Ppt on synthesis and degradation of purines and pyrimidines paired

DNA Damage, Mutations, and Repair See Stryer p. 768-773.

pair for another, e.g. T for G the most common form of mutation transitions; purine to purine and pyrimidine to pyrimidine transversions; purine to pyrimidine or pyrimidine to purine 2.Frameshift mutations Deletion of one or more base pairs Insertion of one or more base pairs Rare imino tautomer of/O 6 alkyl group is transferred to a Cys residue in the active site. The protein is inactivated and degraded. Direct repair: O 6 -alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) AGT inhibitor O 6 -benzylguanine is in /


27-1 Amino Acids & Proteins Chapter 27. 27-2 27.1 A. Amino Acids  Amino acid:  Amino acid: a compound that contains both an amino group and a carboxyl.

of this pentapeptide. pentapeptide Edman Degradation Hydrolysis - Chymotrypsin Fragment A Fragment B Hydrolysis - Trypsin Fragment C Fragment D Arg, Glu, His, Phe, Ser Glu Glu, His, Phe Arg, Ser Arg, Glu, His, Phe Ser Experimental Procedure Amino Acid Composition 27-34 27.5 A. Polypeptide Synthesis/ three types of monomer units. 1. heterocyclic aromatic amine bases derived from purine and pyrimidine. 2. the monosaccharides D-ribose or 2-deoxy-D- ribose. 3. phosphoric acid. 27-54 Comparison of Biomolecules  /


Molecular Biology of THE CELL … Chapter 25 Pathogens, Infection, and Innate Immunity Shainn-Wei Wang, Ph.D. Institute of Molecular Medicine N.C.K.U. College.

degrades secretory IgA. 6. Collagenase- This enzyme catalyzes the degradation of collagen, a scleroprotein found in tendons, nails and hair. Membrane Damaging 1. Hemolysins - There are many different types of hemolysins but, in each case, the end result is lysis of/plasmodium parasites) Viruses & bacteria Viruses & bacteria - DNA (CpG motif: purin-purin-CpG-pyrimidine-pyrimidine) - DNA (CpG motif: purin-purin-CpG-pyrimidine-pyrimidine) - ds RNA - ds RNA Pattern Recognition Pattern Recognition Receptors …Toll/


CHAPTER 25 NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 25.1 INTRODUCTION The nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic (DNA) and ribonucleic (RNA), are, respectively, the.

, respectively, the molecules that preserve here- ditary information and that transcribe and translate it in a way that allows the synthesis of all the varied proteins of the cell 25.2 NUCLEOTIDES AND NUCLEOSIDES Mild degradations of nucleic acids yield their monomeric units, compounds that are called nucleotides. Complete hydrolysis of a nucleotide furnishes: 1.A heterocyclic base, either a purine or pyrimidine. 2. a five-carbon monosaccharide, either D -ribose/


Chapter 3 DNA & RNA Protein Synthesis Lecture 6 Marieb’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Marieb  Hoehn.

pairs - TWO hydrogen bonds in A-T pairs - A purine (two rings)base hydrogen bonds with a pyrimidine base (one ring) Figure from: Martini, “Human Anatomy & Physiology”, Prentice Hall, 2001 Complementary base pairing… 14 Structure of DNA Hydrogen bonding between bases of /‘converted’ to protein? Where in the cell does protein synthesis take place? What are the major steps and molecules involved in the production of a protein? 26 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Applicable to all cells from bacteria to humans/


NUCLEIC ACIDS Dr. Hazim allawi Mohammed MBChB, MSc, Ph.D (Clinical Biochemistry) Assist Prof, Dept. of Biochemistry Mosul Medical College.

of purines equals the total amount of pyrimidines. The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds: two between A and T and three between G and C. Nucleotide Metabolism Ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside phosphates (nucleotides) are essential for all cells. Without them, neither DNA nor RNA can be produced and, therefore, proteins cannot be synthesized or cells proliferate. Nucleotides also serve as carriers of activated intermediates in the synthesis of some carbohydrates, lipids, and/


DEPARTMENT NAME DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY Amanda Berger, Pharm.D., B.C.P.P.S. Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Bone Marrow Transplant Texas Children’s Hospital.

