Ppt on synthesis and degradation of purines and pyrimidines are what

Deoxyribonucleotide Ribonucleotide Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules (High molecular weight) or large biological.

acids direct synthesis of proteins including enzymes. 4) Mutations are essential for evolution of new varieties and species. 5) All plant viruses have RNA while bacterial and animal viruses have either DNA or RNA e.g Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and poliomyelitis are RNA viruses while vaccinia and Herpes are DNA viruses. 6) Cancer research involves extensive studies of nucleic acids. 7) Diseases like Gout and Orotic-aciduria are inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism respectively/


Basics of Microbiology l chemical nature of life l types of cells l cell structure and function.

transcription is called messenger RNA (mRNA) Translation in Protein Synthesis l The specific sequence of amino acid in each protein is directed by the specific sequences of purine or pyrimidine bases in mRNA l Proteins are synthesized by translating the mRNA base sequence in a system consisting of ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA), and a number of enzymes. l The translation of each amino acid requires three bases (codon) in mRNA/


KEY CONCEPT DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments.

base Adenine(A), Guanine(G) – Purines Thymine(T), Cytosine(C) – Pyrimidines Structure of DNA Sugar and Phosphate are the “backbone” of DNA Two parallel strands of sugar- phosphate groups with pairs of nitrogen bases linking the two strands together with/and Protein Synthesis A.The Structure of RNA B. DNA and RNA Similarities/Differences C. Transcription D. Types of RNA E.Protein Synthesis F. Translation RNA: The Other Code A. RNA similar to DNA long chain made of nucleotides each nucleotide consists of/


18. The anticodon and/or the amino acid arms of a tRNA are key for a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase to recognize This was revealed via: crystal structure.

degraded by large multisubunit protease complexes called the 26S proteasomes, however leaving the ubiquitin protein unaffected. Summary Genetic and biochemical studies showed that the genetic codes are continuous triplets or nucleotides. The genetic codes was deciphered within five years using artificial mRNA templates of various base composition (and triplets), in vitro protein synthesis and filter binding assays. A tRNA molecule can recognize one to three codons depending what/


1 Dr P Kumar Nitrogen Metabolism 27 th March 2012 Amino Acids: Disposal of Nitrogen & Carbon Skeletons Skeletons Protein Metabolism-I.

) Membrane  -Aminobutyrate DopamineNorepinephrineEpinephrineSerotonin Melanin, Heme CatecholaminesCreatine-P Purines, & Pyrimidines. 8 Cellar Protein Turnover  Food intake and nutritional status of animals affects protein turnover.  Supply of amino acids must meet demand. The rate of amino acid oxidation is sensitive to a surplus or deficit or to hormonal factors that regulate the amino acid pool.  Increased synthesis and decreased degradation = positive nitrogen balance.  Mediated through hormones/


LO 3.36: The student is able to describe a model that expresses the key elements of signal transduction pathways by which a signal is converted to a cellular.

Rough ER carries out dehydration synthesis. The Rough ER ships glycoproteins, and the Smooth ER detoxifies lipids. Organelles and internal membranes play important roles in a cell, as they contribute to their function. Since you know this information, answer the following questions related to organelles and internal membranes. What are the building blocks of the endomembrane system? What are THREE of their functions? What does TWO of these building blocks create? Give/


PROTEIN METABOLISM: NITROGEN CYCLE; DIGESTION OF PROTEINS Red meat is an important dietary source of protein nitrogen.

