Ppt on tcp/ip protocol suite solutions

IIT101 – Introduction to Voice Over IP Technology © Internation Institute of Telecommunications inc., 2000-2004 www.iitelecom.com.

the services, the technologies and the standards evolve quickly –Proprietary solutions versus standards Maintain the quality of the voice signal –Toll Quality / The protocol suite Laboratory activity IP Telephony experimentation Discovering the protocol suite © IITelecom, 2004 21 IIT 101 Laboratory activity 2.1 IP telephony experimentation; Using a protocol analyzer; Discovering the protocol suite. ©/© IITelecom, 2004 84 IIT 101 H.323 Specific Protocols TCP UDP IP IP Connection (IEEE 802.3) RTP/RTCP G.711G./


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Chapter 3 Objectives Upon completion you will be able to: Underlying Technology Understand the different versions of wired Ethernet.

sender finishes transmission before detecting collision presence. Usual causes: cable too long too many repeaters between stations Solution: higher layer protocol must detect packet loss and retransmit. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14 Figure 3.3 Ethernet layers TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15 Figure 3.4 Ethernet frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16 Figure 3.5 Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17 10Base5 tap : cable does not need to be cut tap : cable does not need to be/


Orion Telecom Networks Inc. 2005 Remote Alarm Reporting and Site Monitoring Equipment Slide 1 Updated : January 1st, 2005 16810, Avenue of Fountains, Suite.

Alarm - User Configurable Used to monitor, control and manage remote sites from a central monitoring location over a) Dedicated Serial data (RS232) links b) Over the Internet (TCP/IP protocol). Solution # 1: Slide 10 Remote Alarm Suite Orion Telecom Networks Inc. 2005 Central Site Equipment Report and recognize upto 32 Alarm Inputs at each Remote Site Store and (continuously) log ALL Alarms that, may appear/


Chapter 15 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

. The first byte is numbered 10,001. What are the sequence numbers for each segment if data are sent in five segments, each carrying 1,000 bytes? Solution The following shows the sequence number for each segment: TCP/IP Protocol Suite Note The value in the sequence number field of a segment defines the number assigned to the first data byte contained in that segment/


Chapter 14 User Datagram Program (UDP)

e. Is the packet directed from a client to a server or vice versa? f. What is the client process? TCP/IP Protocol Suite Example 14.1 Continued Solution a. The source port number is the first four hexadecimal digits (CB84)16 or 52100. b. The destination port number /is all 1s. c. The sender decides to include the checksum, but the value of the sum is all 0s. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Example 14.3 Continued Solution a. The value sent for the checksum field is all 0s to show that the checksum is not calculated. b./


Protocols and Protocol Suit Review

TCP/IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application. Lower level vendor implementations TCP/IP Protocol stack OSI layers TCP/IP/ handoff is slow start The solution involves artificially forcing the sender to/


CIS 1140 Network Fundamentals Chapter Four: Introduction to TCP/IP Protocols Collected and Compiled By JD Willard MCSE, MCSA, Network+, Microsoft IT Academy.

Bit 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 = 128+32+16+2+1=179 A Binary Lesson Demo Solutions for Binary Demo Binary Addressing Demo Binary Math (7:59) Binary to Decimal Conversions Bit Number:87654321 Binary / and other configuration parameters to network hosts. Other Protocols Built on TCP/IP Demo Management Protocols (10:51) Application Protocols (9:36) Understanding HTTP Demo Telnet Terminal emulation protocol –Log on to remote hosts Using TCP/IP protocol suiteTCP connection established Keystrokes on user’s machine act like/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Chapter 8 Upon completion you will be able to: ARP and RARP Understand the need for ARP Understand the cases in which ARP is used.

Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11 Solution Figure 7/TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34 7.3 RARP RARP finds the logical address for a machine that only knows its physical address. The topics discussed in this section include: Packet Format Encapsulation RARP Server Alternative Solutions to RARP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35 The RARP request packets are broadcast; the RARP reply packets are unicast. Note: TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36 Figure 7.10 RARP operation TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37 Figure 7.11 RARP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite/


1 Overview, TCP/IP Stack, ARP, LAN Switching, IP, Subnetting, UDP, TCP, NAT Reviewing the Course.

protocol layers: Each protocol is implemented independently Each protocol is responsible for a specific subtask Protocols are grouped in a hierarchy A structured set of protocols is called a communications architecture or protocol suite or stack 9 TCP/IP Protocol Suite The TCP/IP protocol suite is the protocol architecture of the Internet The TCP/IP suite/ of switches –Either accidentally, or by design for higher reliability 47 Solution: Spanning Trees Ensure the topology has no loops –Avoid using some of/


Computer Network Systems

copy of the data being requested. This is called a HTTP server. P1.8 – Application Layer Protocols FTP - File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an application protocol suitable for file transfers in a computer network based on TCP/IP. FTP is used for file transfers in computer networks using TCP/IP protocol. A user works with a user interface that is represented either by the command line of the/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 8 Address Resolution Protocol.

, an output module, an input module, and a cache-control module. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30 Topics Discussed in the Section Cache Table Queues Output Module Input Module Cache-Control Module TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31 Figure 8.13 ARP components TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37 The ARP output module receives an IP datagram (from the IP layer) with the destination address 114.5.7.89. It checks the/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 10 Mobile IP.

triangular routing, and a possible solution. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 Chapter Outline 10.1 Addressing 10.2 Agents 10.3 Three Phases 10.4 Inefficiency in Mobile IP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4 10-1 ADDRESSING The main problem that must be solved in providing mobile communication using the IP protocol is addressing. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5 Topics Discussed in the Section Stationary Host Mobile Host TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6 The IP addresses are designed to work with/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 8 Address Resolution Protocol.

, an output module, an input module, and a cache-control module. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35 Topics Discussed in the Section Cache Table Queues Output Module Input Module Cache-Control Module TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36 Figure 8.13 ARP components TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42 The ARP output module receives an IP datagram (from the IP layer) with the destination address 114.5.7.89. It checks the/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Chapter 7 Upon completion you will be able to: ARP and RARP Understand the need for ARP Understand the cases in which ARP is used.

Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11 Solution Figure 7/TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24 7.3 RARP RARP finds the logical address for a machine that only knows its physical address. The topics discussed in this section include: Packet Format Encapsulation RARP Server Alternative Solutions to RARP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25 The RARP request packets are broadcast; the RARP reply packets are unicast. Note: TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26 Figure 7.10 RARP operation TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27 Figure 7.11 RARP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 8 Address Resolution Protocol.

Module Cache-Control Module TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40 Figure 8.13 ARP components TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41 Topics Discussed in the Section Cache Table TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42 Topics Discussed in the Section Queues TCP/IP Protocol Suite 43 Topics Discussed in the Section Output Module TCP/IP Protocol Suite 44 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 45 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 46 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 47 Topics Discussed in the Section Input Module TCP/IP Protocol Suite 48 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 49 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 50 Table 8/


ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming Transmission Control Protocol: TCP.

very slowly. The overhead due to header (TCP+IP=40 bytes) will be very high. Syndrome created by sender  Nagle’s algorithm Syndrome created by receiver  Clark’s solution or delayed acknowledgment Spring 2003 Tuna Tugcu ECE/delay more than 500 ms.) 27 * From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall Error Control: Corrupted Segment 28 * From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall Error Control: Lost Segment 29 * From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall Error Control/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. IPv4 Addresses.

Example 5.15 TCP/IP Protocol Suite48 Figure 5.18 Solution to Example 5.15 TCP/IP Protocol Suite49 Figure 5.19 Sample Internet TCP/IP Protocol Suite50 Địa chỉ mạng dùng định danh một mạng Note TCP/IP Protocol Suite51 Figure 5.20 Network addresses TCP/IP Protocol Suite52 Figure 5.21 Network mask TCP/IP Protocol Suite53 Figure 5.22 Finding a network address using the default mask TCP/IP Protocol Suite54 A router/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Chapter 7 Upon completion you will be able to: ARP and RARP Understand the need for ARP Understand the cases in which ARP is used.

to the first host). The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network. Show the ARP request and reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames. Example 1 See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10 Solution Figure 7.7 shows the ARP request and reply packets. Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and that the individual addresses do not fit/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Chapter 15 Upon completion you will be able to: Multicasting and Multicast Routing Protocols Differentiate between a unicast, multicast,

independent from the underlying unicast protocol. Note: TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37 PIM-SM is used in a sparse multicast environment such as a WAN. Note: TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38 PIM-SM is similar to CBT but uses a simpler procedure. Note: TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39 15.8 MBONE A multicast router may not find another multicast router in the neighborhood to forward the multicast packet. A solution for this problem is/


