Ppt on total internal reflection images

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION and the CRITICAL ANGLE

reflected ray refracted ray Total Internal Reflection air glass incident ray reflected ray refracted ray Total Internal Reflection air glass incident ray reflected ray refracted ray Total Internal Reflection air glass incident ray reflected ray refracted ray Total Internal Reflection air glass incident ray reflected ray Total Internal Reflection air glass incident ray reflected ray refracted ray Total Internal Reflection air glass incident ray reflected ray What happened? Total Internal Reflection//images//


Color Image Understanding Sharon Alpert & Denis Simakov.

color space G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer and T. Kanade. A Physical Approach to Color Image Understanding. International Journal of Computer Vision, 1990. Physical model of image colors: Main variables object geometry object color and reflectance properties illuminant color and position Two reflectance components total = matte + specular += Matte reflectance Physical model: “body” reflectance object surface Separation of brightness and color: L (wavelength, geometry) = c (wavelength) * m (geometry/


Fluke Thermal Imaging.

energy to adjacent cooler molecules that are vibrating slower If an object is totally isolated all the molecules will eventually come to thermal equilibrium and vibrate at/bar to the die And the bar surface temperature reheats down stream from internal heat conducted from the center of the bar to the surface Conduction / Specular Target Image of window shows high specular reflection Two hot spots are not in the window pane, they are reflections from hanging light fixtures To identify reflections from real /


Phys 102 – Lecture 19 Refraction & lenses.

Phys 102 – Lecture 19 Refraction & lenses Today we will... Review refraction Learn applications of refraction Snell’s law Learn applications of refraction Total internal reflection Converging & diverging lenses Learn how lenses produce images Ray diagrams – principal rays Lens & magnification equations Review: Snell’s Law Light bends when traveling into material with different n If n1 > n2 then θ2 > θ1 Light bends away from /


Color Image Understanding Sharon Alpert & Denis Simakov.

color space G. J. Klinker, S. A. Shafer and T. Kanade. A Physical Approach to Color Image Understanding. International Journal of Computer Vision, 1990. Physical model of image colors: Main variables object geometry object color and reflectance properties illuminant color and position Two reflectance components total = matte + specular += Matte reflectance Physical model: “body” reflectance object surface Separation of brightness and color: L (wavelength, geometry) = c (wavelength) * m (geometry/


Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics.

at larger incident angles the light will be totally reflected. This is called total internal reflection, and the incident angle at which the angle of refraction is 90° is called the critical angle, C. Total internal reflection is used in some binoculars and in optical fibers/ perpendicular to the wave fronts, indicate the direction of propagation. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. The image formed by a plane mirror is upright, but appears reversed left to right; appears to be the same/


1© Manhattan Press (H.K.) Ltd. Reflection Refraction Refraction 12.1 Reflection and refraction Total internal reflection Total internal reflection.

 1 to finite value (critical angle),  2 =90 o  1 > c, all light are reflected 14 © Manhattan Press (H.K.) Ltd. 12.1 Reflection and refraction (SB p. 205) Total internal reflection Examples of total internal reflection (a) Reflecting prism 15 © Manhattan Press (H.K.) Ltd. 12.1 Reflection and refraction (SB p. 206) Total internal reflection Examples of total internal reflection (b) Optical fibre Go to Example 2 Example 2 16 © Manhattan Press (H.K/


StopwatchStopwatch Graph HomeGraphHome Behaviour of Waves Lesson 1: Types of Waves Lesson 2: Wave Speed Reflection Lesson 3: Refraction Total Internal.

boundaries can be processed to produce an image of the foetus speed of ultrasound inside the body time for the ultrasound to travel StopwatchStopwatch Graph HomeGraphHome Wave Speedrecap Aim: To calculate the speed of waves To Revise Reflection StopwatchStopwatch Graph HomeGraphHome Refraction10/09/2015 Aims: To demonstrate refraction To explain the cause of refraction To observe total internal reflection Starter: Why does the magic trick/


Chapter 19 – Optics Jennie L. Borders. Section 19.1 - Mirrors Optics is the study of how mirrors and lenses form images. A ray diagram shows how rays.

angles are likely to cause most of the light entering them to be totally internally reflected. Such materials include diamond and the type of glass used in fiber optics. Section 19.2 Assessment What causes light rays to bend? Why can concave lenses only form one type of image? What type of images are formed by concave lenses? By convex lenses? How is a convex/


