Ppt on synthesis and degradation of purines and pyrimidines and gout

1 Nucleotides metabolism Enmin Li 2 3 Digestion, Ingestion and Degradation of Nuclear acids and Nucleotides and Nucleosides and Bases in Food.

CTP UTP UDP ATP PRPP + _ The regulatory circuits that control pyrimidine synthesis in E.coli and animals. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.g ov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db= protein&id=3228248 23 The metabolic origin of the nine atoms in the purine ring Glutamine (amide-N) Glycine Aspartate N 10 -formyl-THF 甘氨右中站 谷氮坐两边 左上天冬氨 头顶二氧碳 二八俩叶酸 First, synthesis Inosine-5-Monophosphate, IMP 24 5- 磷酸核糖胺,PRA OH 0 ATP AMP/


Salvage Pathway of Purines. Purines that result from the normal turnover of cellular nucleic acids, or that are obtained from the diet and not degraded,

mucosal cells, or be further degraded to free bases before uptake. Dietary purines and pyrimidines are not used to a large extent for the synthesis of tissue nucleic acids. Instead, the dietary purines are generally converted to uric acid by intestinal mucosal cells. Most of the uric acid enters the blood, and is eventually excreted in the urine. Formation of uric acid Diseases associated with purine degradation 1. Gout: It is a disorder/


Synthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides Part 1: September 1 st, 2009 Champion CS Deivanayagam Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering University.

Synthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides Part 1: September 1 st, 2009 Champion CS Deivanayagam Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294-4400 Information Transfer in Cells The fundamental process of information transfer in cells. Purines and Pyrimidines Note that the numbering are slightly different particularly where the glycosidic bonds are attached Gylocosidic bond Nucleotide: purines and pyrimides linked to a ribose/de-oxy ribose sugar /


Chapter 23 The Metabolism of Nitrogen Mary K. Campbell Shawn O. Farrell Paul D. Adams University of Arkansas.

in the metabolism of purine nucleotides because of the amount of energy required for the synthesis of the purine bases In Summary: Purines are degraded to uric acid in primates and are further degraded in other organisms. Overproduction of uric acid causes gout in humans Salvage reactions allow some purines to be reused Purine Catabolism Purine Salvage Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Catabolism The overall scheme of pyrimidine biosynthesis differs from that of purines because the pyrimidine ring is assembled/


 How Nucleic Acids Go From Here To There By: Laura Capparilli, Tyler Horton, Zach Johnston, and Kim Hagey.

few atoms at a time and attached to ribose throughout the process  The pyrimidine ring is synthesized as orotate (heterocyclic compound) and attached to ribose phosphate  The ribose phosphate is converted into common pyrimidine nucleotides  The enzymes involved in De-novo synthesis are present as large multienzyme complexes, such as folate, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. Salvage Pathway  Bases and nucleosides are formed during degradations of RNA & DNA  The SALVAGE/


Chapter Twenty-Three The Metabolism of Nitrogen. Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixation is the reduction of N 2 to NH 3: Bacteria are responsible for the.

the metabolism of purine nucleotides because of the amount of energy required for the synthesis of the purine bases In Summary: Purines are degraded to uric acid in primates and are further degraded in other organisms. Overproduction of uric acid causes gout in humans Salvage reactions exist so that some purines can be reused Purine Catabolism (Cont’d) Purine Salvage Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Catabolism The overall scheme of pyrimidine biosynthesis differs from that of purines because the pyrimidine ring/


Chapter Twenty-Three The Metabolism of Nitrogen. Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixation is the reduction of N 2 to NH 3 : Bacteria are responsible for the.

the metabolism of purine nucleotides because of the amount of energy required for the synthesis of the purine bases In Summary: Purines are degraded to uric acid in primates and are further degraded in other organisms. Overproduction of uric acid causes gout in humans Salvage reactions exist so that some purines can be reused Purine Catabolism (Cont’d) Purine Salvage Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Catabolism The overall scheme of pyrimidine biosynthesis differs from that of purines because the pyrimidine ring/


Nucleotide metabolism متابولیسم نوکلئوتیدها. Nucleic Acid Metabolism Nucleotides –Essential for all cells –DNA –RNA –Carriers of activated intermediates.