Local Area Networks Content Chapter 1: Introduction & Basic Principles

expensive, especially for smaller organizations & sites A public network or the Internet Provides an inexpensive & quick solution for connectivity Can also provide an access path for mobile workers Performance is an issue with real-time traffic/ of rules governing it is known as a protocol Syntax Semantics Timing 635.412 Spring 2005 Class 1: Introduction to LANs & WANs Protocols & the TCP/IP Suite The TCP/IP Protocol Architecture The TCP/IP protocol suite is a large collection of public standards approved /


Fundamentals of EtherNet/IP Networking Technology

Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport Vendor Specific Layer 3 Network Vendor Specific Layer 2 Data Link IEEE 802.3/802.1 Industrial Ethernet solutions that don’t use standard TCP/IP protocol suite may experience challenges with: Multiple application layer protocol support – limits future proof capability Portability across multiple LAN times Routability, for seamless plant-wide information sharing Layer 1 Physical TIA - 1005 Limits Portability/


Chapter Three Network Protocols By JD McGuire ARP Address Resolution Protocol Address Resolution Protocol The core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that.

and internetwork services, similar to IP in the TCP/IP suite. IPX/SPX Internetwork Packet Exchange Sequenced Packet Exchange A protocol originally developed by Xerox, then modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980’s for the NetWare network operating system. InterNIC The authority for Internet IP addressing and domain name registration. Also known as Network Solutions. IP Address A logical address used in TCP/IP networking. This unique 32/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Multicasting and Multicast Routing Protocols Differentiate between a unicast and a multicast message Understand multicast link.

C D E F G 5 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13 2. Routing table of A Solutions-cont. I NodeCostNext Router A0- B4- C5- D7B E9B F11B G12B H14B TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14 2. Shortest path tree of E Solutions-cont. II 9 5 6 2 2 5 4 A H B C D E F G TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15 2. Routing table of A Solutions-cont. III NodeCostNext Router A9D B5D/


MSc WLAN, IP/TCP and COMM NETWORK Topics

Protocols Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPAnet), 1969. The protocols in the TCP/IP suite either use transport control protocols (TCP) or user datagram protocol (UDP) as the transport protocol. Low level functions such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the Internet Terminal Protocol (TELNET) and Electronic Mail (E-Mail), remote logon. IP/ a well-implemented security policy can provide a highly secure business solution. Introduction Elements of Networking Security: Orange Book Security Levels & /


TCP/IP1 The Underlying Technologies. What is inside the Internet? Or What are the key underlying technologies that make it work so successfully? –Packet.

. TCP/IP: Basics6 Protocol Suites A set of related protocols that are designed for compatibility is called a protocol suite Protocol suite designers: –Analyze communication problem –Divide problems into subproblems –Design a protocol for each subproblem A well-designed protocol suite –Is efficient and effective - solves the problem without redundancy and makes best use of network capacity –Allows replacement of individual protocols…modular TCP/IP: Basics7 Layered Protocol Design Layering model is a solution/


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Upon completion you will be able to: Mobile IP Understand the addressing scheme for mobile hosts. To define home, care-of, and.

rest of the Internet. Note: TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22 24.4 INEFFICIENCY IN MOBILE IP Communication involving mobile IP can be inefficient. A severe case is called double crossing or 2X. A moderate case is called triangle routing or dog-leg routing. The topics discussed in this section include: Double Crossing Triangle Routing Solution TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23 Figure 24.9 Double crossing TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24 Figure 24.10 Triangle routing


Zebra/Quagga Routing Suite Zebra/Quagga Routing Suite Anura Abayaratne MTT Network - Sri Lanka APRICOT 2006 22 nd Feb – 3 rd Mar 2006 Perth.