TIRF Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy specialized fluorescence microscopy technique specifically images a very thin optical section (50-250nm)

Confocal Slow600-900nmOptical sectioning MultiphotonSlowYes Optical sections in thick specimen TIRFFast 50-250nm from coverslip Image events at or near the membrane X TIRF microscopy is…. Summary specialized fluorescence microscopy technique images a very thin optical section (50-250nm) adjacent to the coverslip uses conditions that create total internal reflection that generates an evanescent wave study molecular events at or near the cell surface speed/


ReflectionReflection and Mirrors The Law of Reflection always applies: “The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.”

the foreground and background is out of focus. A TELEPHOTO lens has a longer focal length to magnify images. A WIDE-ANGLE lens has a shorter focal length. Telescopes Refracting telescopes have two lenses, the objective /light that is refracted! All of the light is reflected back into the original medium. This is called Total Internal Reflection incidence reflected  critical n1n1 n2n2 The most useful application of the phenomenon of Total Internal Reflection is in Fiber Optics When wavefronts pass through a /


Optics Basics A Physics MOSAIC MIT Haystack Observatory RET 2010 Background image from NASA.

Snell and his (dubious) accomplishment.nice song about Snell Snell’s Law states As was true for the Law of Reflection, all angles must be measured from the normal. Image from Wikipedia, user Oleg Alexandrov, Public Domain Snell’s Law and Total Internal Reflection When a ray of light encounters a medium with a lower optical density than the one it is currently in (lower/


12.4 Essential Questions How is a hologram made? When does total internal reflection occur? How are optical fibers used? Using Light Copyright © McGraw-Hill.

than a conventional two-dimensional photograph does, but it also is more difficult to copy.  Holographic images are used on credit cards, identification cards, and on the labels of some products to help prevent/ called total internal reflection makes this possible. Using Light Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Total Internal Reflection  The complete reflection of light at the boundary between two different materials is called total internal reflection. Then, the light ray obeys the law of reflection. When/


Snell’s Law, Total Internal Reflection, Brewster’s Angle, Dispersion, Lenses Physics 102: Lecture 18.

the speed changes v=c/n, but the frequency is constant. So the light bends: n 1 sin(  1 )= n 2 sin(  2 ) 11 22 44 Total Internal Reflection normal 22 11 n2n2 n1n1 Recall Snell’s Law: n 1 sin(  1 )= n 2 sin(  2 ) (n 1 > n 2   2 >/a thin lens. rays are all “near” the principal axis. Converging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is: real, inverted and enlarged (in this case). 35 Image Converging Lens All rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point F. Double Convex 30 P.A. F n /


ReflectionReflection and Mirrors The Law of Reflection always applies: “The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.”

the foreground and background is out of focus. A TELEPHOTO lens has a longer focal length to magnify images. A WIDE-ANGLE lens has a shorter focal length. Telescopes Refracting telescopes have two lenses, the objective /light that is refracted! All of the light is reflected back into the original medium. This is called Total Internal Reflection incidence reflected  critical n1n1 n2n2 The most useful application of the phenomenon of Total Internal Reflection is in Fiber Optics When wavefronts pass through a /


Chapter 10.1 Reflection and Refraction. Light travels in straight lines through space. Objects like a mirrors can change the path of the light ray to.

than red light. When the angle of refraction is greater than 90 degrees, a light ray is reflected not refracted. This is called total internal reflection.When the angle of refraction is greater than 90 degrees, a light ray is reflected not refracted. This is called total internal reflection.total internal reflectiontotal internal reflection As the angle of incidence increases, the angle of refraction increases also until it reaches the 90 degrees/


Reflection vs. Refraction Refraction zRefraction of Light: Bend or change direction z1. As light rays enter a new medium the cause light to bend z2.

