Ppt on tuberculosis

Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program Historical Perspective Mitchell Palmer, DVM, PhD and W. Ray Waters, DVM, PhD National Animal Disease Center USDA,

but veterinarians recognized the potential as a diagnostic aid.  Veterinarians (Gutmann and Bang) begin using it to diagnose bovine tuberculosis.  1892- Leonard Pearson (age 24) travels to Koch’s lab and brings tuberculin to Pennsylvania for first cattle/  Vaccine delivery systems  Need for vaccines for cattle.  Infected vs Vaccinated 7/3/201545 Obstacles to Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication  Importation of infected cattle  Need for rapid, reliable and inexpensive test to be used at border crossings./

Unit 4: Infection Control and Prevention of Tuberculosis

HIV-infected prisoners and guards according to existing MOH guidelines Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rapid Assessment of Tuberculosis in a Large Prison System --- Botswana, 2002. MMWR Weekly [serial on the Internet]. 2003 March 28 [reviewed /come into contact with an infected person An important element to infection prevention and control Open the Botswana National Tuberculosis Programme Manual to Annex 11, Form 7 Contact Tracing (2) Identify and evaluate contacts of persons with smear/

TUBERCULOSIS basic facts about TB

behavioral changes and nuchal rigidity for about two weeks or more. Patients may have cranial nerve paralysis and seizure. Pericardial Tuberculosis (TB pericarditis): It is frequently seen in patients with HIV. Patients usually present with fever, retro-sternal pain, cough/ course of broad-spectrum TB antibiotics, and Decision by a clinician to treat with a full course of ant tuberculosis chemotherapy. History of previous treatment of TB In order to identify those patients at increased risk of acquired drug/

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

TB thrives in overpopulated, developing countries, and among drugs users, the homeless and immunosuppressed individuals. Strands of Tuberculosis Inactive or latent Person is infected with the disease, but has no signs or symptoms Active Person is infected/blood presence Bacterial testing of biopsied tissue from lungs Recovery, Disability or Death Outcomes of those infected with Tuberculosis: Recovery with no disability Regimens of antibiotics or chemotherapy Surgical resection of affected lobe of lung or /

Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

during transport, in waiting areas, or when others are present EM - Last bullet – second line – “the patient should wear a surgical or procedure mask . . . “ Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease TB Disease Symptoms Persistent cough (≥ 3 weeks) Hemoprysis (coughing up blood) Night sweats Weight loss Anorexia Fever EM - Second bullet – “Hemoptysis” Diagnostic Tests for TB Disease and LTBI/

1. Tuberculosis case reports, UK, 2000-2012 1 Tuberculosis in the UK: 2013 report.

at July 2013 Prepared by: TB Section, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Public Health England Figure 1.8: Non UK-born tuberculosis case reports by time since entry to the UK to tuberculosis diagnosis, UK, 2012 Source: Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance (ETS), Enhanced Surveillance of Mycobacterial Infections (ESMI) Data as at July 2013 Prepared by: TB Section, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance/

Tuberculosis Sandra Ferreira. Agenda What is Tuberculosis History of Treatment Our Immune Response PA-824 Conclusions 2.

Koch and Julius Richard Petri- isolated the bacteria Finally in 1943, the first antibiotic was used to treat tuberculosis 6 Tuberculosis 2007: From basic Science to Patient care. Juan Carlos Palomino, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Viviana Ritacco Targets/279-280 What Happens After Infection with Mtb Inhale the bacteria 1. Spontaneous healing! 3. Latent Tuberculosis - Granulomas 2. Active Tuberculosis 18 19 Phagocyte Phagolysosome Bacteria How the Immune System Kills Mtb Lysosome 20 Phagocyte Bacteria Bacteria has /

Lecture 1 Lecture 1 Diagnoctics of tuberculosis Diagnoctics of tuberculosis (Stomat. F-t) (Stomat. F-t) Prof. L.A. Hryshchuk Prof. L.A. Hryshchuk.

