Ppt on total internal reflection example

Properties of Light.

Properties of Light ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Light is an example of an electromagnetic wave. It requires no medium through which to /fish. light from fish laser beam Total Internal Reflection Internal Reflection All rays reflect internally, but the top three rays reflect only a small percentage internally; most energy leaves the prism. The fourth and fifth rays are reflected 100 % internally Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection is a special case of reflection created when when a light passes from/


2012 Slide Template 3/31/2017 2012 International Energy Conservation Code Update with Maryland Amendments Based on the 2012 International Energy Conservation.

Prescriptive Path Building Thermal Envelope and Electrical Simulated Performance Alternative R-value Computation UA Alternative Total UA Alternative Document Compliance with IECC Field Inspection Plan Review This Model shows the process for/6 Copyright 2011 International Code Council Section C402 Building Envelope Requirements 2012 Slide Template 3/31/2017 Section C402 Building Envelope Requirements REVISED Building envelope performance are more stringent. For example: Roof solar reflectance and thermal /


Waves: Total Internal Reflection and Communication

° The greater the refractive index the smaller the critical angle. Total Internal Reflection Optical fibres, that are used in communication, use total internal reflection. What are the applications of total internal reflection? You could be asked to draw on the path of the/ unwanted information. Which signal is most prone to noise? Which signal carries the most information? Analogue Examples of noise are? What is noise? Digital Communication systems Communication systems include the same basic components. /


This is a note.

air interface, if the light hits at greater than the critical angle, it undergoes total internal reflection and stays in the fiber. noutside ninside Telecommunications Arthroscopy Laser surgery Total Internal Reflection only works if noutside < ninside Fiber Optics At each contact w/ the glass air/ Must have same frequency Must be coherent (i.e. waves must have definite phase relation) Interference for Sound … For example, a pair of speakers, driven in phase, producing a tone of a single f and l: hmmm… I’m /


Lecture 8: Reflection and Transmission of Waves

4) (8.24.5) Oblique incidence – propagating waves A magnitude of the reflection coefficient for the parallel and perpendicular polarization: Oblique incidence – propagating waves Total internal reflection and surface waves Assume that the uniform plane wave incident on an interface between /two successive maxima (antinodes) and equals to one half of the wavelength. Fabry-Perot resonator – standing waves (Example) Example 7.3: An EM wave propagating in a vacuum in the region z < 0 is normally incident upon /


Global Nav to Beta Requirements REALLY FINAL Version 2.1 4/25/2006 Author: Tom Cona Table of ContentsPage Items Affecting All Internal Pages2 All Internal.

Recent Searches so that the list can be no longer than six links in total Truncate all items longer than 26 characters, replacing characters 23 - 26 with/([ZIP]) For example, “Stay Healthy: Aches & Pains > Weather for Athens, GA (30606)” 9 Global Nav to Beta Reqts: REALLY Final Version 2.1 21 Requirements for All Internal Pages w/ Primary/ replace label “Seasonal Spotlight” with “In Season” GLOBAL: updated many screenshots to reflect Bottom Up design GLOBAL: RE: Recent Searches Menu (see P. 15), changed label/


A D.O. Student’s Guide to Residency

Evaluation (MSPE) Your Dean’s letter is a formal institutional reflection of your academic background and achievements. It is NOT a personal/Example 3: An applicant applies to 23 internal medicine programs, and 7 radiology programs. The fees are $245 ($185 for internal medicine programs and $60 for radiology programs). Example 4: An applicant applies to 12 internal/applies for Resolution 42 is approved. As of November of 2005, a total of 937 applicants have applied under Resolution 42. 557 (men), 380/


Refraction: Snell’s Law

smooth). Example 32–11. Solution: The critical angle for an air-water interface is 49°, so the person will see the upwards view compressed into a 49° circle. Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Binoculars often use total internal reflection; this gives true 100% reflection, which even the best mirror cannot do. Figure 32-33. Total internal reflection of light by prisms in binoculars. Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Optical fibers also depend on total internal reflection; they/


Multiple Choice Tutorial Chapter 20 International Finance

20 International Finance 1. The exchange rate is the a. total yearly amount of money changed from one country’s currency to another country’s currency b. total monetary/ goods and services bring money into a country. 6. The merchandise trade balance a. reflects trade in intangibles such as insurance and tourism b. includes personal gifts to friends abroad / markets A. If a person buys a French franc with American dollars, for example, and then buys American dollars with the French francs at a time when the/


Optics The light ray model A light ray is a line in the direction that light energy flows. My laser beam for example, is really a bundle of many parallel.