Better performance – Better performance – Fully supported – Fully supported  Routing daemons – Low-cost solution – Low-cost solution – Expertise required for set-up – Expertise required for set-up – Lack of support /Zebra is a routing software package that provides TCP/IP based routing services with routing protocols support such as RIPv1, RIPv2, RIPng, OSPFv2, OSPFv3/ Zebra/Quagga Routing Suite Zebra/Quagga Routing Suite Thank you Zebra/Quagga Routing Suite Zebra/Quagga Routing Suite Anura Abayaratne MTT/


1 Internet Control Message Protocol By Venkata Naga Chaturvedula Thomson Erelli Kiran Nukalapati.

TCP/IP protocol suite ICMP is a network layer protocol, often it is placed next to the IP protocol. ICMP HeaderICMP Data Area IP HeaderIP Data Area Frame HeaderFrame Area 8 ICMP in the TCP/IP protocol suite   ICMP lies just above IP, as ICMP messages are carried inside IP Packets.   ICMP messages are carried as IP payload, just as TCP/UDP segments are carried as IP/ degraded performance or unexpected rebooting of the affected device Solution Cisco Systems Inc. has released software patches and workaround/


Security Problems in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite Presented by: Sandra Daniels, José Nieves, Debbie Rasnick, Gary Tusing.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite Widely used Widely used Developed under DOD Developed under DOD Serious security flaws Serious security flaws Topics to be Discussed Problems and defenses Problems and defenses Handshake sequence numbers Handshake sequence numbers Routing Routing Authentication Authentication Service protocols Service protocols Comprehensive defenses Comprehensive defenses Conclusion Conclusion TCP Sequence Number TCP/ information Solution: Protect this service (through authentication) Solution: Protect/


Lector: Aliyev H.U. Lecture №2 Networking Concepts and Communication Protocols TASHKENT UNIVERSITY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES THE DEPARTMENT OF DATA COMMUNICATION.

to interface with the backbone network. This solution provides increased performance and shares resources between customers, so that bandwidth is available on demand. Protocols used for switching networks include X.25 (/TCP/IP protocol suite In the section, we shall look into the functionality and purpose of the protocols of the TCP/IP suite in the following order: Basic Protocols Internet Protocols E-mail Protocols Other Protocols TCP/IP suite Basic Protocols As we can see, the TCP/IP protocol suite/


Internet 개요 Internetworking : an overview of concepts, terminology, and technology underlying the TCP/IP Internet protocol suite and the architecture of.

on protocol port number Port 1Port 2Port 3 UDP: Demultiplexing IP Module UDP datagram arrives Transmission Control Protocol Major transport service in the TCP/IP suite Reliable transfer Stream paradigm Full duplex connections Flow control Uses IP for datagram transmission TCP Details / all possible destinations explicitly Having all routers (or hosts) know routes for all destinations does not scale Solution #1 Make a small set of “core” routers have complete information Allow other routers to know only/


Introduction to TCP/IP Farooq Ashraf Department of Computer Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

data communications protocols l TCP and IP are two of these protocols l IP: Internet Protocol. l TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. l There are many other protocols in this suite. Some Protocols in the TCP/IP Suite TCPUDPICMPARP(IGP, IGRP) Transmission Interface (e.g., Sockets, TLI, XTI) IP (ICMP, ARP) Network Interface RPCsApplications (e.g., telnet, ftp, nfs, smtp) Transmission Systems (e.g., 802.x, X.25, SIO) l Popularity of TCP/IP »provides an elegant solution to/


Network Protocols IP addressing – Classes IP packet format ARP and RARP ICMP.

6 Common Protocol Suites Because most protocols contain a combination of components, these components are usually bundled as a protocol suiteTCP/IP Dominates the networking arena to the point of making most of the other suites nearly obsolete –IPX/SPX –NetBIOS/NetBEUI –AppleTalk 7 TCP/IP Network Layer Protocols Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is a Network layer protocol that provides source and destination addressing and routing for the TCP/IP suite –Connectionless protocol; fast but/


1 IPv4 Addresses Data Communication. TCP/IP Protocol Suite2 INTRODUCTION  The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite2 INTRODUCTION  The identifier used in the IP layer of the TCP/IP protocol suite to identify each device connected to the Internet is called the Internet address or IP address.  An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address that uniquely and universally defines the connection of a host or a router to the Internet;  an IP/ TCP/IP Protocol Suite26 TCP/IP Protocol Suite27 Find the number of addresses in the block if one of the addresses is 140.120.84.24/20. Example 7 - Number of addresses Solution/


Ch. 8 TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages (ICMP)