.8 Real or Virtual? zImage: a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted light zVirtual image: right side up appears to be coming from behind the mirror. zReal Image: is formed when reflected light rays actually meet at a point. The image is upside down (inverted), Fiber Optics Fiber optics uses total internal reflection Optics Lab 1.Set up your optics kit with a 1 slit/


Chapter 23 Geometrical Optics. The Reflection of Light If a stone is dropped into a pond, circular waves emanate from the point where it landed. Rays,

here that the rays do not hit the mirror very far from the principal axis. If they do, the image is blurred; this is called spherical aberration, and can be remedied by using a parabolic mirror instead. Spherical Mirrors/90°; at larger incident angles the light will be totally reflected. This is called total internal reflection, and the incident angle at which the angle of refraction is 90° is called the critical angle,  C. Total internal reflection is used in some binoculars and in optical fibers./


Presented by: Hanna Seitz

photostability of fluorophore (dye) allows for minutes of observation (O2-depletion via glucose oxidase and catalase)  TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy): used to excite and image individual fluorophores onto charge coupled device, allowing processing of sequential images ► efficient dye localization via FIONA III. methods: TIRF for imaging of individual fluorophores; background fluorescence is eliminated use of evanescent waves to excite fluorophores (~100 nm deep penetration/


Biology 177: Principles of Modern Microscopy

yet been found in nature. (Photo by Jonathan Stephens http://www.jrsfilm.com/) Where do we want to go in the future? High speed Super-resolution Single molecule imaging Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) Total internal reflectance microscopy (TIRF) qi Interface http://www.rsc.org/ConferencesAndEvents/RSCConferences/FD/molecule-fd2015/ A practical superlens, super lens or perfect lens, is a lens which uses metamaterials to/


PHY132 Introduction to Physics II Class 5 – Outline:

Reflection Refraction Total Internal Reflection Image Formation Colour and Dispersion http://physics.tutorvista.com/light/index-of-refraction.html Class 5 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics This was due this morning at 8:00am 674 students submitted the quiz on time 96% got:“Specular Reflection” is reflection by a flat, smooth object. The “law of reflection/so it minimizes the time it spends in the glass. Total Internal Reflection Total reflection of light traveling within a medium that strikes the boundary of/


Law of Reflection (Smooth Surface):

what is the apparent depth of a fish at 2 m depth? (provided n2 > n1) ÷ ø ö ç è æ = 2 1 n o i The fish is 0.5 m below its image (virtual image) and is safe! Total Internal Reflection When light travels from a high to a lower refractive index medium (as with the fish looking at us) the ray is bent away from normal. Depending on/


Chapter 26 Geometrical Optics. Units of Chapter 26 The Reflection of Light Forming Images with a Plane Mirror Spherical Mirrors Ray Tracing and the Mirror.

angles the light will be totally reflected. 26-5 The Refraction of Light This is called total internal reflection, and the incident angle at which the angle of refraction is 90° is called the critical angle,  C. Total internal reflection is used in some binoculars and/ perpendicular to the wave fronts, indicate the direction of propagation. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. The image formed by a plane mirror is upright, but appears reversed left to right; appears to be the same /


Can light bounce? Yes! We call this a reflection. Humans have been looking at reflections for thousands of years, however they’re not always clear.

with something to smooth it over. Flipped Images Why is the reflected image of this pond upside down? Law of Reflection What is the angle of incidence of the highest leaf if the tree is 10 meters tall and its reflection is 20 meters long? If the observer is/Critical Angle: A certain angle of incidence where the refracted light ray lies along the boundary of the two mediums. Critical Angle Total Internal Reflection If you’re under water in a pool and looking up at the surface you may not be able to see what’/


The Relationship Between Religious Orientation and Body Image Satisfaction and the Thin Body Ideal Among Female College Students Sue Walsh PhD., ATC Concordia.

look good. Overweight Preoccupation (Continuous) *Cronbach’s alphas.76 Reflects fat anxiety, weight vigilance, dieting and eating restraints. High scores/Internalization athletic Internalization general.175.212.123.166 -.090.230.000.093.073.173.023 [.098,.347] [-.021,.259] [-.018,.396] [-.382,.069] [.008,.357] Total/Quest orientation in young women: Age trends during emerging adult and relations to body image an disordered eating. Internal Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 16(3), 197 - 207. Forthun, L/


Optics Intro Geometric Optics Raytracing. Winter 2012 UCSD: Physics 121; 2012 2 Reflection We describe the path of light as straight-line raysWe describe.

space) on the sidewalk, slower (closer) in the grass Winter 2012 UCSD: Physics 121; 2012 11 Even gets Total Internal Reflection Right Moreover, this analogy is mathematically equivalent to the actual refraction phenomenonMoreover, this analogy is mathematically equivalent to the /2.5) 2 = 0.04 = 4% incoming ray (100%) 96% 92% transmitted 0.16% 4% 8% reflected in two reflections (front & back) image looks displaced due to jog Winter 2012 UCSD: Physics 121; 2012 13 Let’s get focused… Just as with mirrors, /