) Thioguanine (6-TG) Others: cladribine, fludarabine, clofarabine, nelarabine Pyrimidine analogues Cytarabine Others: gemcitabine, fluorouracil ANTI-METABOLITES DEPARTMENT NAME DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY Folic acid analogue Activity/mechanism Polyglutamated intra-cellularly Binds & competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)  intracellular tetrahydrofolate (THF)  DNA precursors (thymidylate and purine synthesis) and inhibits DNA synthesis S-phase specific METHOTREXATE Lexicomp Online®, Hudson, Ohio/


1. NUCLEIC ACIDS: Are biological molecules essential for known forms of life on earth They include DNA and RNA Discovered by Friedrich Miescher in 1869.

Cytosine Guanine The bases Adenine and guanine are known as PURINES The bases Thymine and cytosine are known as PYRIMIDINES, in RNA instead of thymine it is Uracil Adenine pairs with guanine forming two hydrogen bonds Thymine pairs with Guanine forming with three hydrogen bonds PurinesPyrimidines Purines are double ringed structuresPyrimidines are single ringed structures Example of purine bases are Adenine and Guanine Example of pyrimidine bases are Thymine and Cytosine( in DNA), Uracil/


NiAbi, Connor, Michael, and Jean. Chapter 4  Organic Chemistry- The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)  Hydrocarbons- Organic molecules.

ATGC-3’ with 5’-GCAT-3’ D.5’- purine-pyrimidine-purine-pyrimidine-3’ with 3’-purine-pyrimidine-purine-pyrimidine-5’ E.All pairs are correct  Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds joining the nucleotides together. What /of the universe C.matter can be neither created nor destroyed D.systems rich in energy are intrinsically unstable E.both A and B are correct  Which of the following correctly states the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways? A.Degradation of/


Chair of Medical Biology, Microbiology, Virology, and Immunology GENETICS OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES. BASES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENE ENGENEERING Lecturer.

purine and pyrimidine bases on the opposite strands. The two strands of double-helical DNA are complementary. Because of complementarity, double- stranded DNA contains equimolar amounts of purines (A + G) and pyrimidines (T + C), with A equal to T and G equal to C, but the mole fraction of/ substitution of one nucleotide base pair for another –Frameshift mutation - arise from accidental insertion or deletion within coding region of gene, results in the synthesis of nonfunctional protein Types of Mutations /


Chair of Microbiology, Virology, and Immunology GENETICS OF MICROORGANISMS Lecturer As. O.B. Kuchmak.

purine and pyrimidine bases on the opposite strands. The two strands of double-helical DNA are complementary. Because of complementarity, double- stranded DNA contains equimolar amounts of purines (A + G) and pyrimidines (T + C), with A equal to T and G equal to C, but the mole fraction of/ substitution of one nucleotide base pair for another –Frameshift mutation - arise from accidental insertion or deletion within coding region of gene, results in the synthesis of nonfunctional protein Types of Mutations /


KEY CONCEPT DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments.

base Adenine(A), Guanine(G) – Purines Thymine(T), Cytosine(C) – Pyrimidines Structure of DNA Sugar and Phosphate are the “backbone” of DNA Two parallel strands of sugar- phosphate groups with pairs of nitrogen bases linking the two strands together with/and Protein Synthesis A.The Structure of RNA B. DNA and RNA Similarities/Differences C. Transcription D. Types of RNA E.Protein Synthesis F. Translation RNA: The Other Code A. RNA similar to DNA long chain made of nucleotides each nucleotide consists of/


CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY PART II ILOs

of, and compete with, endogenous nucleic acid precursors, namely purines & pyrimidines. ANTINEOPLASTIC MECHANISM OF ACTION Are CCS. Act predominantly on S phase  Phase Dependent They interfere at different levels on nucleic a. synthesis   its availability for DNA replication i.e. during the S phase of CC. Lack of/of DNA between adjacent guanine-cytosine pairs, interfering with the movement of RNA POLYMERASE along the gene and/in S-G2 phase of cell cycle  DNA degradation Nucleoside transport inhibition /