; 3) synthesis from the carbohydrates and lipids. Using of amino acids: 1) for protein synthesis; 2) for synthesis of other nitrogen containing compounds (creatine, purines, choline, pyrimidine); 3) as the source of energy; 4) for the gluconeogenesis. PROTEIN METABOLISM: PROTEIN TURNOVER; GENERAL WAYS OF AMINO ACIDS METABOLISM PROTEIN TURNOVER How can a cell distinguish proteins that are meant for degradation? Protein turnover — the degradation and resynthesis of proteins Half-lives of proteins – from/


Major Events in Genetics. 1869 - Friedrich Meischer extracted a phosphorous rich material from nuclei of human white blood cells. He named this material.

of ~20 A The density of DNA suggested that the helix must contain two chains. –The constant diameter of helix Bases face inward, a purine is always opposite a pyrimidine DNA Structure Sugar-phosphate backbone in the outside Phosphate negative charges are/ and rewind the daughter strains DNA Replication The synthesis of the complementary strand is catalyzed by polymerases (DNA or RNA polymerases) –Recognize the template –Catalyze the addition of subunits to the polynucleotide chain Degradation of nucleic/


Chapter 2 Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy. TYPES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER  Elements and Compounds Matter exists in chemical forms as elements and.

copied from one generation to next Genetic material of cells copied from one generation to next Composed of 2 strands of nucleotides Composed of 2 strands of nucleotides Each nucleotide contains one of the organic bases of adenine or guanine which are purines and thymine or cystosine which are pyrimidinesEach nucleotide contains one of the organic bases of adenine or guanine which are purines and thymine or cystosine which are pyrimidines  RNA: Ribonucleic acid Similar to a single/


IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT DRUGS AND GENE THERAPY Dr. Rishi Pal Assist. Professor Department of Pharmacology.

Cytotoxic drugs  Inhibitors of purine or pyrimidine synthesis (Antimetabolites): –Azathioprine –Myclophenolate Mofetil –Leflunomide –Methotrexate  Alkylating agents Cyclophosphamide AZATHIOPRINE CHEMISTRY: –Derivative of mercaptopurine. –Prodrug. –Cleaved to 6-mercaptopurine then to 6- mercaptopurine nucleotide, thioinosinic acid (nucleotide analog). –Inhibits de novo synthesis of purines required for lymphocytes proliferation. –Prevents clonal expansion of both B and T lymphocytes. Pharmacokinetics/


Metabolism of Nitrogenous Compound Mpenda F.N 1. Introduction This topic describes the amino acids that are important in human nutrition. It covers the.

slightly alkaline pH. The pancreatic proteases trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase divide the proteins into short peptides. These are attacked from both ends by aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase, and the fragments are finished off by dipeptidases secreted from the gut wall. Protein degradation 7 Amino acid catabolism In animals, amino acids undergo oxidative degradation in three different metabolic circumstances:  During the normal synthesis and degradation of cellular proteins.  When a diet is rich/


Structure of DNA Deepa John Harini Chandra Affiliations Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which stores and transmits all genetic information, is a long polymer.

Purines Pyrimidines Show the structures above with their labels and numbering as depicted. (Please use black background & redraw all figures.) Make the four structures appear one at a time as depicted with their labels and numbering around the structure. DNA is composed of four different nitrogenous bases that are derivatives of the heterocyclic, aromatic compounds, purines and pyrimidines. Adenine and guanine are purines while thymine and cytosine are the pyrimidines. The nucleosides of these bases are/


Nucleotides. Nucleic Acid, and Heredity. After scientists became aware of the differences in amino acid sequences, their next quest was to determine how.

growth or one that came from a virus. siRNAs 1ead to the degradation of specific mRNA molecules. Scientists who wish to study gene expression are also using these small siRNAs. In what has become an explosion of new biotechnology, many companies have been created to produce and market designer siRNAs to knock out hundreds of known genes. This technology also has medical applicaltions, as siRNA has been/


Today is Monday, January (!) 5th, 2015 (!)

are formed…how? By dehydration synthesis, of course! More on this later. Purines and Pyrimidines Adenine and guanine are purines and have a double-ring structure. Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines and have a single-ring structure. A purine always bonds to a pyrimidine. This ensures that the width of /the telomeres inhibit that kind of response. But what about cells like sperm and ova? Once it forms, it has a whole lot of divisions ahead of it in life. Wouldn’t the telomeres degrade before they’re “done?”/


MOLECULAR GENETICS DNA.

data. A purine-purine pair would be too wide and a pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairing would be too short. Only a pyrimidine- purine pairing would produce the 2-nm diameter indicated by the X-ray data. The key breakthrough came when Watson put the sugar-phosphate chain on the outside and the nitrogen bases on the inside of the double helix. The sugar-phosphate chains of each strand are like the side/


3 Cell Metabolism Chapter 3 Cell Metabolism - review Student Learning Outcomes: Describe central role of enzymes as catalysts Vast array of chemical reactions.