Activity 1 : Introduction to CCDs.

image below shows some fringes from an EEV42-80 thinned CCD For spectroscopic applications, fringing can render some thinned CCDs unusable, even those that have quite respectable QEs in the red. Thicker deep depletion CCDs , which have a much lower degree of internal reflection/. If the exposure is continued to a level of 100 electrons per pixel, the read noise contributes only 11% of the total noise. NOISEtotal = (READ NOISE)2 + (PHOTON NOISE)2 +(DARK CURRENT)2 Noise Calibration Definitions: N_ad - Noise in/


Reflection and Refraction Light interacts with matter Interaction begins at surface and depends on –Smoothness of surface –Nature of the material –Angle.

see clearly up close. The human eye Uses convex lens with muscularly controlled curvature to change focal distance Nearsightedness (myopia) - images form in front of retina Farsightedness (hyperopia) - images form behind retina Correction - lenses (glasses, contacts) used to move images onto retina Total Internal Reflection occurs when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle. The critical angle for an air-water interface is/


1 Optics Electromagnetic spectrum polarization Laws of reflection and refraction TIR –Images –Mirrors and lenses –Real/virtual, inverted/straight, bigger/smaller.

2 >  1, as  1 increases,  2 will reach 90 o (the largest possible angle for refraction) before  1 does. Total Internal Reflection 33- Fig. 33-24 n1n1 n2n2 Critical Angle: When  2 >  c no light is refracted (Snell’s Law does not have a solution!)/ Curvature C: in front at infinity  in front but closer 2. Field of view wide  smaller 3. Image i=p  | i|>p 4. Image height image height = object height  image height > object height 34- Fig. 34-7 Plane mirror  Convex Mirror 1. Center of Curvature C: in/


LIGHT. Reflection of light When light is reflected off of a mirror it forms an image. Mirror Incident ray Reflected ray Normal.

Apparent Depth Because light waves are refracted when they change medium, they make object appear differently. They create an image of an object that is not exactly where the object is. Astronomical Refraction Light traveling from stars is refracted when/along the surface. When the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, all of the light is reflected. This is called total internal reflection. Homework pg. 123 #1,2 THE CONVERGING LENS Converging lens A converging lens changes the direction of /


Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy of Single Rhodamine B Molecules Mustafa Yorulmaz (1), Alper Kiraz (1), A.Levent Demirel (2) (1) Department.

the specific path followed by a single Rhodamine B molecule diffusing in PMMA film. There is a 0.2 second time interval between consecutive images. Conclusions Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we determined the 3-D dipole orientation and diffusion properties of single Rhodamine B molecules embeded in a PMMA thin film. We are planning to use this method /


Light and Optics. Unit 8: Light and Optics Chapter 22: Optics 22.1 Optics and Reflection 22.2 Refraction 22.3 Mirrors, Lenses, and Images.

of total internal reflection. Dispersion and prisms The variation in refractive index with color is called dispersion. A rainbow is an example of dispersion in nature. Tiny rain droplets act as prisms separating the colors in the white light rays from the sun. Unit 8: Light and Optics Chapter 22: Optics 22.1 Optics and Reflection 22.2 Refraction 22.3 Mirrors, Lenses, and Images/


G.K.BHARAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING Prepared by: AKABARI VIRAL M. 130590107002 Sub : PHYSICS Sub code: 2110011 Total internal reflection.

a distance in a desert. Sorry! What you see is just a MIRAGE. It happens due to total internal reflections. layers of air near the ground – hot – less dense than upper air – lower refractive indices Image of the sky light refracted more and more towards the horizontal Image of the sky When light meets a layer of air near the ground at an angle greater/


Chapter 33 The Nature and Propagation of Light. Reflection and Refraction.

? Explanation How to catch a fish The image How to catch a bug Find θ air for the following cases: θ water θ air 40° 47° 48° 48.75° 50° n water = 1.33 Solution θ water θ air 40°58.7° 47°76.6° 48°81.3° 48.75°89.4° 50°[Error] Total Internal Reflection A slightly more accurate picture Total internal reflection (TIR) Total internal reflection occurs when θ incident > θ c. It is/


Light Light and Color Reflection and Mirrors Refraction and Lenses Seeing Light Using Light Table of Contents.

focus light on film to record an image. A laser is a device that produces an intense beam of coherent light. A hologram is a three-dimensional photograph created by a laser. An optical fiber is a strand of glass or plastic that can carry light long distances. Key Terms:Examples: total internal reflection The total internal reflection is the complete reflection of light by the inside surface/


PHY132 Introduction to Physics II Class 5 – Outline: Ch. 23, sections 23.1-23.5 Reflection Refraction Total Internal Reflection Image Formation Colour.