LO 3.36: The student is able to describe a model that expresses the key elements of signal transduction pathways by which a signal is converted to a cellular.

an electrode. The atmosphere was cooled by a condenser and water and any compounds fell into the “sea”. The experiment produced many organic molecules, including amino acids, sugars, lipids, purines, pyrimidines, ATP, and all monomers. One possible error is that researchers do not know the exact conditions of the early atmosphere. There may not have been enough methane and ammonia to be reducing. Learning Objective 2.13/


PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.

base Wobble 5-anticodon base is able to undergo more movement than the other two bases and can thus form non-standard base pairs as long as the distances between the ribose units are close to normal. All possible base pairings at the wobble position No purine-purine or pyrimidine-pyrimidine base pairs are allowed as ribose distances would be incorrect (Neat!). U is not found as 5/


Chapter 8 Protein synthesis. Aspects of protein synthesis Mechanism of protein synthesis (Prokaryotic) Initiation in eukaryotes Translational control.

the other two bases and can thus form non- standard base pairs as long as the distances between the ribose units are close to normal. To explain the redundancy of the genetic code. 18 aa are encoded by more than one triplet codons which usually differ at 5’-anticodin base All possible base pairings at the wobble position No purine-purine or pyrimidine-pyrimidine base pairs are allowed as/


DNA Structure and Function Replication, Transcription and Translation, Chomosome Structure and Mutation Review.

nuclear DNA to the cytoplasm (inside cells) uracil (U) replaces T single stranded RNA Complimentary Base-Pairing Two Kinds of Bases in DNA  Pyrimidines are single ring bases.  Purines are double ring bases. C C C C N N O N C C C C N / make the template available  RNA primase catalyzes the synthesis of short RNA primers, to which nucleotides are added.  DNA polymerase III extends the strand in the 5’-to-3’ direction  DNA polymerase I degrades the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA  DNA ligase joins the/


Structure of DNA Deepa John Harini Chandra Affiliations Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which stores and transmits all genetic information, is a long polymer.

is also essential for synthesis of various cofactors in the body. Definitions of the components: Part 1 – Structure of nucleotides 5 3 2 4 1 7. Guanine (G): This is another purine base found in both DNA and RNA. This planar, bicyclic molecule base pairs with cytosine in dsDNA. 8. Cytosine (C): This pyrimidine derivative found to be a component of both DNA and RNA base pairs with Guanine in the/


SP 6.1: The student can justify claims with evidence.

actual synthesis of a polypeptide. M.C. Question: Enzymes that breakdown DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes? A) The two strands of the double helix would separate. B) The phosphodiester bond between deoxyribose sugars would be broken. C) The purines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars. D) The pyrimidines/


Isolation, Cultivation, and Nutrition of Bacteria

analyzing X-ray data from Franklin & Wilkins. DNA is double helix, "backbone" consists of alternating units of: deoxyribose -- phosphate -- deoxyribose -- phosphate – Purine & Pyrimidine bases are attached to deoxyribose sugar, free to rotate. In DNA, form specific base pairs: A with T (2 H-bonds), G with C (3 H-bonds). Two chains of DNA face in opposite directions, called antiparallel In a linear DNA molecule, one/


MOLECULAR GENETICS DNA.

purine-purine pair would be too wide and a pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairing would be too short. Only a pyrimidine- purine pairing would produce the 2-nm diameter indicated by the X-ray data. The key breakthrough came when Watson put the sugar-phosphate chain on the outside and the nitrogen bases on the inside of the double helix. The sugar-phosphate chains of each strand are like the side ropes of a rope ladder. Pairs of/ of replication Figure 10.5C Protein synthesis DNA RNA protein THE FLOW OF GENETIC/


Major Events in Genetics. 1869 - Friedrich Meischer extracted a phosphorous rich material from nuclei of human white blood cells. He named this material.