to exclude a diagnosis of pneumonia or this helps to exclude a diagnosis of pneumonia or other acute infection other acute infection Primary complex Milliary Tuberculosis acute milliary tuberculosis secondary pulmonary tuberculosis infiltrate Tuberculoma Chronic fibro-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis cavity Tuberculous effusion Comruter tomograma patient with pulmonary TB Fluorography Bronchography Bronchoscopy examination Video Tuberculin testing Tuberculin testing A positive tuberculin test although it is/

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dr. Pendru Raghunath Reddy.

a cavity  It may subsequently heal by fibrosis or calcification Tubercle or granuloma formation in tuberculosis Postprimary (secondary) tuberculosis  It is due to reactivation of latent infection or exogenous reinfection and differs from the / formationRareFrequent Lymphatic involvement YesMinimal Infectivity*UncommonUsual Local spreadUncommonFrequent *Pulmonary cases Differences beween primary and postprimary tuberculosis Immunology  Tubercle bacilli do not contain or secrete a toxin  The exact basis of/

THE GENUS MYCOBACTERIUM. The mycobacteria, or acid-fast bacilli, are responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy and a number of saprophytic species occasionally.

. Mycobacterium leprae - pathogenesis Mycobacterium leprae - pathogenesis M. leprae causes granulomatous lesions resembling those of tuberculosis, with epitheloid and giant cells but without caseation. The organisms are predominantly intracellular and can proliferate /, especially in institutions that care for patients with chronic lung disease. Most infections resemble pulmonary tuberculosis. It is scotochromogenic and grows optimally at 42 ºC. Mycobacterium kansasii Mycobacterium kansasii M. kansasii/

Tuberculosis. Etiology Mycobacterium tuberculosis Aerobic Slow-Growing(24-36 hr. Doubling time) Complex cell wall Acid fast Resistant to drying.

infect other children or adults. Most initially infectious patients become noninfectious within 2 weeks of starting effective treatment, and many become noninfectious within several days. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Tuberculosis infection (latent tuberculosis) Tuberculosis disease(tuberculosis) Primary pulmonary tuberculosis in older infants and children is usually an asymptomatic infection positive TST with minimal abnormalities on the chest radiograph, such as an infiltrate with hilar lymphadenopathy or Ghon/

Tuberculosis Induced Pericarditis 1.General Information A. Chief Complaint (CC) SOB, PND, DOE > ½ mile, 2 Pillow Orthopnea 2.History of Present Illness.

the apical and posterior segments of the upper lobes, III.Extra pulmonary Tuberculosis Pericardial Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis Pericarditis) Pleural Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis Of The Upper Airways, Lymph-Node Tuberculosis (Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis) Genitourinary Tuberculosis Skeletal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Miliary Or Disseminated Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Meningitis And Tuberculoma HIV-Associated Tuberculosis Diagnosis (TB) 1.Early in the course Nonspecific consisting mainly of weakness/

Blood-borne Pathogens, Tuberculosis Update, and Infection Control Timothy R. Cassity, Ph. D. Microbiologist October 9, 2007.

Most bacteria are killed by macrophages Latent disease – bacteria may remain viable for years Immunosuppressed host ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS Immunosuppression Tuberculosis Can be (and usually is) carried for a long time before onset of active disease. Can be/, such as pulmonary infections, skin and sinus tract infections, renal infections, osteomyelitis, non- specific lymphatic disease. Tuberculosis – Relationship to HIV Because HIV infection weakens the immune system, people infected with HIV and TB have a 100/

Istituto Nazionale per le malattie Infettive L. Spallanzani Roma, Italy Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection: the role of IGRAs Delia Goletti, MD,

in Immunol, 2009 Barry et al, Nature Reviews Microbiol, 2009 Latent infection with M. tuberculosis Direct identification of M. tuberculosis in individuals who are latently infected is not possible. LTBI is a status characterized by the/M marinum++ M oenavense-- M scrofulaceum-- M smegmatis-- M szulgai++ M terrae-- M vaccae-- M xenopi-- Tuberculosis complex Antigens ESATCFP M tuberculosis++ M africanum++ M bovis++ BCG substrain gothenburg-- moreau-- tice-- tokyo-- danish-- glaxo-- montreal-- pasteur-- Agenda/