. 3.23 Fig 3.24 Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides Nucleotides can be synthesized from carbohydrates and amino acids, or reused following nucleic acid breakdown. Ribose-5-phosphate is starting point for nucleotide synthesis. Different pathways for synthesis of purine and pyrimidine. Ribonucleotides are converted to deoxyribonucleotides, building blocks of DNA Fig. 3.24 Fig 3.25 Synthesis of polynucleotides Nucleic acid synthesis requires energy; NTPs are activated precursors. Fig. 3.25 Review/


AP Genetics Review Why do cells divide? The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells: cell division Cells divide to: – Reproduce – Renewal.

to a 3’ strand Purines Purines are nitrogenous bases with 2 organic rings. G and A are purines Pyrimidines Pyrimidines are nitrogenous bases with only 1 organic ring Cytosine and thymine DNA Replication DNA replicates during the S phase of interphase, prior to cell/ interference Small interfering RNAs (siRNA)  short segments of RNA (21-28 bases) bind to mRNA create sections of double-stranded mRNA “death” tag for mRNA  triggers degradation of mRNA  cause gene “silencing” post-transcriptional control turns/


DNA Structure and Function Replication, Transcription and Translation, Chomosome Structure and Mutation Review.

Two Kinds of Bases in DNA  Pyrimidines are single ring bases.  Purines are double ring bases. C C C C N N O N C C C C N N N N N C Thymine and Cytosine are Pyrimidines  Thymine and cytosine each have one ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms./ the template available  RNA primase catalyzes the synthesis of short RNA primers, to which nucleotides are added.  DNA polymerase III extends the strand in the 5’-to-3’ direction  DNA polymerase I degrades the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA  DNA ligase joins /


Purine – Lecture. Nucleotides play key roles in many, many cellular processes 1. Activated precursors of RNA and DNA 2. Adenine nucleotides are components.

carbonyl oxygen to an amino group Hypoxanthine is an intermediate for Adenine and Guanine There are two basic mechanisms to generate purines and pyrimidines 2. SALVAGE PATHWAYS (the reutilization of bases from dietary or catabolic sources) 1. DE NOVO BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS (building the bases from simple building blocks) The biosynthesis of purine (A and G) begins with the synthesis of the ribose-phosphate Ribose phosphate pyrophospho-KINASE Pentose phosphate pathway The/


Basic Molecular Biology Information. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Concerning the flow of information in the cell.

: ribose has an –OH and deoxyribose has an -H Bases are attached to the 1’ carbon of the sugar –Base is purine or pyrimidine. –Purines: 2 carbon-nitrogen rings, adenine or guanine –Pyrimidines: 1 carbon-nitrogen ring, /and guides ribosomes to the rough ER where translation finishes. Also signals for nucleus, lysosome, mitochondria. Some are internal to protein and not removed. Protein Degradation The lifespan of proteins is primarily controlled by the process of protein degradation. Damaged proteins are/


SP 6.1: The student can justify claims with evidence.

. In hydrolysis, water molecules are used to break apart and break down other molecules in the process of digestion. In dehydration synthesis, on the other hand, water molecules are produced and released as other molecules join together. Different data sets can provide clues as to which processes are occurring and what organic compounds are being constructed from the necessary building blocks that are taken up. For photosynthesis and cellular respiration processes, rates/


Nucleic Acids: Cell Overview and Core Topics. Outline I.Cellular Overview II.Anatomy of the Nucleic Acids 1.Building blocks 2.Structure (DNA, RNA) III.Looking.

