Ppt on tunnel diode operation

Zener Diode. Zener diode and regulators Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to breakdown in a reliable and non-destructive.

quantum tunneling caused by a high strength electric field.Clarance Melvin Zener effect quantum tunneling Zener V-I characteristics Cont.… The illustration above shows this phenomenon in a Current vs. Voltage graph. With a zener diode connected in/shunt mode), surge suppressors for device protection, peak clippers, switching operations, reference elements and in meter protection applications. The constant reverse voltage of a Zener diode renders it a very useful component in regulating the output voltage /


Diodes 1.

Diode Zener Diode Operation in the Reverse Breakdown Region Very steep i-v curve at breakdown with almost constant voltage drop region Used the designing voltage regulator Diode manufactured to operate specifically in the Breakdown region called Zener or Breakdown Diode Zener Diode/ the reverse voltage across a p-n junction the junction capacitance can be varied .     Semiconductor diodes The tunnel diode, the current through the device decreases as the voltage is increased within a certain range; this property/


Tunneling Devices. MotivationMotivation Scaling: some proposed tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) designs do not suffer from short channel effectsScaling:

less power Lower sub-threshold swing can allow for lower operating voltages to be usedLower sub-threshold swing can allow for lower operating voltages to be used Negative differential resistance (NDR) properties can/ bands Carriers are able to tunnel inter-bandCarriers are able to tunnel inter-band Tunneling goes exponentially with tunneling distanceTunneling goes exponentially with tunneling distance –Requires junction to be abrupt ECEC EVEV EFEF Band-to-Band Tunneling in a Tunnel Diode ECEC EVEV EFEF I V /


M. F. Goffman First Lecture Functions: macroscopic electronic properties  Molecular Wires Diodes Switches and storage elements Negative Differential Resistance.

Strong coupling regime Molecule M. F. Goffman Second Lecture Functions: macroscopic electronic properties  Molecular Wires Diodes Switches and storage elements Negative Differential Resistance (NDR) elements Chemical structure Transport mechanisms are determined by Metal/silicon-based IC industry  Resonant tunneling devices. Light Triggered switches are promising molecules. Tuning of the coupling between the active part and the electrodes are needed to get reversible operation. M. F. Goffman MCBJs Results/


Special Purpose Diodes

Diode Voltage regulation and limiting The varactor diode LEDs and photodiodes Special Diodes Key Words: Zener Diode, Voltage Regulation, LED, Photodiode, Special Diode ET212 Electronics – Special Purpose Diodes Floyd 2 Introduction The zener diode is a silicon pn junction devices that differs from rectifier diodes because it is designed for operation/ & 3-44 curve ET212 Electronics – Special Purpose Diodes Floyd 29 Other Diode Types The tunnel diode has negative resistance. It will actually conduct well with/


Nanowires and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). What Is A Nanowire? Any solid material in the form of wire with diameter smaller than about 100 nm. Transmission.

sized wires single rows of Indium atoms on a Silicon surface. The picture was taken with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope Nanowires can also be made using lithography techniques. The advantage to this method is that many wires / than traditional lighting, longer lifespan Disadvantages: Operating temperature, “flicker” at twice the operating frequency, safe disposal of mercury LEDs Positive voltage is applied across the pins to excite electrons/holes in the diode Electrons that jump energy levels emit light /


MSE-630 Week 3 Semiconductor Operation IC Fabrication Quantum Mechanics: Particle in a box.