R ESPIRATORY BLOCK TUBERCULOSIS Dr. Maha Arafah Associate Professor in Pathology Office phone number: - 01-4671067 Available office hours for students:

M. avium, M. intracellulare …………….Atypical mycobacterial infections M. ulcerans …………….Buruli ulcer M YCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS Virulence Capable of intracellular growth in unactivated alveolar macrophages Disease primarily from host response to infection infection/ Chronic granulommatous inflammation with caseation necrosis Infection - Immunity P ATHOGENESIS OF TB: Infection with M. tuberculosis typically leads to the development of delayed hypersensitivity, which can be detected by the tuberculin (Mantoux)/

Obligate aerobe acid-fast rods TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW, CAUSE, AND PATHOGENESIS Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus) common, and in many.

media as Middlebrook 7H10, 7H11 agar and 7H9 broth used for primary isolation antibiotic susceptibility testing M. tuberculosis is a non chromogen does not grow on media contain p-nitrobenzoic acid these characteristics help to / drug resistant (XDR) Resistant to some of the second line drugs Nearly un-treatable Transmission -tuberculosis M. tuberculosis causes disease M. tuberculosis causes disease – healthy individuals transmitted man-man transmitted man-man airborne droplets airborne droplets Aerosol from/

MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF TB AND IGRA PRESENTED BY : Dr. Kiran N. PG Student Chest & Tuberculosis Govt. Medical College, Patiala.

(bacterial load) - susceptibility testing (drug resistance) without culture - Molecular resistance testing METHODS OF DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS 1)DIRECT METHODS: Detects mycobacteria and its products 2)INDIRECT METHODS : Antigen and Antibody Detection 3)RADIO-DIAGNOSIS /active TB during follow- up Moderate to strong positive association Insufficient evidence Correlation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure YesYes(better than TST) Benefits of treating test-positives based on RCTsYesNo evidence /


joints Frequently monoarticular Clinical exam: painless tumefaction → progressive amyotrophy → joint destruction joints X-ray : epiphysis lesion + articular space growing TST to PPD + Diagnosis: culture by + of the sinovial liquid Renal tuberculosis Mechanism: reactivation of dissemination hematogenic focus Ureteral, urinare vesice by later afection Clinical: –Lumbar pain, painful urination, tumefaction, hematuria –Rarely general manifestation TST to PPD frequently + Diagnosis: urine cultures bK/

Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis MDR-TB Leah Erenrich Advisor: Dr. Rapp.

in cases was discovered. The sudden increase was attributed to, “deterioration of the tuberculosis program infrastructure, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, drug- resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis among foreign-born persons, and an increase in transmission, especially in congregate and /Schneider et al. 2005). Drug-Resistance-How it Happens When the bacilli are exposed to an anti- tuberculosis medication, most are killed. If there are some bacilli present that are resistant to that particular antibiotic, /

Microbiology, Virology, and Immunology Department Pathogenic clostridia. Nonclostridial infections of the oral cavity Causative agents of diphtheria, tuberculosis.

poorly by the ordinary methods but are stained well by the Ziehl-Neelsen method. M. tuberculosis from sputum M. tuberculosis in urine M. tuberculosis M. avium Main factors of virulence: Cord factor is a mycoside (the lipid fraction) / They have been shown to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion and, as such, seem to enhance survival of phagocytosed mycobacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cord factor) Cultivation. The organisms grow on selective media, e. g. coagulated serum, glycerin agar, glycerin potato, /

Tuberculosis By Fion Kung. Objective  Describe tuberculosis  Describe sigh and symptoms of tuberculosis  Describe the nursing diagnosis for tuberculosis.