4.Make uric acid. -xanthine oxidase Degradation of pyrimidines محصولات تخریب نوکلئوتیدهای پیریمیدینی The pyrimidine ring can be completely degraded in humans. The products include: NH 3, CO 2,  -alanine, and  -aminoisobutyrate. Both  -alanine, and  -aminoisobutyrate can be further converted into acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA, respectively, or are excreted in the urine. Principal differences between metabolism of purines and pyrimidines purines pyrimidines formation of N-glycosidic bond in 1 st step/


Purine – Lecture. Nucleotides play key roles in many, many cellular processes 1. Activated precursors of RNA and DNA 2. Adenine nucleotides are components.

oxygen to an amino group Hypoxanthine is an intermediate for Adenine and Guanine There are two basic mechanisms to generate purines and pyrimidines 2. SALVAGE PATHWAYS (the reutilization of bases from dietary or catabolic sources) 1. DE NOVO BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS (building the bases from simple building blocks) The biosynthesis of purine (A and G) begins with the synthesis of the ribose-phosphate Ribose phosphate pyrophospho-KINASE Pentose phosphate pathway The/


Functions of Nucleotide: 1.Responsible for transmission of genetic informations 2. Act as energy currency 3.Carrier molecule for a broad spectrum of functional.

) Page 818 (anti-bacterial agent) The Synthesis of AMP and GMP from IMP Page 819 Reciprocal stimulation The Regulatory Circuit Controlling Purine Biosynthesis Page 820 feed-forward activation ATP-Dependent Kinases Form Nucleoside Diphosphates and Triphosphates from the Nucleoside Monophosphates AMP + ATP 2ADP Adenylate kinase GMP + ATP Guanylate kinase GDP + ADP GDP + ATP Nucleoside diphosphate kinase GTP + ADP Page 820 Degradation of Purines NMP + H 2 O Nucleoside/


Final Exam Mon 8 am. Lecture Connections 22 | Nitrogen Assimilation, Biosynthetic Use, and Excretion © 2009 W. H. Freeman and Company.

great apes; we excrete urate Birds, most reptiles, some amphibians, and most insects also excrete urate Used to reduce gout symptoms Catabolism of Purines: Degradation of Allantoin Most mammals do not degrade allantoin Amphibians and fishes hydrolyze allantoin into allantoate; bony fishes excrete allantoate Amphibians and cartilaginous fishes hydrolyze allantoate into glyoxylate and urea; many excrete urea Some marine invertebrates break urea down into ammonia Chapter 22: Summary Some prokaryotes/


GOUT. OBJECTIVES At the end of lectures students should : Define gout Describe outlines of treatment Describe treatment of acute gouty arthritis Describe.

. B. It increases the degradation of uric acid. C. It decreases the production of uric acid. D. It increases renal excretion of uric acid Ans:C Febuxostat Is a new oral non-purine xanthine oxidase (XO)inhibitor. Is structurally different from allopurinol& lacks purine ring More selective and potent inhibitor of XO than allopurinol & has no effect on other enzymes involved in purine or pyrimidine metabolism Well absorbed orally ( 84/


Outline 27.1 Digestion of Proteins

Acids Glutamate also provides nitrogen for the synthesis of other nitrogen-containing compounds, including the purines and pyrimidines that are part of DNA. The following four common metabolic intermediates are the precursors for synthesis of the nonessential amino acids: 27.6 Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids Glutamine is made from glutamate, and asparagine is made by reaction of glutamine with aspartate. 27.6 Biosynthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids The amino acid tyrosine/


1 Gout: background and clinical aspects. 2 Gout is an inflammatory disease caused by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and other.

risk of monosodium urate crystal formation and precipitation increases. Uric acid: the protagonist in gout Richette P, et al. Lancet 2010;375:318-328. Johnson RJ, et al. Nephrol 2005;25:3-8. 13 Uric acid formation URATE LEVEL Dietary purine intake Urinary urate excretion Endogenous purine synthesis Urinary urate reabsorption Choi HK, et al. Ann Intern Med 2005;143(7):499-516. 14 Purine synthesis, salvage and degradation Ribose/


Nucleotide metabolism Chemistry 256. Pigeons excrete only uric acid (a purine), so see where its carbons and nitrogens come from Sonne, Buchanan and Delluva.

can excrete uric acid, which is not very soluble in water (crystals in joints cause gout, for instance). Thus, depending on how much water the organism has to spare, various reactions increase solubility of the nitrogen to be excreted. Pyrimidines can be salvaged for energy through malonyl-CoA Unlike purine degradation, pyrimidines are broken down through reduction, rather than oxidation. for either fatty acid biosynthesis or/


Eric Niederhoffer, Ph.D. SIU-SOM Pyrimidines and Purines.