MSE-630 Week 3 Semiconductor Operation IC Fabrication Quantum Mechanics: Particle in a box Junctions and Semiconductors Theories and practical devices 3 Scanning electron micrographs of an IC: A /equation: j = j R [exp (eV/kT)-1] V is positive for forward biasing, and negative for reverse biasing. j R is the reverse biased current Tunnel Diodes Tunnel diodes act as oscillators. Current increases up to Vp, decreases between Vp and Vc, then increases beyond Vc As shown at left, the Fermi level exists in the /


Solid State Detectors- 5 T. Bowcock 2 Schedule 1Position Sensors 2Principles of Operation of Solid State Detectors 3Techniques for High Performance Operation.

and photomultiplier tubes Resolution can be down to 100ps Solid State Detectors? 12 Timing with Si Signal rise time in our diode detectors was very slow few ns rise time –very high fields increase mobility –shallower detectors –impossible electronics 13 Microchannel / 27 Tunneling from trap Conduction Band Finite Tunneling Probability 28 Silicon Drift Chamber Depleted from side over long distance Until depletion “median line” conducts n Al -V p p 29 Silicon Drift V V-dV V-2dV V-3dV n 30 SSD Operation Basic /


SPECIAL PURPOSE DIODES Chapter 5 & Lecture 5 & 6.

be used to protect line-operated equipment from voltage surges. Power supply VSVS RSRS Current-regulator diode R S can vary over a wide range and the current stays the same. OTHER DIODE TYPES Laser: emits coherent light Step-recovery: snaps off when reverse biased Back: conducts better when reverse biased Tunnel: has a negative resistance region OTHER DIODE APPLICATIONS Laser: CD players, communications Step/


1)SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES 2)WORKING PRINCIPLE OF DIODE AND SPECIAL DIODE Birla Vishwakarma Mahavidyalaya Branch: Electronics and Telecommunication Branch.

. The conductivities of semiconductors are between these extremes. Semiconductor devices are as follows: P-N Junction diode BJT P – N Junction diode P-N Junction diodes are formed when a P type semiconductor and N type semiconductor are sandwiched together. Types of Diodes Zener diode Photo diode LED Tunnel diode Schottky diode Varicap Transistor a semiconductor device, having three or more terminals attac hed to electrode regions, in which/


SCHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE

a faster transition. This is another reason why Schottky diodes are useful in switch-mode power converters; the high speed of the diode means that the circuit can operate at frequencies in the range 200 kHz to 2 /Diodes Two-Terminal Devices Having A Single p-n Junction Schottky Tunnel Varactor Photodiode Solar Cell Other Two-Terminal Devices Of A Different Construction Photoconductive Cell LCD (Liquid-Crystal Display) Thermistor Schottky-Barrier Diode *Surface-Barrier/Hot-Carrier Diode Schottky-Barrier Diode/


Ch5 Diodes and Diodes Circuits 5.1 The Physical Principles of Semiconductor 5.2 Diodes 5.3 Diode Circuits 5.4 Zener Diode References References: Floyd-Ch2;

voltage is reached. The breakdown voltage can range from 1V to 100V. Breakdown mechanisms include avalanche and zener tunneling. The forward bias current is closely approximated by where V T =kT/q is the thermal voltage (~25/ of a rectified forward current. fMfM The maximum operation frequency of the diode. 5.2 Diodes and Diode Circuits Diodes Ch5 Diodes and Diodes Circuits 5.2 Diodes and Diode Circuits Light Emitting Diodes Ch5 Diodes and Diodes Circuits When electrons and holes combine, they release /


Diodes and Diodes Circuits 5.1 The Physical Principles of Semiconductor 5.2 Diodes 5.3 Diode Circuits 5.4 Zener Diode References References: Floyd-Ch2;

breakdown voltage is reached. The breakdown voltage can range from 1V to 100V. Breakdown mechanisms include avalanche and zener tunneling. The forward bias current is closely approximated by where V T =kT/q is the thermal voltage (~25/IFIF The maximum average value of a rectified forward current. fMfM The maximum operation frequency of the diode. Diodes and Diode Circuits Diodes Diodes and Diode Circuits Light Emitting Diodes When electrons and holes combine, they release energy. This energy is often /


25.05.2009 LHC Status - Planck09 - Padova,IT 1 Status of the LHC Machine J. Wenninger CERN Beams Department Operation Group Acknowledgements to R. Schmidt.