one base to another A malfunction during DNA replication causes insertion of the wrong base The most common class of mutations –Transition; pyrimidine-pyrimidine or purine- purine substitutions A G-C pair is replaced with A-T and vice versa The less common class –Transversing; pyrimidine-purine substitutions An A-T pair is replaced by T-A or a G-C pair is replaced by C-G Mutations Point mutations can affect/


Chapter 2 Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy. TYPES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER  Elements and Compounds Matter exists in chemical forms as elements and.

one generation to next Genetic material of cells copied from one generation to next Composed of 2 strands of nucleotides Composed of 2 strands of nucleotides Each nucleotide contains one of the organic bases of adenine or guanine which are purines and thymine or cystosine which are pyrimidinesEach nucleotide contains one of the organic bases of adenine or guanine which are purines and thymine or cystosine which are pyrimidines  RNA: Ribonucleic acid Similar to/


18. The anticodon and/or the amino acid arms of a tRNA are key for a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase to recognize This was revealed via: crystal structure.

found to be complementary to a pyrimidine-rich sequence at the 3`end of the 16S rRNA present in the 30S subunit of the ribosomes. ribosome binding siteThe Shine-Dalgarno sequence may thus serve as the ribosome binding site on bacterial mRNAs. Shine-Dalgarno sequenceAUG A purine-rich Shine-Dalgarno sequence and a AUG codon marks the start site of polypeptide synthesis on bacterial mRNA molecules. Translation/


BIOCHEMISTRY AND ITS ROLE IN DISEASE DIAGNOSIS Dr. A. K. Dwivedi.

Purines Pyrimidines Creatine NH 4 + Urea Amino acid metabolism 2.Transamination is reversible. Thus plays an important role in both the breakdown of amino-acids and their synthesis from non- protein sources; for example, from ketoacids of the citric acid cycle. 3. Amination of/converted into free pantothenic acid. Within the lumen of the intestine, CoA and ACP are degraded from the food into 4-phosphopantetheine.. Within most foods, pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or acyl-carrier protein (ACP). In /


Nucleotides. Nucleic Acid, and Heredity. After scientists became aware of the differences in amino acid sequences, their next quest was to determine how.

to eliminate expression of an undesirable gene, such as one that causes uncontrolled cell growth or one that came from a virus. siRNAs 1ead to the degradation of specific mRNA molecules./pyrimidine uracil is utilized instead of thymine. Uracil is very similar to thymine and base pairs with adenine. Additionally, the ribose sugar includes a hydroxyl group at the 2’ position. 2. RNA is usually single-stranded. b) Transcription mRNA synthesis is carried out by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. Polymerization of/


Basic Molecular Biology Information. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Concerning the flow of information in the cell.

pairing between nucleotides on the same strand. –Can be double stranded for short regions Nucleotides Each nucleotide has 3 parts: sugar, phosphate, base. Sugar is ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA) –The difference is on the 2’ carbon: ribose has an –OH and deoxyribose has an -H Bases are attached to the 1’ carbon of the sugar –Base is purine or pyrimidine. –Purines/be built up of short fragments synthesized in the opposite direction as the replication fork movement. This is discontinuous synthesis. –The /


Deoxyribonucleotide Ribonucleotide Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules (High molecular weight) or large biological.

synthesis of proteins including enzymes. 4) Mutations are essential for evolution of new varieties and species. 5) All plant viruses have RNA while bacterial and animal viruses have either DNA or RNA e.g Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and poliomyelitis are RNA viruses while vaccinia and Herpes are DNA viruses. 6) Cancer research involves extensive studies of nucleic acids. 7) Diseases like Gout and Orotic-aciduria are inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine/


DNA – The Molecule of Life. In April 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick shook the scientific world with an elegant double-helical model for the structure.

rope ladder. Pairs of nitrogen bases, one from each strand, form rungs. The ladder forms a twist every ten bases. The nitrogenous bases are paired in specific combinations: adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine. Pairing the same nucleotides did not fit the uniform diameter indicated by the X-ray data. A purine-purine pair would be too wide and a pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairing would be too short. Only a pyrimidine- purine pairing would produce/