HEPA masks  UV can damage mycobacterium  Hand washing  Droplet precautions  Adherence to tx Risk Factors for Tuberculosis  Homeless individuals  Lower socioeconomic group, minority group, or refugee group  Individuals living in crowded areas /  isoniazid (INH)  rifampin (RIF)  ethambutol (EMB)  pyrazinamide (PZA) NCLEX Question 1  A client with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) asks the nurse how this disease was contracted. The nurse replies that TB is commonly spread by which of the following methods/

Tuberculosis. - Tuberculosis is a communicable chronic disease Epidemiology - It flourishes under conditions of poverty, crowding, in old people and disease.

of a tissue hypersensitivity reaction results in the absence of the characteristic caseating granulomas (nonreactive tuberculosis) caseating granulomas (nonreactive tuberculosis) Such persons are infected but do not have active disease and therefore cannot transmit organisms/ the primary disease - Only a few patients with primary disease subsequently (5%) develop secondary tuberculosis. - Secondary tuberculosis is classically localized to the apices of upper lobes related to high oxygen tension in the apices/

Figure 1. Number of Tuberculosis Cases: California, 1930-2008 Number of Tuberculosis Cases 198019922008198419861988199619982000200220041994199020061982.

Case Completion Report (Follow-up 2). 47 39 42 35 3838 43 34 41 36 1997199819992000200120022003200420052006 Figure 13. Tuberculosis Cases with Initial Multidrug Resistance (MDR)*: California, 2004-2008 *Cases with initial drug resistance to at least isoniazid/ with rifampin resistant disease, cases with meningeal disease, and cases less than 15 years of age with disseminated tuberculosis disease. 2 Moved to another jurisdiction with a known forwarding address before treatment was completed. 3 Patient could /

National Tuberculosis Control Programme Identifying and Relieving Barriers in Accessing Tuberculosis Care with the Tool to Estimate Patients Costs Presented.

of Ghana Sch. of Public Health Frank Bonsu – National TB Control Programme Verena Mauch – KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation National Tuberculosis Control Programme Background Treatment of TB in Ghana is FREE but patients incur other costs: – /groups – PLHIV, Diabetics, Prisoners, Children Providing patient support – Enabler’s, Nutrition, Psycho-social, National Tuberculosis Control Programme Relieving Health Systems Delays Introducing newer diagnostics & tools – New case definition, GeneXpert, LED microscopes/

Depart. Of Pulmonology R4 백승숙. Miliary tuberculosis In 1700, John Jacob Manget Latin word miliarius, meaning related to millet seed Resemblance of gross.

hepatitis where widespread liver cell necrosis ; extrapulmonary focus has discharged into the portal circulation  hepatic miliary tuberculosis Drug-induced hepatitis ; standard guidelines should be followed in its management Life-threatening complications eg, myocarditis, /, infective endocarditis, pericarditis, intracardiac mass, mycotic aneurysm, sudden cardiac death The mortality related to miliary tuberculosis 15–20% in children 25–30% in adults Delay in the diagnosis or commencement of treatment ;/

By:. Nouf Al-Harthy... Tuberculosis..  Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease.

by a carrier, the effectiveness of ventilation, the duration of exposure, and the virulence of the M. tuberculosis strain  The chain of transmission can therefore be broken by isolating patients with active disease and starting /can be affected by the disease, though it rarely affects the heart, skeletal muscles, pancreas and thyroid Pathogenesis  Tuberculosis is classified as one of the granulomatous inflammatory conditionsgranulomatous . Macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and, with fibroblasts /

Respiratory Medicine Session of the RCPI Masterclass on Treating the Acutely Ill Patient Respiratory Infections including Tuberculosis Dr Terry O’Connor.

infection:Early - S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, MTB Late – Pneumocystis, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Aspergillus, Atypical mycobacteria Post viral bronchitis: S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, H. influenzae IV drug user: S. aureus, anaerobes, M. tuberculosis, S. pneumoniae Structural lung disease Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, (eg. Bronchiectasis): S. aureus Endobronchial obstruction:Anaerobes, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S.aureus Respiratory Medicine Session of the RCPI Masterclass on/


hours, Straight or slightly curved rode (3x0.3 mM) Single in clinical samples-Serpentine cords in culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Acid-fast stain NOTE: single growth of virulent strains Acid-Fast (Kinyoun) Stain of Mycobacterium NOTE: cord/off” the lesion. Typical progression in pulmonary TB involves caseation, calcification and cavity formation. Activated Macrophages Immunity in Tuberculosis Antigen-specific activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes with secretion of IL-2, increased expression of IL-2 receptors,/