= (1.00) sin 90 o sin  critical = 1/1.33  critical = 48.8 o Whenever the angle of incidence is greater than 48.8 o, total internal reflection takes place. Example: Calculate the critical angle for water to air. Example: O.K. Let’s Calculate the critical angle for air to water.  critical  refraction = 90 o n 1 sin  critical = n 2 sin  refraction (1/


State of NC Internal Use Only – Do Not Distribute 1 Project Portfolio Management (PPM) Tool Change Request Training Enterprise Project Management Office.

is a Budget change that pushes the Total Investment cost over $500K If the budget change takes the project over $500K, the “Project Range” attribute on the Project Info tab must be updated to reflect the new dollar range of the /, the Change Request will be rejected. State of NC Internal Use Only – Do Not Distribute 35 Change Request Training Examples & Scenarios State of NC Internal Use Only – Do Not Distribute 36 Change Request Training Examples & Scenarios Change Request Scenario 1: Increase to Planning &/


Part V. Optics Reflection & Refraction Images & Optical Instruments

’re actually seeing is refracted sky light. Refraction, Reflection, & Polarization Incident beam with in-plane polarization: no reflection when refr = p  Brewster (or polarizing) angle ( reflected beam longitudinal: not EM )l p  56 for air-glass Reflected light is perpendicularly polarized if incidence is at p . 30.3. Total Internal Reflection Critical angle c for total internal reflection ( refr  90 ) n1 > n2 Example 30.4. Whale Watch Planeloads of whale watchers/


The Montreal Convention, Exclusivity and the Liability of Carriers

to stay an additional night), meals, phone calls, faxes, etc. The total “compensation” due to passengers would most likely vastly exceed the amount of the/and immediate assistance or care for everybody concerned, through the provision, for example, of refreshments, meals and accommodation and of the opportunity to make phone/international air carriers. Official Languages Act On the other hand, we have Canada’s foundational commitment to the equality of the French and English languages, a commitment reflected/


LIGHT AND SOUND In this unit: 1)Properties of light 2)Reflection 3)Colours 4)Refraction 5)Properties of sound 6)Hearing.

work? 5/16 1. What is one thing you learned from your classmates regarding light? Light travels much faster than sound. For example: 1)Thunder and lightning start at the same time, but we will see the lightning first. 2) When a starting pistol is / machinists use them to look at the interiors of engines, and physicians use them to look inside a patient’s body. 29.12 Total Internal Reflection think! If light traveled at the same speed in raindrops as it does in air, would we still have rainbows? Answer: No./


1 Chapter 8 International Investment and Diversification.

international investment portfolios 5 Introduction (cont’d) u International investments carry additional sources of risk u Managers can reduce total portfolio risk via global investment 6 Why International /and capital constraints 18 Foreign Exchange Risk u Definition u Business example u Investment example u From whence cometh the risk? u Dealing with the/ is delivered, but the rate is determined now The forward rate reflects relative interest rates and associated risks 54 Hedging With Futures Contracts u/


Major Concepts of Physics PHY 102 – Lecture #11 1 2015  Syracuse University Lecture #11 Refraction, Dispersion, Total Internal Reflection February 23rd.

2 2015  Syracuse University 1.The refraction of light: Snell’s law 2. Conceptual examples 3. Dispersion/Rainbows 4. Total internal reflection/Demos/Applications 5. Announcements/Reading assignments Lecture objectives Major Concepts of Physics PHY 102 – / Chapter 23 rd Section 23.3 The refraction of light Section 23.4 Total internal reflection Conceptual examples 23.2 – The refraction of light Conceptual example 23.3 – Total internal reflection 2. Homework. 2. Homework. HW #4 assignment is due on this /


Reflection and Refraction Light interacts with matter Interaction begins at surface and depends on –Smoothness of surface –Nature of the material –Angle.

called mirages. Refraction Mirages Critical angle –Light refracted parallel to surface –No light passes through surface - “total internal reflection” –Applications - fiber optics, gemstone brilliance Index of refraction –A measure of light speed SubstanceIndex of refraction / of vision. Dispersion... …is the separation of white light into pure colors (ROY G. BIV). Dispersion Examples: Prisms Diffraction Gratings CD’s Raindrops Dispersion and colors White light –Mixture of colors in sunlight –Separated with/