Reflection Refraction Total Internal Reflection Image Formation Colour and Dispersion  What is light?  Light is an electromagnetic wave – and is highly useful in our everyday life!  300 B.C. – Euclid of Alexandria noted that light travels in straight lines, and wrote down the Law of Reflection/ slower in glass than in air, so it minimizes the time it spends in the glass. Total Internal Reflection Total reflection of light traveling within a medium that strikes the boundary of another medium at an angle at/


L 32 Light and Optics [2] Measurements of the speed of light  The bending of light – refraction  Total internal reflection  Dispersion Rainbows Atmospheric.

ray The refracted ray is bent more in the glass Total internal reflection n 1 > n 2 n2n2 When the incident angle is too big, the refracted ray disappears and the incident ray is totally reflected back. cc For glass, n = 1.5/ reflection Light does not pass thru metals – it is reflected at the surface Two types of reflection: diffuse and specular Diffuse reflection: Fuzzy or no image specular reflection: Sharp image The law of reflection The angle of reflection = angle of incidence Incident ray, reflected /


PHY132 Introduction to Physics II Class 6 – Outline: Ch. 23, sections 23.1-23.5 Reflection Refraction Total Internal Reflection Image Formation Colour.

to Physics II Class 6 – Outline: Ch. 23, sections 23.1-23.5 Reflection Refraction Total Internal Reflection Image Formation Colour and Dispersion http://physics.tutorvista.com/light/index-of-refraction.html Review Clicker Question/path? AB C Refraction Light travels slower in glass than in air, so it minimizes the time it spends in the glass. Total Internal Reflection Total reflection of light traveling within a medium that strikes the boundary of another medium at an angle at, or greater than, the critical/


Chapter 25 Reflection and Refraction of Light 2 Fig. 25-CO, p. 839.

76 77 78 79 25.7 Total Internal Reflection A phenomenon called total internal reflection can occur when light is directed /image above, please install Shockwave Flash Player.Shockwave Flash Player. If this active figure can’t auto-play, please click right button, then click play. NEXT Active Figure 25.22 83 Critical Angle, cont For angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, the beam is entirely reflected at the boundary This ray obeys the Law of Reflection at the boundary Total internal reflection/


Light Light and Color Reflection and Mirrors Refraction and Lenses Seeing Light Using Light Table of Contents.

focus light on film to record an image. A laser is a device that produces an intense beam of coherent light. A hologram is a three-dimensional photograph created by a laser. An optical fiber is a strand of glass or plastic that can carry light long distances. Key Terms:Examples: total internal reflection The total internal reflection is the complete reflection of light by the inside surface/


International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering Vol. 10, No. 1 (2015), pp. 137-248 Decoding.

.ac.id International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering Vol. 10, No. 1 (2015) As wrinkles create ridges and valleys, decoding deformed barcode images also face problems with lighting and visibility. External lighting casts reflections on ridges and shadows on valleys. Reflections appear as /two bars and one space each. Guard pattern at the center contains two bars and three spaces. There are a total of 13 digits, split into 7 left digits and 6 right digits. The first digit of the left group /


Physics 102: Lecture 18, Slide 1 Snell’s Law, Total Internal Reflection, Brewster’s Angle, Dispersion, Lenses Physics 102: Lecture 18.

102: Lecture 18, Slide 6 Can the person standing on the edge of the pool be prevented from seeing the light by total internal reflection ? 1) Yes2) No Preflight 18.1 Physics 102: Lecture 18, Slide 7 ACT: Refraction As we pour more water into/lens. rays are all “near” the principal axis. Converging Lens Principal Rays F F Object P.A. Image is: real, inverted and enlarged (in this case). Image Physics 102: Lecture 18, Slide 19 Converging Lens All rays parallel to principal axis pass through focal point /


Findings for the OMPS Nadir Mapper 1 st Guess Total Column Ozone (INCTO) Nadir Mapper Total Column Ozone EDR (OOTCO) in Support of Promotion to Beta Maturity.