(ribonucleic acid): adenine (A)guanine (G) cytosine (C)uracil (U) Why ? Properties of purines and pyrimidines: 1.keto – enol tautomerism 2.strong UV absorbance Pentoses of Nucleic Acids This difference in structure affects secondary structure and stability. Which is more stable? Nucleosides linkage of a base and a sugar. Nucleotides - nucleoside + phosphate - monomers of nucleic acids - NA are formed by 3’-to-5’ phosphodiester linkages Shorthand notation: - sequence is read/


Outline 27.1 Digestion of Proteins

Amino Acids Glutamate also provides nitrogen for the synthesis of other nitrogen-containing compounds, including the purines and pyrimidines that are part of DNA. The following four common metabolic intermediates are the precursors for synthesis of the nonessential amino acids: 27.6 Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids Glutamine is made from glutamate, and asparagine is made by reaction of glutamine with aspartate. 27.6 Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids The amino acid tyrosine is/


DNA Structure and Replication And a brief introduction to RNA.

(C-G). Nitrogenous Bases Purines: Pyrimidines: How Nucleotides Attach Together 1. Nucleotides connect via phosphodiester bonds 2. The Resulting molecule is linear with a directionality 3. Opposite strands are Antiparallel What causes the Twisting in DNA? Hydrogen Bonding along the Backbone of DNA causes the double helix Similar to hydrogen bonding along the peptide backbone of Protein forming the alpha helix and beta sheet (secondary protein structure/


DNA – The Molecule of Life. In April 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick shook the scientific world with an elegant double-helical model for the structure.

of nitrogen bases, one from each strand, form rungs. The ladder forms a twist every ten bases. The nitrogenous bases are paired in specific combinations: adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine. Pairing the same nucleotides did not fit the uniform diameter indicated by the X-ray data. A purine-purine pair would be too wide and a pyrimidine-pyrimidine pairing would be too short. Only a pyrimidine- purine pairing/


1 Introduction Vitamins are an organic chemical compound which the body requires in small amounts for the metabolism and to protect your health. Vitamins.

Vitamin-Coenzymes in Amino Acid Metabolism Folacin: Tetrahydrofolate (THF) –Carrier of single carbons Donor & receptor Glycine and serine Tryptophan degradation Histidine degradation Purine and pyrimidine synthesis 117 Deficiency symptoms Identical to those for vitamin B12 deficiency. Effect of folate deficiency on cellular processes is upon DNA synthesis. –Impairment in dTMP synthesis –Cell cycle arrest in S-phase of rapidly proliferating cells, especially hematopoietic cells. The result is megaloblastic/


Sylvia S. Mader Copyright © The McGraw Hill Companies Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display PowerPoint® Lecture Slides are prepared by Dr.

into glucose monomers Specific enzymes required for each reaction Accelerate reaction Are not used in the reaction Are not changed by the reaction Short polymerUnlinked monomer Dehydration reaction Longer polymer Dehydration Hydrolysis Dehydration and Hydrolysis 15 16 Synthesis and Degradation of Polymers monomer dehydration reaction monomer hydrolysis reaction H2OH2O OHH H b. Degradation of a biomolecule a. Synthesis of a biomolecule H2OH2O monomer Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission/


GOUT. OBJECTIVES At the end of lectures students should : Define gout Describe outlines of treatment Describe treatment of acute gouty arthritis Describe.

. B. It increases the degradation of uric acid. C. It decreases the production of uric acid. D. It increases renal excretion of uric acid Ans:C Febuxostat Is a new oral non-purine xanthine oxidase (XO)inhibitor. Is structurally different from allopurinol& lacks purine ring More selective and potent inhibitor of XO than allopurinol & has no effect on other enzymes involved in purine or pyrimidine metabolism Well absorbed orally ( 84/


Amino Acid Metabolism Protein metabolism xiaoli.