magnet (time constant of 200 ms).  Parallel diode becomes conducting: current of other magnets through diode.  Resistances are switched into the circuit: up / at 1.9 K  Current passes through superconductor. Non-conform interconnect, normal operation superconducting cable interconnection 38 copper bus bar 280 mm2 Magnet  Interruption of copper /7SSS) or replacement (37: 30D + 7SSS). All magnets are back in the tunnel. Interconnection work ongoing.  A method to localize a bad quality joints by measuring /


Faculty of Degree Engineering - 083 Department of Electronic& communication Engineering - 11 Subject: EDC (2131006) Topic: Schottky Diode Prepared By:

moving electronsrecombinationdiode This is another reason why Schottky diodes are useful in switch-mode power converters; the high speed of the diode means that the circuit can operate at frequencies in the range 200 kHz to / available; 200V is considered a high reverse voltage. *Other Two-Terminal Devices *Schottky Barrier Diodes Two-Terminal Devices Having A Single p-n Junction  Schottky  Tunnel  Varactor  Photodiode  Solar Cell Other Two-Terminal Devices Of A Different Construction  Photoconductive/


Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Department of Energy A proposal.

Ti-Sapphire laser is wavelength tunable to reach peak polarization of photo-cathode material Ti-Sapphire laser provides high power as compared to diode laser systems - (can deliver more Coulombs between cathode activations) Ti-Sapphire laser has no ASE Nov. 2000. Delivered high current /located (upstairs in the service building) and the main delivery fiber can be fed to the tunnel through a conduit. Operators will be able to select any laser for any hall. There will no longer be any confusion over the capabilities/


Measurement and data extraction. How to measure the splice and diode interconnections. Accuracy and issues of these measurements. Data extraction issues.

exactly the same way as others. (as it is now in the tunnel at cold) Only the difference, that they had never been measured at warm (biddle testing, RRR?) and there is no diode from one side. nQPS 1 st crate: BS or mBS How to / R BB_quad = 0.57µΩ/m => 50-250mV@1kA R diode lead = 5-20µΩ => 30-120mV@6kA Data extraction issues and analysis tools. By courtesy of A.Gorzawski Test 3minBuffers extraction2x15min 3000@16.6Hz, ~180s By Test Operator Special Macro or LabView It will give absolute time reference for /


AMPLIFIERS, DIODES,RECTIFIERS,WAVESHAPPING CIRCUITS

 (bipolar) 109  - 1012  (FET) Input Current 10-12 – 10-8 A Output Resistance 100 – 1000  Operational Gain 105 - 109 Common Mode Gain 10-5 Bandwidth Attenuates and phases at high frequencies (depends on slew rate) Temperature independent Bandwidth /The breakdown voltage can range from 1V to 100V. Breakdown mechanisms include avalanche and zener tunneling. PN Junction Diode V-A Characteristic PN Junction Diode V-A Characteristic Current Equations • The forward bias current is closely approximated by where /


/SC-PAC2001-6.19.01 Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Depart. Of Energy Joe Grames CEBAF Operations 8-31-05 1.

499 MHz repetition rate for conventional experiments at high current halls A and C  Two lasers in the tunnel and one hot spare Drawbacks (compared to diode lasers):  Complicated lasers need maintenance every ~ 2 weeks.  Complicated laser table (more optical elements required).  Laser jock required. Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Depart. Of Energy Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator/


1 The LHC Machine Jörg Wenninger CERN Beams Department Operations group Hadron Collider Summer School - June 2009 Part 2: Machine Protection Incident 19.

4 Energy Extraction: switch open DFB  In case of a quench, the individual magnet is protected (quench protection and diode).  Resistances are switched into the circuit: the energy is dissipated in the resistances (current decay time constant of 100 / up. - Straight sections : relief valves added on cryostats. Commissioning & operation with reference to 2008… 61 First dipole lowered 7 th March 2005 62 Transport in the tunnel with an optically guided vehicle Approx. 1600 magnets to be transported over up/


Zero Bias Diodes as Thermal and Non-Thermal Energy Harvesters Thomas Valone, PhD, PE Integrity Research Institute SPESIF Huntsville AL, February 24, 2009.