Hot topics in internal restructuring transactions

Young LLP. Agenda Common internal restructuring steps Domestic restructuring Cross-border restructuring Common internal restructuring steps Leveraged distributions Leveraged distributions: example Step 1: FinCo loans /? In your CbC reporting assessment, how are the financing entities reflected in the CbC template? Monitor (developments around) local country interest/ earnings disaggregated for any country that is significant to total earnings Domestic tax expense recognized on foreign earnings Undistributed /


Total Internal Reflection

only occurs when light is traveling from a higher-index medium into a lower index medium. (Never in the opposite direction.) Total Internal Reflection – Critical Angle If n1 > n2 n1sinƟc = n2sinƟ2 sinƟc = n2sin90 n1 = n2 n1 Total Internal Reflection – Critical Angle Example: find the critical angle for light traveling from water (n1=1.33) to air (n2=1.00) sinƟc = n2 n1 =1/


ICT in Education Policy Development and Review:

phones for teaching and teachers development Policy promotion on mobile learning Example I of International Cooperation Global Broadband Commission and WSIS Forum for inter-ministerial cooperation to/D Module C Module B Module A ICT Usage ICT-Pedagogy Integration Total Ownership of an ICT Competency Standard for Teachers: China’s Experiences Step1/Activity 4 Publication of Websites and Peer Review Unit Exercise and Reflection  Unit 6 Designing Unit-based Learning Assessment Activity 1 Understanding Learning/


Chapter 30: Reflection and Refraction

when , all the light is reflected (total internal reflection). Total internal reflection Optical fibers Dispersion Dispersion The index of refraction of a material depends on wavelength as shown on the right. This is called dispersion. It is also true that, although the speed of light in vacuum does not depends on wavelength, in a material wave speed depends on wavelength. Diversion Examples Huygens’ principle Huygens’ principle Every point/


Chapter 22 Reflection and Refraction of Light 1. Dual nature of light 2. Geometric optics 3. Reflection and Refraction 4. Dispersion 5. Huygen’s Principle.

do I apply it to spherical waves? What is the difference between spherical and plane? Why do I even need to know it? Total Internal Reflection What is Total internal reflection? What is critical angle? How do I calculate it? When is total internal reflection possible? Example 1. A small underwater pool light is 1.0m below the surface. The light emerging from the water forms a circle on the/


© Boardworks Ltd 2003 KS4 Waves: Total Internal Reflection and Communication.

.4 Research the missing values below and then make a conclusion… © Boardworks Ltd 2003 Total Internal Reflection Optical fibres, that are used in communication, use total internal reflection. A beam of light enters the optical fibre…. …NOTE how it is refracted as it/analogue vinyl records sound better than digital CDs for this reason. What is noise? Noise is any unwanted information. Examples of noise are? Electrical storms and random thermal noise. Which signal is most prone to noise? Analogue Which signal /


Light: Geometric Optics. Units of Chapter 23 The Ray Model of Light Reflection; Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors.

°; this is called the critical angle: (23-5) 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics If the angle of incidence is larger than this, no transmission occurs. This is called total internal reflection. 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Binoculars often use total internal reflection; this gives true 100% reflection, which even the best mirror cannot do. 23.6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics Total internal reflection is also the principle behind fiber optics. Light will be transmitted/


© 2004 Wipfli Young © 2005 Wipfli LLP Example Title Screen # 1 Example Sub Title NASCSP Monitoring – Principles & Practices Training Presented by: Denes.

© 2005 Wipfli LLP Example Title Screen # 1 Example Sub Title NASCSP Monitoring/12 questions Section II – Internal Controls and Monitoring, 18 questions Section III – Fiscal Accountability, 18 questions Section IV – Reporting, 7 questions Section V – Summary Standards, 2 questions Total 57 Questions of Fun!!! / do agency-wide budgets?) Topic Three – Financial Analysis © 2005 Wipfli LLP A true budget reflects anticipated activity during certain times of the year, not equally throughout the year Topic Three – /


Using Reflective Writing in your Teaching A workshop for the STEM disciplines.

of professional development’. Bolton (2010) notes 9 Reflective Practitioners? An example: Chartered Scientist is a legally-recognised qualification similar to/total) ACTIVITY TWO: SCOTT’S DIARY (About thirty minutes in total) ACTIVITY TWO: SCOTT’S DIARY (About thirty minutes in total) Activity TWO: Scott’s Diary 16 Gibb’s model of reflection/ First Year Programming Students in Reflective Practice by Means of an Online Interactive Learning Object. International Blended Learning Conference, University of/


