded memory 13 Expanded Memory Lets 8088-chip-based PCs access memory over the limit of 640KB conventional memory. Used with ‘386SX’ or higher chips. 14 ROM Chips Read-Only Memory (ROM/


TEE COURSE GRADE 10 MODULE 7 - PC HARDWARE Memory and Storage Devices

of 40 bytes): 2 to the power of 10 2 to the power of 20 2 to the power of 40 2 to the power of 80 PRIMARY MEMORY: RAM AND ROM RAM (Random Access Memory) is volatile (temporary). Programs and data can be written to and erased from RAM as needed. This means that RAM/plus) and – (dash) DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) Allows up to 17 gigabytes of storage (from 4.7 GB to 17 GB). Compatible with older CD-ROM technology. The four versions of the DVD: lesson Review List four types of magnetic and four types of optical /


Hardware Lesson CS1313 Spring 2015 1 Hardware Outline 1.Hardware Outline 2.What is a Computer? 3.Components of a Computer 4.Categories of Computer Hardware.

to the CPU 18.Main Memory (RAM) 19.Main Memory Layout 20.RAM vs ROM 21.Speed => Price => Size 22.How Data Travel Between RAM and CPU 23.Loading Data from RAM into the CPU 24.RAM is Slow 25.Why Have Cache? 26.Secondary Storage 27.Media Types 28.Speed, Price, Size 29.CD-ROM & DVD-ROM 30.CD-ROM & DVD-ROM: Disadvantage 31.CD-ROM & DVD-ROM: Advantages 32.Why Are Floppies/


The Hardware Layer.

MEMORY what is memory? Memory is electronic circuitry that holds data and program instructions. There are three types of memory: random access memory(RAM), read-only memory(ROM) and CMOS memory. Each type of memory is characterized by the kind of data it contains and the technology it uses to hold the data. RAM Random access memory (RAM) chips hold the program and data that the CPU is presently processing. That is, it/


1 The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems CHAPTER 14 8051 INTERFACING TO EXTERNAL MEMORY.

MEMORY 2 OBJECTIVES Contrast and compare various types of semiconductor memories in terms of their capacity, organization, and access time Describe the relationship between the number of memory locations on a chip, the number of data pins, and the chip capacity Define ROM memory and describe its use in 8051-based systems Contrast and compare PROM, EPROM, UV EPROM, EEPROM, flash memory EPROM, and mask ROM memories Define RAM memory and describe its use in/


Spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel 2010 makes it possible to analyze, manage, and share information in more ways than ever before, helping you make better,

editing. Software: Distribution Media: DVD-ROM License Pricing: Standard License Qty: 1 user License Type: Complete package Package Type: Retail System Requirements: OS Required: /RAM (512 MB RAM recommended for HDV and AVCHD) Microsoft.NET Framework 2.0 OHCI-compatible i.LINK connector1/IEEE-1394DV card (for DV capture and print-to-tape) Windows-compatible sound card DVD-ROM/ Service Pack 1; or Windows 7 1GB of RAM (2GB recommended)1.6GB of available hard-disk space for installation; additional free/


© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Public ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1 1 Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding Routing Protocols and.

creates many different types of IOS images, depending upon the model of the router and the features within the IOS. – Typically the more features in the IOS, the larger the IOS image, and therefore, the more flash and RAM that is required to store and load the / IOS version IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(28), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc5).  Bootstrap version stored in ROMROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.1(3r)T2, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)  Image file name & where it was loaded from  System /


Intro to Cache Memory By david hsu. Examples of memory Paper and writing, books Neon signs Cassettes and other magnetic tape memory Abacus Art material.

, etc. Caves The great pyramids Our flesh (tattoos) ROM means read only memory and RAM means random access memory. EPROM DDR2 RAM CD ROM PROM FLASH MEMORY RAM RAM allows you to read and write to it. Two basic forms of semiconductor random access memory: dynamic and static ram RAM both RAMs use cells to store data RAM DRAM’s cell is smaller than static ram cells so a DRAM is denser. it is created/


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