CNS Tuberculosis Prof R Shukla(DM,Neurology) KGMU.

function of cell mediated immunity. Tumour necrosis factor ά may have a role. Pathology Release of M tuberculosis results in a T lymphocyte dependent necrotising granulomatous inflammatory response. Thick gelatinous exudate around the sylvian fissures, /S. FDA ** Included in second-line drugs due to toxicity, limited efficacy or difficulty in administration. Treatment CNS tuberculosis is categorised under TB treatment category I by WHO. Initial phase therapy ( 2 mths) with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide/

1 Prevention of tuberculosis. Targeted Tuberculin Skin Testing Lecturer MD, Ph.D. Furdela Victoria Assistant Professor, Pediatrics Department #2, Ternopil.

conditions: Hodgkin disease, lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, malnutrition With increased exposure to tuberculosis diseaseWith increased exposure to tuberculosis disease Born or whose parents were born in high-prevalence regions of the world Born or/ pain, jaundice Routine monitoring of LFTs is not indicatedRoutine monitoring of LFTs is not indicated 30 Tuberculosis Control in the United States Contact Investigations Contact Investigations “The most reliable TB control program is based/

Corrections Recommendations - 1 Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Correctional and Detention Facilities: Recommendations from CDC 2006 Centers.

is used When administrative and environmental controls alone have not reduced the risk for infection with M. tuberculosis to an acceptable level For specific settings and situations –Entering AII rooms –Transporting infectious inmates –/in waiting areas, or when others are present Corrections Recommendations - 82 Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease Corrections Recommendations - 83 TB Disease Symptoms Persistent cough (≥ 3 weeks) Hemoptysis (coughing up /

TUBERCULOSIS: INDEX: What is tuberculosis? What parts of the body are affected by tuberculosis? What is the difference between latent tuberculosis infection.

women with TB must be treated urgently as the disease may progress rapidly with high risk to both mother and baby. TUBERCULOSIS PREVENTION AND CONTROL EFFORTS PRIMARILY RELY ON THE VACCINATION OF INFANTS AND THE DETECTION AND APPROPRIATE TREATMENT OF ACTIVE CASES. / if you develop a cough that persists for more than three weeks. Bibliography: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/t uberculosis/fact_sheet.htm http://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/t /

1 2 Epidemiology of Tuberculosis. Module 2 – Epidemiology of Tuberculosis 2 Module 2: Overview Epidemiology of TB TB Case Rate People at High Risk for.

with low-income: –Inadequate living conditions –Crowding –Malnutrition –Poor access to health care Module 2 – Epidemiology of Tuberculosis 19 Special settings include : –Nursing homes –Correctional facilities –Health care facilities –Homeless shelters –Drug treatment centers Risk /promoting the spread of TB High-Risk Groups for TB Infection (5) Correctional Facilities Module 2 – Epidemiology of Tuberculosis 21 People who inject drugs are more likely to be exposed to TB, become infected, and develop disease /

Safeguarding Animal Health Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured from elephants Tuberculosis in Elephants: Science, Myth, and Beyond APHIS.

Spoligotyping (‘spacer oligonucleotide typing’) ID No. Octal Code Example of spoligotyping profiles generated for 7 M. tuberculosis isolates using the BioNumerics software package Safeguarding Animal Health Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU) & Variable Number /11-002174 from elephant ‘99’, owner ‘SWAP’ Evidence of infection with two different strains of M. tuberculosis in ~ 8 years ? Spoligotyping VNTR VNTR 0424VNTR 0577VNTR 1644 VNTR 1955VNTR 2165VNTR 2401VNTR 2461VNTR 2686VNTR 2995VNTR /

The complex drug therapy of tuberculosis products is dominated by chemotherapeutic agents. These include the following drugs: A. Synthetic funds I series.

preparations. Kanamycin is a producer Streptomyces kanamyceticus. Kanamycin has a wide range of actions, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To him insensitive streptococci (except enterococci), pneumococci. It has/. Most of the drug is excreted by the kidneys. Thioacetazone used inside mainly forms with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (tuberculosis serous and mucous membranes, lymph nodes, etc.). In some cases tioatsetazon prescribed in leprosy. Thioacetazone /

Cutaneous Tuberculosis Dr. (Prof.) Archana Singal University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, New Delhi Digital Lecture Series : Chapter 09.