Acid § 3.1 Protein turnover the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation . In healthy adults, the total amount of protein in the body remains constant, because the rate of protein synthesis is just sufficient to replace the protein that is degraded. this process is called protein turnover. Rapid protein turnover ensures that some regulatory proteins are degraded so that the cell can respond to constantly changing conditions. half/


December 2, 2005 AMINO ACID METABOLISM I,II,III Lecturer: Eileen M. Lafer Reading: Stryer Edition 5: Chapters 23 and 24 OBJECTIVES: 1.Understand the fates.

on standing due to the oxidation of homogentisate. Harmless. TRYPTOPHAN DEGRADATION Nearly all cleavages of aromatic rings in biological systems are catalyzed by dioxygenases. SUMMARY OF DEFECTS IN AMINO ACID CATABOLISM THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HUMAN DISEASE FATES OF THE CARBON SKELETONS OF THE AMINO ACIDS SOURCES AND FATES OF AMINO ACIDS IN THE BODY AMINO ACID BIOSYNTHESIS 1. The nitrogen in amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and other biomolecules ultimately comes from atmospheric/


Welcome Each of You to My Molecular Biology Class.

 The use of artificial mRNAs and the availability of cell-free systems for carrying out protein synthesis began to make it possible to crack the code The Code Is Degenerate Stimulation of Amino Acid Incorporation by Synthetic mRNAs Extracts from E. coli cells can incorporate amino acids into proteins. After several minutes the synthesis came to a stop because the degradation of mRNA. The addition of fresh mRNA to/


Lecture 7 DNA repair Chapter 10 Problems 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 Quiz 3 due today at 4:00 PM.

Problems 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 Quiz 3 due today at 4:00 PM 10_Figure01.jpg Types of mutations Transition mutations Transversion mutations Pyrimidine to __________ Purine to ___________ Pyrimidine to __________ Purine to ___________ 10_Figure02.jpg Mutations can be permanently fixed if they are not repaired before the next round of replication Polymerase errors cause a distortion of the DNA helix 10_Figure03.jpg Mismatch repair/


1 Ammonium 0. 1 – 1.5 g Buffering the urine. AMINO ACID METABOLISM Amino acids are required for the synthesis of proteins, peptides, nucleotides, neurotransmitters,

oxaloacetate 3.Fumarate the urea cycle and the purine nucleotide cycle change the carbons of aspartate to fumarate 57 Fumarate can be obtained from the breakdown of tyrosine (meaning phenylalanine also can give fumarate) 4.Succinyl-CoA Methionine, threonine, valine and isoleucine are degraded to propionyl-CoA that will be changed to succinyl-CoA  methionine produces propionyl-CoA from α- ketobutyrate during the synthesis of cysteine  Threonine dehydratase also gives/


December 9-10, 2009 AMINO ACID METABOLISM I,II,III Lecturer: Eileen M. Lafer Reading: Stryer Edition 6: Chapters 23 and 24 OBJECTIVES: 1.Understand the.

on standing due to the oxidation of homogentisate. Harmless. TRYPTOPHAN DEGRADATION Nearly all cleavages of aromatic rings in biological systems are catalyzed by dioxygenases. SUMMARY OF DEFECTS IN AMINO ACID CATABOLISM THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HUMAN DISEASE FATES OF THE CARBON SKELETONS OF THE AMINO ACIDS SOURCES AND FATES OF AMINO ACIDS IN THE BODY AMINO ACID BIOSYNTHESIS 1. The nitrogen in amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and other biomolecules ultimately comes from atmospheric/


FROM DNA TO PROTEINS Chapter 8. KEY CONCEPT 8.1 DNA was identified as the genetic material through a series of experiments.

-containing base phosphate group deoxyribose (sugar) nitrogen-containing base The nitrogen containing bases are the only difference in the four nucleotides. PURINES AND PYRIMIDINES: Purines- Adenine and Guanine are double rings, formed from a 5 carbon ring fused to a 6 carbon ring (both contain nitrogen) Pyrimidines - Thymine and Cytosine made of a single ring of carbon and nitrogen T A C G NUCLEOTIDES ALWAYS PAIR IN THE SAME WAY. The base/


Nucleotides. Nucleic Acid, and Heredity. After scientists became aware of the differences in amino acid sequences, their next quest was to determine how.