AP Genetics Review Why do cells divide? The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells: cell division Cells divide to: – Reproduce – Renewal.

a 3’ strand Purines Purines are nitrogenous bases with 2 organic rings. G and A are purines Pyrimidines Pyrimidines are nitrogenous bases with only 1 organic ring Cytosine and thymine DNA Replication DNA replicates during the S phase of interphase, prior to / RNA interference Small interfering RNAs (siRNA)  short segments of RNA (21-28 bases) bind to mRNA create sections of double-stranded mRNA “death” tag for mRNA  triggers degradation of mRNA  cause gene “silencing” post-transcriptional control turns /


1 Dr P Kumar Nitrogen Metabolism 27 th March 2012 Amino Acids: Disposal of Nitrogen & Carbon Skeletons Skeletons Protein Metabolism-I.

) Membrane  -Aminobutyrate DopamineNorepinephrineEpinephrineSerotonin Melanin, Heme CatecholaminesCreatine-P Purines, & Pyrimidines. 8 Cellar Protein Turnover  Food intake and nutritional status of animals affects protein turnover.  Supply of amino acids must meet demand. The rate of amino acid oxidation is sensitive to a surplus or deficit or to hormonal factors that regulate the amino acid pool.  Increased synthesis and decreased degradation = positive nitrogen balance.  Mediated through hormones/


DNA is Composed of Complementary Strands

-form double helix: polynucleotides of alternating purines and pyrimidines (GCGCGCGC) at high salt • Backbone zig-zags because sugar puckers alternate between 2’ endo pyrimidines and 3’ endo (purines) • Bases alternate between anti (pyrimidines) and syn conformation (purines). •12 bases per helix turn Helical pitch = 45.6 A Left handed helix planes of the bases are tilted 9° relative the helix axis. 3.8 A rise between base pairs Repeated GC sequence • Flat/


Basics of Microbiology l chemical nature of life l types of cells l cell structure and function.

transcription is called messenger RNA (mRNA) Translation in Protein Synthesis l The specific sequence of amino acid in each protein is directed by the specific sequences of purine or pyrimidine bases in mRNA l Proteins are synthesized by translating the mRNA base sequence in a system consisting of ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA), and a number of enzymes. l The translation of each amino acid requires three bases (codon) in/


Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter 12 Molecular Biology of the Gene Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission.

pairing ensures that a purine is always bonded to a pyrimidine (A with T, G with C)  Received a Nobel Prize in 1962 13 Watson and Crick Model of DNA/of 150-200 adenines on the 3′ end –Facilitates the transport of mRNA out of the nucleus –Inhibits degradation of mRNA by hydrolytic enzymes. 40 First Step: Transcription Pre-mRNA, is composed of exons and/ 5′ 3′ Summary of Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes 75 5 5 3 mRNA pre-mRNA DNA introns 6. During elongation, polypeptide synthesis takes place one amino acid/


Manifestation of Novel Social Challenges of the European Union in the Teaching Material of Medical Biotechnology Master’s Programmes at the University.

2009-0011 Structure of parallel triplets C +.GC T.AT The third pyrimidine containing strand runs parallel to the purine strand of the duplex and are stabilized by the formation of Hoogsteen base pairs. The formation of C +.GC /of both miRNAs and siRNAs associate with effector assemblies, known as RNA Induced Silencing Complexes (RISC), forming siRISC and miRISC, respectively. The antisense strand guides the RISC to the target mRNA to inhibit the protein synthesis mainly without significant degradation of/


Welcome Each of You to My Molecular Biology Class.

ribose-ribose distances: ---Purine-purine: too long ---Pyrimidine-pyrimidine: too short Figure 15-2 Wobble base pairing Figure 15-2 Wobble base pairing The ribose-ribose distances for the wobble pairs are close to those of A:U or G:C base pairs Critical Thinking The wobble concept predicted that at least three tRNAs exist for the six serine codons (UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU, and AGC). Why? Why wobble/