@cabrillo.edu Clock synchronization and transit time estimation Replaced by ICMP Timestamp Request Type = 13 or 14 The TCP/IP protocol suite allows systems to connect to one another over vast distances through multiple networks. Each of these individual networks provides/Path MTU Discovery (PMTU-D) Now you know that Path MTUs vary. You know that fragmentation is bad. The solution? Well, one solution is Path MTU Discovery. The idea behind it is to send packets that are as large as possible while still /


Dissertation (Phase II)

TCP/IP Protocol and its Structure [9]. Modbus Suite Developed in 1979 by Modicon. Free and Open Source and widely used. Modbus protocol suite popularly used in Oil and Gas [8] sectors. This suite is further broken into two main versions. Modbus Serial Modbus TCP Each protocol/the “nearly” existing system. The term “nearly” is used because no such solution till date has been proposed which deeply checks for Modbus TCP/IP protocol with whitelist signatures. We have used a very popular NIDS for our comparison, /


IP Security.

for the communication. TCP/IP Example What is IPSec? IP Security is a set of protocols and standards to support the securing of data at the IP layer. IPSec is a/In this course, you will examine other options for tackling IPSec issues with NAT . Solution: NAT Traversal (NAT-T) NAT Traversal (NAT-T) Ability to support NAT To/ example, IPsec protect policy is represented as: protect selector via peer using ipsec-suite establish ike-suite which specifies what traffic to protect, to whom, how to protect it, and/


CSCI 547 Network Layer4-1 Chapter 4 Network Layer Read the paper (IP Addressing) US/501302.pdf#search=%22understanding%20ip%20a.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite Defined in TCP/IP Protocol Suite Undefined CSCI 547 Network Layer4-38 IP CSCI 547 Network Layer4-39 The IP (Internet Protocol) RFC 791 RFC 791 routing table Network layer functions of hosts & routers : Routing protocols path selection RIP, OSPF, BGP IP protocol addressing conventions datagram format packet handling conventions ICMP protocol error reporting router “signaling” Transport layer: TCP/ Layer4-81 Solutions for IPv4 address depletion r Short term (interim) solutions:  CIDR/


TCP/IP Habib Youssef Department of Computer Engineering King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

communications protocols l TCP and IP are two of these protocols l IP: Internet Protocol. l TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. There are many other protocols in this suite Some Protocols in the TCP/IP Suite TCPUDP ICMPARP(IGP, IGRP) Transmission Interface (e.g., Sockets, TLI, XTI) IP (ICMP, ARP) Network Interface RPCs Applications (e.g., telnet, ftp, nfs, smtp) Transmission Systems (e.g., 802.x, X.25, SIO) l Popularity of TCP/IP »provides an elegant solution to/


23.1 Chapter 23 Process-to-Process Delivery: UDP, TCP, and SCTP Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

23.79 TCP/IP Network Layer Protocols Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is a Network layer protocol that provides source and destination addressing and routing for the TCP/IP suite Connectionless protocol; fast but unreliable Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a Network layer protocol used to/host B, has a buffer size of 5000 bytes and 1000 bytes of received and unprocessed data? Example 23.4 Solution The value of rwnd = 5000 − 1000 = 4000. Host B can receive only 4000 bytes of data before /


TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotted-decimal notation. a. 10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111 b. 11000001.

.56.045.78b. 221.34.7.8.20 c. 75.45.301.14d. 11100010.23.14.67 Example 3 Solution TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4 Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to hexadecimal notation. a. 10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111 b. 11000001 10000011 00011011 11111111 Example 4 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5 How can we prove that we have 2,147,483,648 addresses in class A? Example 5/


Ch. 8 TCP/IP Suite Error and Control Messages (ICMP) CCNA 1 version 3.0 Rick Graziani Cabrillo College.

5 Code = 0 to 3 ICMP Redirect Rick Graziani graziani@cabrillo.edu25 Clock synchronization and transit time estimation The TCP/IP protocol suite allows systems to connect to one another over vast distances through multiple networks. Each of these individual networks provides / Path MTU Discovery (PMTU-D) Now you know that Path MTUs vary. You know that fragmentation is bad. The solution? –Well, one solution is Path MTU Discovery. –The idea behind it is to send packets that are as large as possible while still /