For internal use only. Not to be used with, or distributed to, the public. Primerica, Inc. ©2013 CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY One Company One Revolution.

business growth Curtis Tate, “Does Student Debt Spell Trouble for Americas Youth,” WallStreetCheatSheet.com, June 29, 2013. 7 For internal use only. Not to be used with, or distributed to, the public. Primerica, Inc. ©2013 CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY Troubling/sales or persistency experience. Example assumes sales of Custom Advantage 30-year policy, issue ages 26-45, and QBI of 70%; premium reflected is Gross Bonusable Premium. From January 1 through December 31, 2012, Primerica paid a total of $509,227,049/


1 Course Number Presentation_ID © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. IP Routing Protocol Scalability Theory and Examples Alvaro Retana

RRs A and C have the same Cluster-ID C will deny routes reflected from A due to cluster-list loop detection If session from C / © 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 135 minRouteAdvertisementInterval Topology used to perform internal testing to study the effects when flapping the 11.0.0.0/8 prefix. Presentation_ID ©/2001, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 181 Areas & LSA Flooding Example Area 0 NSSA RIPBGP Stub Totally Stubby Regular Type 3 Type 3/4Type 7 Type 5 Default Type 5 Default/


Light, Reflection, & Mirrors AP Physics B. Almost everything we see is made visible by the light it reflects. Some materials, such as air, water, or window.

: Electromagnetic Waves p 408 Define Electromagnetic waves. Define the Electromagnetic Spectrum Draw and label the electromagnetic spectrum Give examples of these waves. Define each frequency in scientific notation format and standard decimal format Light is a portion of / 8 m/s Mirage http://www.warren- wilson.edu/~physics/PhysPhotOfWeek/2007PPOW/20070921RoadMirage/IMG_ 1444MirageCrop500.jpg Mirage Total internal reflection occurs because hot air has a lower n, than cold air. http://www.warren- wilson.edu/~/


Unit 4: Posting Periods Process Contents: Process overview Defining periods – highlights Post transactions to periods Internal Reconciliation Process -

internal reconciliations herself – these are the User Reconciliations. For example, when OEC Computers pays a vendor in advance and receives the A/P Invoice later on, Maria will have to internally reconcile the Vendor Master Data and match the Payment with the A/P Invoice transactions. Reflection Question: Internal/ account (a Balance Sheet account  Capital and Reserves drawer), that now contains the total brought forward cumulated profit. Adjust the Balance Sheet accounts. Close or inactivate the period by/


Ch 2 Optics Contents 1- The Nature of Light 2 Reflection and Refraction 3 The Law of Refraction 4 Total Internal Reflection, Binocular, Optical Fiber 5.

Luminous –Producing light –The Sun versus the nonluminous Moon Incandescent –Glowing with visible light from high temperatures –Examples: flames, incandescent light bulbs September 14, 201513W3 The Interaction of Light and Matter: The interaction of light / W3 Optical Instruments Binoculars Many optical instruments, such as binoculars, periscopes, and telescopes, use glass prisms and total internal reflection to turn a beam of light through 90° or 180°. September 14, 201524W3 Assignment Write a short report/


Chapter 22 Reflection and Refraction of Light. Read and take notes on pages 421-426 and 432-436 in Conceptual Physics Text.

is usually credited to Willebrørd Snell (1591 – 1626). Section 22.3 Khan Academy on example problems of Snell’s law (must watch) More from Khan Academy on example problems of Snell’s law (This is a sample AP test Question, MUST WATCH!!!) Read /can be found. – n 1 sin θ 1 = n 2 sin θ 2 Section 22.6 Khan Academy on Total Internal Reflection Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection can occur when light attempts to move from a medium with a higher index of refraction to one with a lower index of refraction. /


1 Chapter 7 International Investment and Diversification Portfolio Construction, Management, & Protection, 5e, Robert A. Strong Copyright ©2009 by South-Western,

international equity: 15-20% –Actual allocation for international equity: 10-20% 4 Why International Diversification Makes Theoretical Sense u International investments carry additional sources of risk u Managers can reduce total/in exchange rates can result in significant dollar differences 15 Business Example A U.S. importer has agreed to purchase 40 New Zealand/ delivered, but the rate is determined now The forward rate reflects relative interest rates and associated risks 44 Hedging with Futures Contracts/


Office of Special Education February 2011 February 2011 Mississippi Department of Education Office of Instructional Enhancement and Internal Programs/Office.

costs to budgeted distributions based on the monthly activity reports are made. Costs charged to Federal awards to reflect adjustments made as a result of the activity actually performed may be recorded annually if the quarterly comparisons show/ avoid having their salary prorated. TU Edit Example February 2011 Mississippi Department of Education Office of Instructional Enhancement and Internal Programs/Office of Special Education 36 TU Edit Example Teacher has a total of 57 students, of these 35 are 3/


Light, Reflection, & Mirrors AP Physics B. Almost everything we see is made visible by the light it reflects. Some materials, such as air, water, or window.