83, 1951, p.34 Fluctuation-Driven Electricity Fluctuation theorem* predicts negative work Periodic boundaries Quantum ratchets Rectifies thermal noise Operate at T = 5 K Input avg. force = 0 “Experimental Tunneling Ratchets” Linke, Science, 286, 1999 *Crooks, Phys. Rev. E, 60, 1999 Temp. dependent current reversal/Density Picojoules per second (pJ/s) = picowatts (pW) Compare to 10 17 Hz using 1 nm = resonant wavelength of diode junction and c= f Einstein’s E=hf keV or femtojoule (10 -15 J) eV/m 3 390 eV/nm 3/


Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling in TiO 2 for room temperature operation of the Vertical Metal Insulator Semiconductor Tunneling Transistor (VMISTT) Lit Ho Chong,Kanad.

of Southampton, UK Funding: EPSRC, UK Overview Motivation: operation of metal oxide tunnel transistor (MOTT) Design of the VMISTT Fabrication of the tunnel barrier Characterization of the tunnel barrier Conclusions Motivation Downscaling of MOSFET  Faster chips  More/Thermal oxidation of vacuum evaporated Ti. Device for characterization:  Metal-insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors/diodes Fabrication of the Tunnel Oxide Evaporation of 7nm or 10nm Ti on Si substrate p-type Si 10nm Ti Oxidation at /


P-n Junction Diode.

device technology Structure and principle of operation Electrostatic analysis of a p-n diode Depletion region and depletion capacitance Abrupt junction Linearly graded junction Current - voltage characteristics Shockley equation Generation-Recombination Process High injection Diffusion capacitance Reverse bias breakdown Thermal instability Tunneling effect Avalanche multiplication Transient behavior Structure and principle of operation Energy band diagram of a p-n junction (a) before and (b/


Workpackage N° 4 1 Nanospad Review meeting Brussels, May 6 2008 Full Title: Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) per la lettura di Fibre Scintillanti Bando.

particelle. Obiettivo: realizzazione di un rivelatore per raggi gamma basato su fibre scintillanti con lettura mediante Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD). Workpackage N° 4 2 Nanospad Review meeting Brussels, May 6 2008 Full Title: Protein microarray for / pixels no cooling required for matrix operation ­low afterpulsing effect: ~ 1% @ 20°C with t H =70ns ­reduced band-to-band tunneling due to low electric field profile better DC reduction at low temperature operation Workpackage N° 4 22 Nanospad Review/


BLM AUDIT 2010Ewald Effinger BE-BI-BL BLM tunnel installation and data acquisition card (BLECF) Ewald Effinger AB-BI-BL.

the BLM System Tunnel hardware installation The data acquisition card (BLECF) Irradiation and additional tests Test of the monitors and cables Test of the acquisitions card Commissioning of the complete BLM system Tests during operation System changes due /to fulfill the specification Irradiation of single components (JFET, OP, Comparator, One shot, …) Insertion of fast protection diodes, high voltage capacitors, and leaded resistors on the input ADC added to decrease response time / increase dynamic range /


1 by Prof. Dr. Ali S. Hennache AC Fundamentals ( 08 H ): The Sine wave –Average and RMS values 1H– The J operator – Polar and rectangular forms of complex.

saturation current – construction, working 1H, V-I characteristics and simple applications of :Junction diode, Zener diode 1H, Tunnel diode and Varactor diode. Filter considerations 1H. Rectifiers ( 04 H ): Half wave and full wave and bridge/ - Maximum power 1 H - Class A, Class B,Class AB and Class C amplifiers1 H -Basic operational amplifier- Differential amplifier 1H. Operational Amplifier fundamentals ( 04 H ): Characteristics - OpAmp parameters 1H - inverting amplifier-non-inverting amplifier 1H- unity/