CCNA Discovery 2– Chapter 7

TCP / IP Protocols Clients and servers use specific protocols and standards when exchanging information The TCP/IP protocols can be represented using a four-layer model Many of the services provided to ISP customers depend on protocols that reside at the Application and Transport layers of the TCP/IP model. TCP/IP Protocol Suite Networking Models The TCP/IP/ DNS solutions ISP DNS servers Local DNS servers ISP DNS servers Typically caching-only DNS servers The Servers do not store any name-to-IP mappings /


Network+ Guide to Networks 5th Edition

(cont’d.) Describe the purpose and implementation of DNS (Domain Name System) and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Identify the well-known ports for key TCP/IP services Describe common Application layer TCP/IP protocols Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition Characteristics of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) Protocol SuiteIP” or “TCP/IP” Subprotocols TCP, IP, UDP, ARP Developed by Department of Defense ARPANET (1960s) Internet precursor Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th/


ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming TCP/IP Protocol (cont’d)

DAdded by redirection (by ICMP). MModified by redirection (by ICMP). Spring 2003 Tuna Tugcu ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming 16 Routing Module * From TCP/IP Protocol Suite, B. A. Forouzan, Prentice Hall Spring 2003 Tuna Tugcu ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming 17 Routing Module (cont’d) Search for route in/255.0220.3.6.0222.13.16.40 m1 0.0.0.00.0.0.0134.18.5.2 m0 Example 4 (Solution) Spring 2003 Tuna Tugcu ECE 4110 – Internetwork Programming 29 Example 5 Make the routing table for router R1 Spring 2003 /


The iDirect iNFINITI Broadband VSAT Solution

TCP/IP Transmission for High Speed, Multi-media Service Applications on any Topology (Star, Star/Mesh, Point-to-Point/SCPC) Internet/ Leased Line/MPLS The iDirect Solution/Back-End Server Remote Suite Networks iBuilder User iMonitor NOC Station iBuilder NOC Station Monitor Remote Networks Server Suite Configuration, Firmware Updates / End of Presentation Broadband VSAT Networks Broadband VSAT Networks: IP Convergence IP is dominant Protocol Data is the dominant application Internet traffic continues growth at/


10.1 Schiller Mobile Communications Chapter 10: Support for Mobility File systems Data bases WWW and Mobility WAP (Wireless Application Protocol), i-mode.

are not very reliable – standard file systems (e.g., NFS, network file system) are very inefficient, almost unusable Solutions – replication of data (copying, cloning, caching) – data collection in advance (hoarding, pre-fetching) CEG436: Mobile Computing/change, new services can replace the old ones Additionally, WCMP (wireless Control Message Protocol) is used for control/error report (similar to ICMP in the TCP/IP protocol suite) CEG436: Mobile Computing 29 10.30 WDP - Service Primitives T-SAP T-/


Network Operation.

T1(1.544Mbps)傳輸線路,NSFNET屬於一般性的研究網路,該網除了提供學術界免費的服務外,也服務業界,並酌收些許使用費,由於NSFNET的廣泛使用。 在1987年,NSF舖設了一條主幹網路(backbone) ,成為一個具有主幹網路和地域性網路與區域網路的三層式網路。 在1990年,NSFNET正式取代ARPANET成為Internet的骨幹,之後又由美國國家研究教育網路(NREN)取而代之成為骨幹。 TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) A protocol suit that controls the Internet The set, or suite, of protocols that controls the Internet today is referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite. The TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network (or link/


Network+ Guide to Networks 5 th Edition Chapter 4 Introduction to TCP/IP Protocols.

’d.) Describe the purpose and implementation of DNS (Domain Name System) and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Identify the well-known ports for key TCP/IP services Describe common Application layer TCP/IP protocols Network+ Guide to Networks, 5 th Edition4 Characteristics of TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) Protocol Suite –“IP” or “TCP/IP” –Subprotocols TCP, IP, UDP, ARP Developed by Department of Defense –ARPANET (1960s) Internet precursor Network+ Guide to Networks, 5/


Understanding TCP/IPs Transport and Application Layers Chapter 1 - 5.

is another transport layer protocol that was added to the TCP/IP protocol suite. This transport layer protocol uses a smaller header and does not provide the reliability available with TCP. The early IP suite consisted only of TCP and IP, although IP was not differentiated as/initial sequence numbers. As shorthand, segments carrying the SYN bit are also called "SYNs." Hence, the solution requires a suitable mechanism for picking an initial sequence number and a slightly involved handshake to exchange the ISN/


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