: Electromagnetic Waves p 408 Define Electromagnetic waves. Define the Electromagnetic Spectrum Draw and label the electromagnetic spectrum Give examples of these waves. Define each frequency in scientific notation format and standard decimal format Light is a portion of/2 lines/m Mirage http://www.warren- wilson.edu/~physics/PhysPhotOfWeek/2007PPOW/20070921RoadMirage/IMG_ 1444MirageCrop500.jpg Mirage Total internal reflection occurs because hot air has a lower n, than cold air. http://www.warren- wilson.edu/


Slide 11.1 Alan Melville, International Financial Reporting, 3rd Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Chapter 11 - FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS (IAS32, IAS39,

000 of the face value of the convertible bonds. Issuance costs total $100,000. The current market rate for non-convertible bonds is 8% interest. Convertible Debt Example ► Show the journal entries to record the issuance of the/ $1,200,000 Convertible Debt Example Slide 11.18 Alan Melville, International Financial Reporting, 3rd Edition, © Pearson Education Limited 2011 Example 2 solution (continued): IFRS: In substance, the amount of interest expense should reflect the effective interest assuming the bonds/


Refraction Refraction and Snell’s Law Critical angle Total internal reflection Fiber optics Mirages & Rainbows Prisms.

protect it from damage. Mirage Pictures Mirages Mirages are caused by the refracting properties of a non-uniform atmosphere. Several examples of mirages include seeing “puddles” ahead on a hot highway or in a desert and the lingering daylight after /dispersion, each color is refracted at a slightly different angle. At the back surface of the droplet, the light undergoes total internal reflection. On the way out of the droplet, the light is once more refracted and dispersed. Although each droplet produces a /


Waves. Menu Recap of KS3 Light Reflection Diffuse & Regular Reflection Refraction Total Internal Reflection Waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum.

GREATER than critical results in TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION Angle of incidence GREATER than critical angle Angle of incidence LESS than the critical angle Total internal reflection can turn a prism into a mirror! The special property of TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION is used in OPTICAL FIBRES Uses/ heat. Used for night- vision equipment and in remote controls for TVs. Some Examples of Infra Red Radiation Can you think of examples where Infra Red photography is useful to us? Look at the photographs for clues Fire/


Reflection and Refraction Chapter 22. Wave Fronts and Rays Wave fronts are adjacent portions of a wave that are in phase. Rays are used to show the direction.

at the surface of the water at an angle less than the critical angle, what would she see? Fiber Optics Fiber optic cables are cables designed to transmit light using total internal reflection. See examples on page 719 Dispersion Monochromatic light refers to light of only one frequency. White light contains all colors (frequencies) of the rainbow. Dispersion is the spreading of light due/


International Trade Appleyard / Field / Cobb Sixth Edition.

utilization of resources, and economically efficient production. 1. Production Possibilities-An Example  The figures on labor hours and production for country A and B/) identified four accepted stylized facts about international trade relations of the least developed countries that do not necessarily reflects current realities: 1. Trade/GDP rations/ countries as a group, unprocessed primary commodities constituted 62% of total merchandise exports and processed primary commodities made up a further 8%/


Chapter 25 Reflection and Refraction of Light 2 Fig. 25-CO, p. 839.

where wavelets are propagated The new wavefront is tangent at each point to the wavelet Fig 25.18 67 Huygen’s Principle, Example Waves are generated in a ripple tank Plane waves produced to the left of the slits emerge to the right of the / can be simplified to This is Snell’s Law of Refraction 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 25.7 Total Internal Reflection A phenomenon called total internal reflection can occur when light is directed from a medium having a given index of refraction toward one having a lower index/


Week 2 Lesson 2 Critical Angle & Total Internal reflection.

colours of white light into a spectrum. This is called _________. mostspeeddirectiondeviationcoloursPerspextowards WORD SELECTION: dispersion most speed direction deviation colours Perspex towards dispersion Total internal reflection Total internal reflection occurs when: 1.Light wave passes from optically more dense to less dense substance (for example glass to air). 2. The angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, c for the glass/air interface. GLASS AIR/


Findings for the OMPS Nadir Mapper 1 st Guess Total Column Ozone (INCTO) Nadir Mapper Total Column Ozone EDR (OOTCO) in Support of Promotion to Beta Maturity.