) led to the study of protein synthesis and its control. The information that tells the cell which proteins to manufacture is carried in the molecules of DNA. We now know that not all genes lead to the production of protein, but all genes do lead to the production of another type of nucleic acid, called ribonucleic acid (RNA). What Are Nucleic Acids ? Two kinds of nucleic acids are found in cells/


Chapter 7 Catabolism of Proteins. Nutritional Function of Proteins Functions: Structural Catalytic, Transport action Signaling and hormonal functions.

for human Amines, phenol, indole, H2S Production of Amines Production of phenol Production indole Production of H2S Production of Ammonia Page 209 Degradation of Protein in Cells The half-life of proteins is determined by rates of synthesis and degradation A given protein is synthesized at a constant rate K S A constant fraction of active molecules are destroyed per unit time C is the amount of Protein at any time K D is/


DNA. Gregor Mendel – 1840’s Conclusion: Heredity material was packaged in discrete transferable units; came up with law of segregation and law of independent.

with bases 0.34nm apart & sugar/phosphate molecules on the outside of the ladder. So what are the various parts of DNA? Nitrogen bases – Adenine – Cytosine – Guanine – Thymine Phosphates Deoxyribose Hydrogen bonds DNA Molecule Sugar and phosphate backbones are antiparallel (their subunits run in opposite directions) Adenine and guanine are purines (both have 2 organic rings) Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidines (both have 1 organic ring) Adenine forms 2 hydrogen bonds with/


32-1 CHAPTER 32 DIGESTION AND NUTRITION. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 32-2 Trophic Levels.

attacks several phosphate compounds Enzyme that attacks several phosphate compounds Nucleotidases and nucleosidases Nucleotidases and nucleosidases Continue breakdown of nucleotides into nucleosides and finally ribose and deoxyribose sugars, purines, and pyrimidines Continue breakdown of nucleotides into nucleosides and finally ribose and deoxyribose sugars, purines, and pyrimidines Region of Terminal Digestion and Absorption: The Intestine Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required/


Reminder: All molecular techniques are based on the chemical “personality” (or chemical properties) of the DNA molecule (or nucleic acids)

high resolution electrophoresis on polyacrilamide gels and the position of the bands determined The Maxam-Gilbert Technique Principle: Principle: Chemical Degradation of Purines Purines (A, G) damaged by dimethylsulfatePurines (A, G) damaged by dimethylsulfate Methylation of baseMethylation of base Heat releases baseHeat releases base Alkali cleaves GAlkali cleaves G Dilute acid cleave A>GDilute acid cleave A>G Maxam-Gilbert Technique Pyrimidines (C, T) are damaged by hydrazinePyrimidines (C, T/


New Perspectives on the Pathogenesis of MS

.C. Cree, MD. Laquinimod Conclusions Reduced the cumulative number of Gad+ lesions No trend in favor of reductions in relapse rate and disability Overall well tolerated without indication of systemic pro-inflammatory effects Phase III trials are under way Cladribine O NH2 Cl N HO Cladribine Cladribine is a purine nucleoside analog prodrug that is resistant to adenosine deaminase degradation and is activated by deoxycytidine kinase Causes failure/


Unit 3: Molecular Genetics Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of DNA.

2 different forms  Purines  Adenine (A)  Guanine (G)  They have two fused rings in their chemical structures  Pyrimidines  Cytosine (C)  Thymine (T)  They have a single ring in their chemical structure The Chemical Composition of the Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA  In RNA, all but one of the bases are the same of those of DNA  RNA has the pyrimidine base Uracil (U) in place of Thymine  Nucelotides are often identified by/


BASIC CHEMISTRY. Definition of Concepts Matter and Energy.

a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules Reverse synthesis reactions: bonds are broken Underlie all degradative, or catabolic, processes that occur in body cells –Example: the bonds of glycogen molecules are broken to release simpler molecules of glucose sugar (b) CHEMICAL REACTIONS Exchange (displacement) Reactions Exchange (displacement) reactions involve both synthesis and decomposition reactions (bonds are both made and broken) –Parts of the reactant molecules change partners: Single replacement/