DRFS High Availability S. Fukuda and DRFS project team KEK Contents 1.Revised DRFS Scheme 2.Cost Estimation 3.Operability and Availability for DRFS 4.Improvement.

auto tuning introducing the tuning machine No ion pump: getter in the tube No lead shield in the tunnel of the ILC Gun insulation ceramic is operated in the air. Corrugated ceramic to make a longer insulation length is considered. Focusing magnet is relatively high/ of m=1, n=1 (Scheme A) DC Power supply comprises of VCB, delta-star, step-up transformer, rectifier diodes, capacitors and crowbar circuit. Common one modulating anode modulator supply the voltage pulse. In order to have a high reliability, there/


Machine LHC Jörg Wenninger CERN Accelerators and Beams Department Operations group CERN-ITER meeting, Dec 2008.

/2008ITER-CERN WS - J. Wenninger 5 Tunnel circumference 26.7 km, tunnel diameter 3.8 m Depth : ~ 70-140 m – tunnel is inclined by ~ 1.4% 6 /quenched magnet decays in < 200 ms, circuit current now flows through the ‚bypass‘ diode that can stand the current for 100-200 s. 5.The circuit current/energy is/ with Frequency signals connect the BICs with the corresponding kicker system (extraction, injection, dump).  In operation at the SPS and the SPS/LHC transfer lines since 2006. Inputs are:  maskable (with safe/


LER-LHC Injector Workshop Summary and Super Ferric Fast Ramping Injector in SPS Tunnel Vladimir Shiltsev, Fermilab for collaboration team H.Piekarz, G.deRijk,

as possible to reduce the inductance, are the pulse supply, switch and bypass diode stacks.  The switcher can be located a little farther away from the /AC dQ, SlipSt. 50GeV PS+ will address reasons #3-5 Pilot bunch…. many others concerning operation  Team was very inventive in solving problems  E.g. pilot bunch problem – a neat / future LER Workshop & SF-SPS Proposal – Vladimir Shiltsev 17 SuperFerric Synchron in SPS Tunnel Injection energy 50 GeV (from PS+) Extraction energy ~500GeV (to LHC thru existing/


1 Commissioning challenges of the LHC Jörg Wenninger CERN Accelerators and Beams Department Operations group February 2008 LHC overview Magnets Luminosity.

protection, power converters for orbit correctors and instrumentation (beam, vacuum + cryogenics) Tunnel view 17 Complex interconnects 18 CERN visit McEwen Many complex connections of super-conducting/ms. The current of all other magnets flows through a ‚bypass‘ diode that can stand the current for 100-200 s. The current / eddy currents’). Etc…  Then there will more or less parallel branches to: Establish operation with both beams together. Increase intensity & number of bunches. Ramp, ‘squeeze’ (focus/


© 2010 Eric Pop, UIUCECE 598EP: Hot Chips Summary of Boundary Resistance 1 thermionic emission tunneling or reflection f FD (E) E Electrical: Work function.

formula! ex: electron tunneling (conductance) © 2010 Eric Pop, UIUCECE 598EP: Hot Chips Band-to-Band Tunneling Conduction Assuming parabolic energy dispersion E(k) = ħ 2 k 2 /2m * E.g. band-to-band (Zener) tunneling in silicon diode 5 F = electric field/concerns Device heats up during characterization (DC I-V) –Temperature varies during digital and analog operation –Hence, measured DC I-V is not “true” I-V during operation –True whenever  thermal >>  electrical and high enough power –True for SOI-FET/


SNS Lessons Learned from Design, Integration, and Operation Presented at the 4 th Open Collaboration Meeting on Superconducting Linacs for High Power Proton.