Chapter 25 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis. Chapter 252  Introduction  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the molecules.

schematic map of genes on chromosome 19 that are related to disease Chapter 254  Nucleotides and Nucleosides  Mild degradation of nucleic acids yields monomer units called nucleotides  Further hydrolysis of a /and involves 10 successive nucleotide pairs  Each base pair must involve a purine and a pyrimidine to achieve the proper distance between the sugar-phosphate backbones  Base pairing can occur only between thymine and adenine, or cytosine and guanine; no other pairing has the optimum pattern of/


Chapter 10 DNA damage and repair 1.Defects in repair cause disease 2.Common types of DNA damage 3.DNA repair pathways Direct repair Base excision repair.

transition: pyrimidine to pyrimidine, purine to purine 颠换 transversion: pyrimidine to purine normal sequence CATTCACCTGTACCA GTAAGTGGACATGGT Deletion/ insertion CATCACCTGTACCA GTAGTGGACATGGT deletion CATGTCACCTGTACCA GTACAGTGGACATGGT insertion deletions and insertions can involve one or more base pairs normal sequence CATTCACCTGTACCA GTAAGTGGACATGGT Inversion normal sequence CATTCACCTGTACCA GTAAGTGGACATGGT CATCTACCTGTACCA GTAGATGGACATGGT The consequence of mutation Have no effect Alter the product of a gene/


Section Q – Protein synthesis

other two bases and can thus form non-standard base pairs as long as the distances between the ribose units are close to normal. All possible base pairings at the wobble position No purine-purine or pyrimidine-pyrimidine base pairs are allowed as ribose distances would be incorrect (Neat!). U is not found as 5’-anticodon base Wobble pairing: non Waston-crick base paring Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis — Ribosome binding/


The Cell Cycle, DNA Replication, and Mitosis

replication, some types of mutations occur through spontaneous hydrolysis reactions Depurination is loss of a purine base (A or G) Deamination is removal of a base’s amino group, changing its base-pairing properties Deamination may /and over again via the synthesis and degradation of cyclins 2. The clock is adjusted as needed 195 Figure 19-41 Growth Factors and Cell Proliferation In simple unicellular organisms presence of nutrients in the environment is the primary factor determining whether cells grow and/


Nucleic Acids: Cell Overview and Core Topics. Outline I.Cellular Overview II.Anatomy of the Nucleic Acids 1.Building blocks 2.Structure (DNA, RNA) III.Looking.

? Properties of purines and pyrimidines: 1.keto – enol tautomerism 2.strong UV absorbance Pentoses of Nucleic Acids This difference in structure affects secondary structure and stability. Which is more stable? Nucleosides linkage of a base and a sugar. Nucleotides - nucleoside + phosphate - monomers of nucleic acids / a reverse transcriptase RT II Three enzyme activities RNA-directed DNA polymerase RNase H activity - degrades RNA in the DNA:RNA hybrids DNA-directed DNA polymerase - which makes a DNA duplex /


Chapter 1 Genes Are DNA. 1.1 Introduction chromosome – A discrete unit of the genome carrying many genes. –Each chromosome consists of a very long molecule.

purines always face pyrimidines in the complementary A-T and G-C base pairs. 1.6 DNA Is a Double Helix The nitrogenous bases of each chain are flat purine or pyrimidine rings that face inward and pair with one another by hydrogen bonding to form only A-T or G-C pairs. complementary – Base pairs that match up in the pairing/ DNA Strands at the Replication Fork Nucleases are enzymes that degrade nucleic acids; they include DNases and RNases and can be categorized as endonucleases or exonucleases. Figure 01.17/


Biology Sylvia S. Mader Michael Windelspecht Chapter 12 Molecular Biology of the Gene Lecture Outline Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission.