Disease (5-10%) Pathogenesis  HIV pandemic leading to resurgence in TB & drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis,  Use of immunosuppressive therapy,  Ease of global travel and migration,  Poverty and malnutrition Factors affecting host/ Vulgaris and Lichen Scrofulosorum. Granulomas with caseous necrosis: TBVC, tubercular chancre, acute military tuberculosis, tuberculosis orificialis and Papulonecrotic tuberculide. Presence of poorly formed granulomas with intense caseous necrosis: Scrofuloderma /

Tuberculosis Definition: Infection and in some cases lung disease by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a human pathogen. 9,582 TB cases reported in 2013 (steady.

isolates are genotyped. Transmission: occurs by aerosol droplets that are inhaled. Disease: latently infected individuals harbor M. tuberculosis within granulomas without disease symptoms but can be identified by skin or blood tests; they may (15%) / a second line oral antibiotic for the therapy of MDR-Tb XDR-Tb extensively-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Definition: M. tuberculosis isolate that is resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, fluoroquinolones and at least one of three injectable second-line/

Diagnosis of Genitourinary Tuberculosis

5-25 year after primary pulmonary TB Primary GUTB - anecdotal cases in females MICROBIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND Classification M tuberculosis complex M tuberculosis – GUTB M bovis – Very rare M microtii- X M africanum - X DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEM Atypical // on the cell surface makes the cells impervious to Gram staining GUTB - DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES Characteristics of M. tuberculosis bacteria Difficult and delayed lab diagnosis Index of suspicion not high enough GUTB - DELAYED DIAGNOSIS After significant irreversible/

Prof. Shamshad Rasul Awan

q.d.s. P.O. Abdominal pain, Skin Discoloration (both dose related) photosensitivity Recommended Regimens for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in problem cases Initial Phase Continuation Phase Indication Duration, Drugs Duration Drugs Months Months Failure and relapse* - - - -/ microscopy Adequate supply of the right drugs Directly observed treatment DOTS is a systematic strategy for tuberculosis control. The five components of DOTS are political and administrative commitment, diagnosis primarily by microscopy /

Initial Treatment of Tuberculosis

standard practice is locally for the initiation and continuation phases of treatment.] [World Health Organization. Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes, Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.] 1. Streptomycin may be/, treatment, and public health responsibilities; intended to complement local and national guidelines Rationale: sound tuberculosis control requires the effective engagement of all providers in providing high quality care and in collaborating with/

ISTC TB Training Modules 2009

their standard practice is locally for the initiation and continuation phases of treatment.] [World Health Organization. Treatment of Tuberculosis: Guidelines for National Programmes, Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003. – Note slide reflects updated/, treatment, and public health responsibilities; intended to complement local and national guidelines Rationale: sound tuberculosis control requires the effective engagement of all providers in providing high quality care and in collaborating /

The Global Tuberculosis Epidemic The Impact on Florida Michael Lauzardo, MD MSc Principal Investigator, Southeastern National Tuberculosis Center Deputy.

7%) India (8%) China (5%) Haiti (2%) Rep. Korea (2%) Other Countries (39%) Characteristics of TB Among Migrants Tuberculosis and Fear – ca. 1900 Self-preservation demands radical revision of the definition of personal liberty… The contagion of disease and vice /sputum smears among overseas foreign national applicants 15 years of age or older. To prevent applicants with smear-positive tuberculosis from traveling to the United States, the 1991 system relies on chest radiograph findings and sputum smears among /