4, May 15-16, 2014 Cryomodule repair out of tunnel in SNS Large helium leak (5CMs before or during commissioing, 1CM in 08) Non-operational cavity due to large Fundamental coupling to HOM (1CM repaired, 1CM still in the tunnel ) Air to beam line leak (coupler window) / SLHiPP-4, May 15-16, 2014 Decontamination Test for CM Repair CM12 (H01) Repair Cutting Into End Can Removal of Internal Diodes Leak in the helium line 46 SLHiPP-4, May 15-16, 2014 HOM Reevaluated the requirement of HOM coupler in 2007 and /


Resonant Tunnelling Devices A survey on their progress.

word: Feasible What we’ve been using: The MOSFET Source: Scientific American Resonant Tunnelling Diodes Fundamentally different operating principle Quantisation Quantum tunnelling Computation comes from Negative Differential Resistance (NDR) Negative Differential Resistance Need high peak to/ mean for architecture? CMOS / RTD hybrid circuits Factor of reduction in component complexity Higher operating frequency Lower power consumption TSRAM 1 transistor SRAM with DRAM density on chip Greatly reduced power/


Introduction to LHC cryogenic system (layout, architecture) Preparation before cool-down (Purge, flushing) Transient operations to reach nominal operating.

the LHC He II Cooling Scheme Normal operating conditions 14 May 2008L. Tavian – LHC Cryogenics12 Magnet-cell (107 m) cooling scheme 14 May 2008L. Tavian – LHC Cryogenics13 107 m Other tunnel equipments 14 May 2008L. Tavian – /Kapton Dust Possible short in magnet diodes Travellers Foam (welding plug) But the sooner the best ! Introduction to LHC cryogenic system (layout, architecture) Preparation before cool-down (Purge, flushing) Transient operations to reach nominal operating condition (Cool-down, filling)/


J. Wenninger LNF Spring School, May 2010 1 LHC : construction and operation Part 2: Machine protection Incident and energy limits Commissioning and operation.

2 Power Converter Magnet 154 Magnet i Discharge resistor  In case of a quench, the individual magnet is protected (quench protection and diode).  Resistances are switched into the circuit: the energy is dissipated in the resistances (current decay time constant of 100 s). >>/ 10’000 joints are at the interconnection between magnets. They are welded in the tunnel. Nominal joint resistance: 1.9 K 0.3 nΩ 300K ~10 μΩ For the LHC to operate safely at a certain energy, there is a limit to maximum value of the /


LHC Magnets: Cold Tests & Throughput V. Chohan SM 18 Operation CERN.

magnets –Reduced Training Quenches beyond 7 TeV: 3 Quench Rule –Improved Production Control at warm : Diode Tests –Reduced duplication : WP04 Insulation Tests Additional [Radical] Proposals that could still be done –Schemes that curtail training to currents upto 11 kA (~ 6.5 TeV operation) ; implies ‘training’ in the tunnel to go up in Energy – Reduce “ Connect Time” by not doing certain tests at warm/


History of Conjugated Polymers Electronic Structures of Conjugated Polymers Polymer Light-emitting Diodes Polymer-based Thin Film Transistors Polymer-based.

devices Outlines Polymer Solar CellsPolymer Light-emitting Diodes Polymer Thin Film Transistors Device Applications of/space charges and traps, charge transfer effects, conformation changes, polymer fuse effects, ionic conduction., tunneling. The capacitor stores charges, of opposite sign, on two parallel plate electrodes. Each bit /the ON and OFF states Energy level of LUMO& HOMO and work function of electrode SCLC operation mechanism Angew Chem Int Ed 2006, 45, 2947 Resistor-type Memory: Space Charges and /


Status of ZDC Yasa & Michael for ZDC group, KU, Iowa, UIC 20 th September 2008 Integration close Safe operation OK Grounding Tolerable Firmware Needs to.