16, 2012 Outline Beta & Provisional Definitions OMPS Background INCTO/OOTCO Performance – Internal Evaluation Flags – Error Code, QF1, and QF2 Reflectivity Map Total Column Ozone Map, Latitude Zonal Means Aerosol Index Map Cross-Track Dependence Geolocation /example, there is a feature in the western Atlantic running parallel to The US coastline. The OMI UV Cloud Fraction for the same day is given to the right. Clouds are found in consistent locations between the two maps. Sample INCTO Effective Reflectivity/


International Banking International Monetary System Session 5 --Hilla Shahpur Maneckji.

monetary policies and economic variables of the country of the reference currency are reflected in the domestic economy. If the fundamentals of the domestic economy show / overvalued, and the domestic goods uncompetitive in the international markets. International Banking Example of a Currency Board System A good example of a currency board is that of Hong Kong/into gold, the US started following a system of fractional reserves. The total number of dollars issued by the Federal Reserve was far in excess of /


Chapter 14 Refraction of light Chapter Opening 14.1 Bending of light 14.2 Phenomena involving the refraction of light 14.3 Total internal reflection 14.4.

depth Related Practical Real and apparent depth Dispersion Check Point Key Ideas 14.3 Total internal reflection Lessons Practical 14.4 – Total internal reflection Related Practical What is total internal reflection? Finding the critical angle Key Ideas E 14.4 Examples of total internal reflection Lessons Practical 14.5 – Total internal reflection in prisms Related Practical Fish-eye view Total internal reflection in prisms Optical fibre Mirage Total internal reflection in diamonds Check Point Key Ideas E


Chapter 10.1 Reflection and Refraction. Light travels in straight lines through space. Objects like a mirrors can change the path of the light ray to.

example, Blue light when passing from air to a glass is bent more than red light. When the angle of refraction is greater than 90 degrees, a light ray is reflected not refracted. This is called total internal reflection.When the angle of refraction is greater than 90 degrees, a light ray is reflected not refracted. This is called total internal reflection.total internal reflectiontotal internal reflection/ angle where it reflects. This is called the critical angle. Total Internal Reflection Demo A lens is/


Chapter 25 Reflection and Refraction of Light. The Nature of Light Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, light was considered to be a stream.

points where wavelets are propagated The new wavefront is tangent at each point to the wavelet Huygen’s Principle, Example Waves are generated in a ripple tank Plane waves produced to the left of the slits emerge to the right/simplified to This is Snell’s Law of Refraction Huygen’s Principle and the Law of Refraction, final Total Internal Reflection A phenomenon called total internal reflection can occur when light is directed from a medium having a given index of refraction toward one having a/


Reflection from Curved Surfaces and Fibre Optics Preliminary Physics.

axis upon reflection. Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection (TIR) is the phenomenon which involves the reflection of all the/total internal reflection. Because the cladding does not absorb any light from the core, the light wave can travel great distances. Problems? However, some of the light signal degrades within the fibre, mostly due to impurities in the glass. The extent that the signal degrades depends on the purity of the glass and the wavelength of the transmitted light (for example/


Refraction Total Internal Reflection Dispersion. Activity: Watching a filling bucket 1.Place a bucket on the floor and put an object in the centre of.

medium is denser (ρ represents density)? Which has the higher index of refraction? incident ray reflected ray refracted ray i i r r R R normal Example 1 Example 2 v 1 > v 2 ρ 1 < ρ 2 n 1 < n 2 v 1 < v 2 ρ 1 > ρ 2 n 1 > n 2 Total Internal Reflection (p. 442) If a wave travels from a slow to a fast medium, the/


UNECE Workshop on statistics in international migration Tbilisi 2016 1 Olga Chudinovskikh MSU / HSE Administrative sources of statistics on migration.

one place of residence (main) and compulsory registration 5 Advantages : supposed to cover migration (internal and international) of the total resident population (foreign and national), Weaknesses: Only declared cases are registered Emigration is often not / residence, then, applies and receives a work permit, residence permit etc., thus is reflected in different types of statistics An example: labour migration statistics in the Russian Federation. Statistics on issued permissions: Russia implements work/


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