pairing ensures that a purine is always bonded to a pyrimidine (A with T, G with C)  Received a Nobel Prize in 1962 12 Watson and Crick Model of DNA/of 150-200 adenines on the 3′ end –Facilitates the transport of mRNA out of the nucleus –Inhibits degradation of mRNA by hydrolytic enzymes. 34 First Step: Transcription Pre-mRNA, is composed of exons and/ 5′ 3′ Summary of Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes 52 5 5 3 mRNA pre-mRNA DNA introns 6. During elongation, polypeptide synthesis takes place one amino acid/


Dr. Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder. DNA is heredity material of most of the organisms. Evolved due to its stability in storing information compared to RNA Many.

substitution of one base pair for another (or for one base for another in single stranded DNA genomes) are called as base substitution mutations. These can be further classified into: Transition mutations (change of one purine for another or one pyrimidine to another one) or (G-A, A-G, C-T, or T-C) Transversion mutations (interchange of a purine for a pyrimidine or interchange of one pyrimidine to purine) (G/


Chapter 3 Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids.

nucleotides by nucleases. The hydrolyzed nucleic acid has equal quantity of base, pentose and phosphate. Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Base: Purine Base: Pyrimidine Cytosine (C) Uracil (U) Thymine (T) Pentose 1/of a phosphate group, such as the restriction endonucleases used to construct the recombinant DNA. Classification 5’ 3’ Endonuclease Exonuclease Applications Participate in DNA synthesis and repair, as well as RNA post-translational modification Digest nucleic acids of food for better absorption Degrade/


Unit 3: Molecular Genetics Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of DNA.

purine molecule is always paired with a pyrimidine molecule  Adenine (A) always pairs with Thymine (T)  Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G)  This is called complementary base pairing  Because the same bases always complement each other, the base sequence of one strand can be determined from the base sequence of the other strand Important Features of DNA Structure  Hydrogen bonds link each complementary bas pair  A and/free 3’ hydroxyl end of the primer  For the synthesis of the lagging strand, /


SC435 Genetics Seminar Welcome to our Unit 8 Seminar We will continue our discussion of mutation and cancer The seminar will begin at 9:00PM ET.

to DNA by ultraviolet light Excision repair works on a wide variety of damaged DNA Postreplication repair skips over damaged bases Mismatch Repair Mismatch repair fixes incorrectly matched base pairs: a segment of DNA that contains a base mismatch excised and repair synthesis followed The mismatch-repair system recognizes the degree of methylation of a strand and preferentially excises nucleotides from the undermethylated strand This helps ensure that/


BASIC CHEMISTRY. Definition of Concepts Matter and Energy.

is broken down into smaller molecules Reverse synthesis reactions: bonds are broken Underlie all degradative, or catabolic, processes that occur in body cells –Example: the bonds of glycogen molecules are broken to release simpler molecules of glucose sugar (b) CHEMICAL REACTIONS Exchange (displacement) Reactions Exchange (displacement) reactions involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions (bonds are both made and broken) –Parts of the reactant molecules change partners: Single replacement/


1 DNA and RNA Structure and Function RNA and DNA Chemical Structures DNA Structural Elements RNA Structural Elements Cleavage of DNA and RNA by Nucleases.

for use in protein synthesis. 15 DNA structural elements Sugar-phosphate backbone Causes DNA chain to coil around the outside of the attached bases like a spiral staircase. Base Pairing Hydrogen bonding occurs between purines and pyrimidines. This causes two /) and enzymes has been used. 33 Cleavage of DNA and RNA by nucleases Nucleases Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. Normally used to catalyze degradation of damaged or aged nucleic acids. Some work on both DNA and RNA and others/


©2000 Timothy G. Standish John 1:1-3 1In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2The same was in the beginning with.

GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 5’ mRNA 3’ ©2000 Timothy G. Standish ANYTHING ACID AMINE Protein Synthesis C O OHCN H H H C HOH C H O CN H H H C HH C H O /of wobble base pairing, this arrangement means less than 61 tRNAs have to be made 53% of purine to purine or pyrimidine to pyrimidine mutations in the second position result in codons with either the same meaning (i.e., UAA to UGA both = stop) or coding for chemically related amino acids ©2000 Timothy G. Standish The Genetic Code Is Improbable And/


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