Reminder: All molecular techniques are based on the chemical “personality” (or chemical properties) of the DNA molecule (or nucleic acids)

high resolution electrophoresis on polyacrilamide gels and the position of the bands determined The Maxam-Gilbert Technique Principle: Principle: Chemical Degradation of Purines Purines (A, G) damaged by dimethylsulfatePurines (A, G) damaged by dimethylsulfate Methylation of baseMethylation of base Heat releases baseHeat releases base Alkali cleaves GAlkali cleaves G Dilute acid cleave A>GDilute acid cleave A>G Maxam-Gilbert Technique Pyrimidines (C, T) are damaged by hydrazinePyrimidines (C, T/


Exam 2 Review Slides Lectures 5-8 Ch. 2 (pp. 53-56), Ch. 3 and Ch. 9 (pp. 298-301)

Genome Project was complete in 2001 - Genomes of other organisms are important also Genetic Code – method used to translate a sequence of nucleotides of DNA into a sequence of amino acids 28 Structure of Nucleic Acids Figure from: Alberts et al., Essential Cell Biology, Garland Press, 1998 Purines: Adenine and Guanine (double ring) Pyrimidines: Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil (single ring) 29 Structure of DNA A double-stranded DNA molecule is created/


A&P I Exam 2 Review Slides Spring 2014 Lectures 5-8 Ch. 2, 3, and 24 (cell resp.)

Genome Project was complete in 2001 - Genomes of other organisms are important also Genetic Code – method used to translate a sequence of nucleotides of DNA into a sequence of amino acids 24 Structure of Nucleic Acids Figure from: Alberts et al., Essential Cell Biology, Garland Press, 1998 Purines: Adenine and Guanine (double ring) Pyrimidines: Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil (single ring) 25 Structure of DNA A double-stranded DNA molecule is created/


© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Kathleen Fitzpatrick Simon Fraser University Chapter 18 The Structural Basis of Cellular Information: DNA, Chromosomes,

are 10 nucleotide pairs per complete turn, and 0.34 nm per nucleotide pair The 2-nm diameter of the helix is too small for purines and too large for pyrimidines, but just right for one of each © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The double helix model (continued) The purine-pyrimidine/ Education, Inc. Bacterial chromosomes The loops of bacterial DNA are held in place by RNA and basic protein molecules Treatment with ribonuclease degrades RNA and releases some of the loops Nicking with a topoisomerase does not/


目 录目 录 Chapter two Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids.

, RNA Carry genetic information, determine the genotype of individual or cell Transmit the genetic information and gene expression, sometime work as the carrier of genetic information such as RNA virus 目 录目 录 The Monomeric Units of Nucleic Acids Section One Nucleotides 目 录目 录 Chemical composition of nucleic acids 1. Element component C 、 H 、 O 、 N 、 P ( 9~10% ) 2. Molecular component —— base : purinespyrimidines —— ribose : ribose , deoxyribose —— phosphate 3. Building units/


13 DNA and Its Role in Heredity. 13 DNA and Its Role in Heredity 13.1 What Is the Evidence that the Gene Is DNA? 13.2 What Is the Structure of DNA? 13.3.

amount of purines = the amount of pyrimidines. Chargaff’s rule 13.2 What Is the Structure of DNA? Francis Crick and James Watson used model building, plus the physical and chemical evidence to solve the structure of DNA. They published their results in 1953. Figure 13.7 DNA Is a Double Helix (Part 1) 13.2 What Is the Structure of DNA? The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the bases are/


Www.cengage.com/biology/solomon Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Eldra Solomon Linda Berg Diana W. Martin Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds.

may be either a double-ring purine or a single-ring pyrimidine DNA contains four nitrogenous bases: Two purines: adenine (A) and guanine (G) Two pyrimidines: cytosine (C) and thymine (T) RNA contains the purines adenine and guanine, and the pyrimidines cytosine and uracil (U) Purines and Pyrimidines Nucleic Acid Structure Nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides joined by phosphodiester linkages (a phosphate group and covalent bonds that attach it to sugars of adjacent nucleotides) RNA is usually/


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