Teams Last Updated July 16, 2012 Outline Beta & Provisional Definitions OMPS Background INCTO/OOTCO Performance – Internal Evaluation Flags – Error Code, QF1, and QF2 Reflectivity Map Total Column Ozone Map, Latitude Zonal Means Aerosol Index Map Cross-Track Dependence Geolocation of Small FOV /eight orbits of OMPS Nadir Mapper measurement (end of 1/26/2012 and start of 1/27/2012). This image shows the expected range of values and variations across the orbital track and with solar zenith angles at the times /


Optics Intro Geometric Optics Raytracing. Spring 2011 UW ASTR 597 2 Reflection We describe the path of light as straight-line raysWe describe the path.

(bigger space) on the sidewalk, slower (closer) in the grass Spring 2011 UW ASTR 597 11 Even gets Total Internal Reflection Right Moreover, this analogy is mathematically equivalent to the actual refraction phenomenonMoreover, this analogy is mathematically equivalent to the actual/2.5) 2 = 0.04 = 4% incoming ray (100%) 96% 92% transmitted 0.16% 4% 8% reflected in two reflections (front & back) image looks displaced due to jog Spring 2011 UW ASTR 597 13 Let’s get focused… Just as with mirrors, curved lenses /


Ex. 26.2 A concave mirror has a 30 cm radius of curvature. If an object is placed 10 cm from the mirror, where will the image be found? f = R/2 = 15 cm,

Magnified or Reduced Up-right or Upside-down q < 0 M = -q/p = 3 Case 5: p < f Q. An upright image that is one-half as large as an object is needed to be formed on a screen in a laboratory experiment using only a concave mirror/11 11 22  1 >  2 Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection can occur when light attempts to move from a medium with a high index of refraction to one with a lower index of refraction Total internal reflection can occur when light attempts to move from a medium with a /


PHYSICS – Reflection and Refraction. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Core Describe the formation of an optical image by a plane mirror, and give its characteristics.

- sided transparent material Give the meaning of critical angle Describe internal and total internal reflection Describe the action of a thin converging lens on a beam of light Use the terms principal focus and focal length Draw ray diagrams for the formation of a real image by a single lens Describe the nature of an image using the terms enlarged/same size/diminished and upright/inverted/


Lesson Outcomes Able to state the Law of Reflection Able to describe the image characteristics form by plane mirror & spherical mirror Able to sketch.

Mind Map Optics Reflection Mirrors Refraction Snell`s Law Total Internal Reflection Interference Specular Reflection Diffuse reflection Plane Mirror Spherical mirror ConcaveConvex Critical angle 1.1 Law of reflection 1. The angle of light incidence always equal to the angle of reflection 2. The incidence, reflection and normal line, all lie on a same plane 1.2 Mirrors Plane Spherical ConcaveConvex 1.2.1 Plane Mirror Image characteristics 1.Same/


Geometrical Optics. Units The Reflection of Light Forming Images with a Plane Mirror Spherical Mirrors Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation The Refraction.

here that the rays do not hit the mirror very far from the principal axis. If they do, the image is blurred; this is called spherical aberration, and can be remedied by using a parabolic mirror instead. Spherical Mirrors/larger incident angles the light will be totally reflected. The Refraction of Light This is called total internal reflection, and the incident angle at which the angle of refraction is 90° is called the critical angle,  C. Total internal reflection is used in some binoculars and in /


Refraction Thin Lenses. Objectives Use ray diagrams to find the position of an image produced by a converging or diverging lens, and identify the image.

and its Correction Farsighted and Nearsighted Combination of Thin Lenses An image formed by a lens can be used as the object for a second lens. Compound microscopes use two converging lenses. Greater magnification can be achieved by combining two or more lenses. Refracting telescopes also use two converging lenses. Total Internal Reflection Total Internal Reflection only takes place when both of the following two conditions are/


Chapter 29: Reflection and Refraction. Reflection Occurs when a wave hits a boundary and bounces back into the first medium Metal surfaces are rigid to.

once light enters one end, it can never strike the inside walls at less than the critical angle. The light undergoes total internal reflection each time it strikes the wall. Only when it reaches the other end is it allowed to exit the fiber. Fiber / Diverging Lens Thin in the middle, thick at edges Causes parallel rays of light to diverge Diverging Lens (cont’d) Produce images that are upright, smaller and virtual (always) Used to correct nearsighted vision where the person can see well “close up.” /


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