Laser QIECCM RBX manager S2E13 Lumi Server S2C07 S2F18 DQM Tunnel LHC Integration HV LoVolt S4F02 DCS signal DSS RecHits 141ns - HTR Map HLX DCC E+,E- GCT Timing S2F07 S1E04 LUT Safe Operation After “technical inspection” in August we have covered /all action items except for “High Voltage” signs in tunnel. In addition we will install a safety ground between ZDC and TAN based on zener diodes. This will be done during/


1 The LHC Accelerator Complex Jörg Wenninger CERN Accelerators and Beams Department Operations group Hadron Collider Summer School - June 2007 Part 2:

plane, the kicker in the vertical plane (to fit to the geometry of the tunnels).  Extraction is identical, but the process is reversed ! Kicker B-field time /in < 200 ms. The current of all other magnets flows through the bypass diode (triggered by the voltage increase over the magnet) that can stand the current / at the collision point (larger ‘  *’).  It cannot be excluded that initially the LHC will operate at 6 TeV or so due to magnet ‘stability’. Experience will tell… It will most likely take /


State-of-the-art and Future Challenges for Machine Protection Systems Jörg Wenninger CERN Beams Department Operation group – LHC IPAC14, Dresden, 20 th.

- J. Wenninger 2 Introduction Material robustness Instrumentation Collimation and halo Availability, safety and operation Conclusion MPS is… 20 June 2014 FRXCA01 - IPAC14 - J. Wenninger 3  An/ Hydrodynamic tunneling 20 June 2014 FRXCA01 - IPAC14 - J. Wenninger 16  For high intensity beams made of long bunch trains hydrodynamic tunneling significantly /Logic is implemented with a highly reliable and redundant ‘presence’ measurement – diode detection system.  Even a probe bunch was able to quench 4 magnets/


1 Harvey N. Rutt, Suresh Uppal Chong Yew Lee Optoelectronics Research Center University of Southampton,Southampton SO17 1BJ Design of an Electrically Operated.

. 12 Design Criteria OPTICAL ON state (diode electrically off) T on =T o exp(-A) = T 0 exp -(N p *x p *σ h ) OPTICAL OFF state (diode electrically on) T off =T o/) Recombination –Photon transitions (indirect band gap) –Impact ionisation (high E.Field only) –Tunneling (not possible) –Many-body effects on diffusivity 33 What is Surface Recombination? For Ge /000 i.e. from 10mS to 1 uS at highest concentration! The effect only operates over a very small volume of the device 36 What is Auger Recombination? Three /


LLRF Phase Reference System The LCLS linac is broken down into 4 separate linac sections. The LCLS injector will reside in an off axis tunnel at the end.

4 separate linac sections. The LCLS injector will reside in an off axis tunnel at the end of sector 20 and will have 4 S-band klystrons. / 119 MHz Level: +15 dBm ±2 dB into 50 ohms Aging: 1 x 10-6 per year after 30 days operating Temperature Stability: ±2 x 10-7, 0° to +50°C (Ref +25°C) Harmonics / Sub-Harmonics: /The controller will receive commands over Ethernet for adjusting the phase of the RF signal and a diode RF detector will be incorporated in each chassis to provide a RF power read back. LLRF Phase/


Hall A Parity Workshop (May 10, 2002), 1 Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Depart. Of Energy Thomas Jefferson.

quality intensity devices for both HAPPEx2 and G0. Hall B continues with a diode laser and TACO feedback. Independent position capability for the parity Halls (A&/Rotatable /2-plate (corrective element) Hall A Parity Workshop (May 10, 2002), 4 Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Depart. Of Energy Thomas Jefferson /July-August 2002 - SHUTDOWN Independent IA’s for A & C laser into tunnel Independent PZT’s if desired are installed too September-October 2002 Parity beam for/


1 Operational challenges of the LHC Jörg Wenninger CERN Accelerators and Beams Department Operations group November 2007 Part 2: LHC challenges Luminosity.

horizontal plane, the kicker in the vertical plane (to fit to the geometry of the tunnels).  Extraction is identical, but the process is reversed ! Kicker B-field time Injected/ in < 200 ms. The current of all other magnets flows through the bypass diode (triggered by the voltage increase over the magnet) that can stand the current for/ that are much more sensitive than in other existing machines (Tevatron, RHIC, HERA). Operating this collider will have to be very ‘clean’ and will require some changes in /