National Tuberculosis Program NTP

ETHIONAMIDE,THIACETAZONE, QUINILONES TB Infection Source of Infection: The source of infection can be either: human: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis animal: Mycobacterium Bovis Mode of Infection: Exogenous: Endogenous: Inhalation: droplet nuclei, 1-5 microns, consisting / killer cells, and the / T lymphocytes. Primary infection, cont. The initial interaction between M. tuberculosis and alveolar Macrophages involves Non-specific phagocytosis of the bacilli. This phase concludes with destruction of the alveolar/


increase the probability of post-primary infection  Treatment: Combination of antituberculous drugs for >6 months. Drug resistant tuberculosis  M. tuberculosis may develop resistance to anti-TB drugs  Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB): Resistance to INH + RIF/ in subsequent years  In Greece screening is associated with Work/Residence permit application  A National Tuberculosis Control Program awaits to be fully implemented UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS Undocumented immigrants – a difficult case  Little is/

Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection 索任 醫師 社團法人中華民國防癆協會 第一胸腔病防治所

Factors Causing Decreased Ability to Respond to Tuberculin (1) Factors related to the person being tested Infections Viral (measles, mumps, chicken pox) Bacterial (typhoid fever, brucellosis, typhus, leprosy, pertussis, overwhelming tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy) Fungal (South American blastomycosis) Live virus vaccinations (measles, mumps, chicken pox) Metabolic derangements (chronic renal failure) Nutritional factors (severe protein depletion) Diseases affecting lymphoid organs (Hodgkin’s disease/

What’s New in LTBI? Mayo Clinic Center for Tuberculosis

disease Stop the spread of TB Module 3 – Targeted Testing and the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Tuberculosis Disease 48 Tuberculosis Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, United States and Minnesota, 1998-2012 This slide depicts / illicit drug use. ** Conditions or therapies that increase risk for progression from latent TB infection to active TB disease. Tuberculosis Cases With Other Medical Conditions, by Type of Condition, Minnesota, 2008-2012 No. ( %) Medical conditions* Diabetes Other/

PROPHYLAXIS OF TUBERCULOSIS. Prophylactic principle of health protection generally and, as far as tuberculosis is concerned, in particular should be a.

a system of sanitary-hygienic and prophylactic measures, aimed at warning healthy people against infecting and catching tuberculosis. It is aimed at the improvement of sanitary conditions of the nidi of tuberculous infection, performance /absent and at negative tuberculin reaction the immunisation is considered to be ineffective. The WHO International Union of Fighting Tuberculosis classifies postvaccinal complications according to 4 categories: 1 category – local skin lesions (cold abscesses, ulcers, keloid/

1 Evolutionary genomics of mycobacterial pathogens - 2 (On the origin of tuberculosis) Stewart Cole.

, 1997 (received for review May 6, 1997) ABSTRACTOne-third of humans are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. Sequence analysis of two megabases in 26 structural genes or loci in strains recovered globally discovered a/compared with other human bacterial pathogens. The lack of neutral mutations in structural genes indicates that M. tuberculosis is evolutionarily young and has recently spread globally. Species diversity is largely caused by rapidly evolving insertion /

saqarTveloSi tuberkulozis kontrolis erovnuli gegmis proeqti

piloturi proeqti penitencialur sistemaSi tuberkulozis erovnuli programa waradgens ganacxads “mwvane Suqis komitetSi” globaluri fondis proeqtiT dafinansebuli DOTS plus mkurnalobis gansaxorcieleblad Archil Salakaia, MD. MPH Executive Director. National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases DOTS + da misi danergvis etapebi 2007 wlisTvis unda damTavrdes tuberkulozisa da filtvis daavadebaTa erovnuli centris axali Senobis mSenebloba da arsebuli Senobis rekonstruqcia globaluri fondis proeqtiT dafinansdeba 50/

MICR 454L Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases Lecture 7: M. tuberculosis Dr. Nancy McQueen & Dr. Edith Porter.

acid synthetase I (FASI) Pyrazinamide inhibits fatty acid synthesis RNA synthesis Inhibited by rifampin Resistance of M. tuberculosis Mutations in codon 306 of the embB gene (ethambutol) are discussed as marker and predictor of resistance /slow growth contribute to resistance to host defense and difficulties in antibiotic treatment. The emergence of extremely drug resistant tuberculosis strains poses a great threat to the public. Additional Resources The Microbial Challenge, by Krasner, ASM Press, Washington/

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