Fermilab Booster Diagnostics, Monitors, and Software for Operational Control of Residual Radiation William Pellico Booster Accelerator FNAL HB2008.

slip stack cycles : 4.1E12/pulse ~90 efficient (Cogged Cycle) –10 Turn for MiniBoonNE Operations : 4.7E12/pulse 90 – 91 % efficient –11 Turn for Colliding beam bunches 5.1E12/Hot Link Rack Monitor ) IRM’s (Internet Rack Monitor ) Front End Software Tunnel Hardware –Gap Detectors –BLMs –IRM –Striplines New Corrector Magnets and PS Collimators /analysis capabilities. Injected beam moving from injected orbit to closed orbit A diode detected signal and RF sum collected by an IRM displays calculated longitudinal/


Operational Experience with machine backgrounds at KEKB 23 September 2003 T.Tsuboyama (KEK)

Bottom Green – Inside the KEKB ring Blue – Top Red – Outside the tunnel Central Drift Chamber Although the KEKB has increased the luminosity and beam current, wire current of CDC has been kept in operational range. This is a result of the continuous improvement of the vacuum. The/ HER 1.1A LER 1.5A L=9.6x10 33 cm -1 s -1 Main Inner Cathode The integrated dose and PIN-diode dark current is shown The integrated dose is slower than beam current/luminosity increase. The occupancy for E>20MeV activity is ~1 /


Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Depart. Of Energy Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Strained Superlattice.

QE is not constant Operated by the Southeastern Universities Research Association for the U.S. Depart. Of Energy Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Our new commercial Ti-Sapphire lasers provide more laser power (~ 300 mW) compared to our “old” diode lasers (~ 50 mW/ wafer increases damage on the wafer Reworked Gun 3 over the shutdown, hoping to boost lifetime QE lower in the tunnel than in test cave: Hopefully due to the gun itself, not the wafer Received arsenic capped samples: easier to /


A Technology-Independent Model for Nanoscale Logic Devices Motivation / problem description: Candidate nanocomputing technologies operate in a wide variety.

a wide variety of different physical domains. –E.g., electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical. Even just the all-electronic technologies differ by: –Conductivity class: Semiconductors, conductors, superconductors. –Operating principles: Field effect transistors, resonant tunneling diodes/transistors, Josephson junctions, etc. –Confinement dimensions: Quantum dots, wires, wells. –Materials: Metals, silicon crystals, other semiconductors, hybrid materials, carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, … –Information/


ITC242 – Introduction to Data Communications Internet Operation

Operation Last Week SMTP - transmits messages to appropriate hosts via TCP, attempts to provide error-free transmission. MIME - Intended to resolve problems with SMTP, provides info about body of message, defines multiple content formats, and encodings HTTP - Stateless protocol, flexible format handling, Proxy, Gateway, Tunnel/ pass along its fibers. Favored in workgroup applications, multimode cable uses light emitting diodes (LEDs) to generate light. A multimode fiber optic cable cannot exceed 2 kilometers/


Special Issue on the nano devices 서울대 나노 협동과정 & 나노 응용시스템 연구센터 (NSI_NCRC) The 2 nd lecture: MOS operational principle Prof. Young June Park.

전자소자의 interaction 등에 대해서 콜로키움 형태로 특강을 진행한다. Syllabus (updated) 1. Introduction: motivation of the lecture 1 주 : 박 영준교수 2. Nano semiconductor Device operational principle 2 주 (3/14): MOSFET operational principle( 박 영준교수 ) 3 주 (3/22): 1. IV characteristics of MOSFET( 박 영준교수 ) 2,3: Nanowire MOSFET( 박병국교수 ) 4 주 /fields : Es and Eox, and Eeff Eox : determines the tunneling current in thin oxide, limiting the minimum thickness of gate oxide/So, as we do approximate I-V of diode such that I=0 when where is around 0/


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