Eric Niederhoffer, Ph.D. SIU-SOM Pyrimidines and Purines Outline Pyrimidine and purine synthesis Pyrimidine and purine salvage/degradation Pathway disorders Pyrimidine and Purine Synthesis HCO 3 - + Gln CP CPSII Asp Oro R5P PRPP RPK UTP TSN 5,N 10 -mTHF dTMP DNA RNA dGTPdATP RR GDPADP IMP Gln Gly CO 2 Asp N 10 fTHF UMP UMPS CDP dCDP dUMP Pyrimidine and Purine Salvage UT PRPP UMPTMP RR UTPT G PRPP HGPT A APT X XO adenosine inosine/


Water Soluble Vitamins Dr. Nasim AP biochem. Definition and Classification  Non-caloric organic nutrients  Needed in very small amounts  Facilitators.

-THF – primary blood form Folate Functions  Single carbon metabolism Folate Functions  Interconversion of serine and glycine  ser + THF gly + 5,10-Me-THF  Degradation of histidine  his->->->formiminoglutamate(FIGLU)  FIGLU+THF -> glu + 5-forminino-THF  histidine load test –Functional test for folate status Folate Functions  Purine and Pyrimidine Synthesis  dUMP + 5,10-Me-THF -> dTMP + THF  Methionine Synthesis  homocysteine + 5-Me-THF -> MET + THF  MET as a methyl donor/


Diet and purines Prof David Perrett William Harvey Research Institute Barts & the London School of Medicine.

essential. Not the case with purines and pyrimidines Nucleic acids and purines Purines and pyrimidines can be made by our bodies. This de novo synthesis takes a lot of energy so nature tries to re-use the purine and pyrimidine ring structures for ATP, etc and DNA & RNA synthesis. Nucleic acids and purines Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – our energy metabolite ATP is essential for every breath we take Partial Metabolic Pathway for ATP degradation ATP AMP IMP Hypoxanthine Xanthine/


BIOC 801 - Dr. Tischler Lecture 20 – February 10, 2006 METABOLISM: NUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS & DISORDERS.

GMP NH 3 Figure 4. Degradation of purines to uric acid and salvage of purine bases via hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl /Gout = hyperuricemia due to a variety of causes GOUT AND LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME Lesch-Nyhan syndrome = excessive hyperuricemia; leads to self-mutilation Urate crystals appearing in a diaper – often found in synovial fluid of joints Incan Mask Depicting An Individual Presumably with Lesch-Nyhan as Evidenced by the Self-Mutilation Figure 5. Biosynthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides UTP and/


The texts were not checked by a native speaker. All comments, suggestions and improvements are welcome and the authors will be very thankful for discovered.

successfully separated uric acid from xanthine and other purine bases and correctly supposed that uric acid is formed from these substances. Acrylic acidUric acid Synthesis of uric acid Synthesis of uric acid (Horbaczewski 1882) Org. chem. 2015/165 The bond polarity depends on the difference of electronegativities. Presence of polar and non-polar bonds significantly affects the resulting character of the organic compound: Bind distance and binding energy - examples Bonds in organic/


Deoxyribonucleotide Ribonucleotide Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules (High molecular weight) or large biological.

direct synthesis of proteins including enzymes. 4) Mutations are essential for evolution of new varieties and species. 5) All plant viruses have RNA while bacterial and animal viruses have either DNA or RNA e.g Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and poliomyelitis are RNA viruses while vaccinia and Herpes are DNA viruses. 6) Cancer research involves extensive studies of nucleic acids. 7) Diseases like Gout and Orotic-aciduria are inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine/


ENZYMES Biological catalysts which speed up the rate of reaction without becoming part of the reaction but themselves cannot initiate any chemical reaction.

CarbamoylPO 4 + 2 ADP+ 2 Pi Synthesis of Purines and Pyrimidines Acetylcarboxylase Enz-Biotin-COO -  Enz-Biotin Pyruvate carboxylase.Biotin Carbamoyl Po 4.Synthetase - Biotin CO-ENZYMES Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) Strong reducing agent – Required for hydroxylation of proline into hydroxyproline for synthesis of collagen – Conversion of tyrosine into dopamine and into catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenalin) – Bile acid formation – Conversion of cholesterol into 7-hydroxylcholesterol – Maintain metallic/


ANTIBIOTICS 2014. ANTIBIOTICS (vs chemotherapeutics) Antimicrobial drugs (ATBs) – effective in the treatment of infections Selective toxicity – the ability.

– not use in those who are predisposed to arrhythmias Drug interactions: – antacids and cations Reduce absorption – inhibition of drug metabolism may raise the serum levels of warfarin, theophylline, caffeine, and cyclosporine FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS Coenzymes containing folic acid – required for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidinesand other compounds necessary for cellular growth and replication. In the absence of folic acid, bacteria cannot grow or divide. – Humans cannot synthesize folic acid/


ANTIBIOTICS 2012. ANTIBIOTICS Antimicrobial drugs (ATBs) – effective in the treatment of infections Selective toxicity – the ability to kill an invading.

on the absorption (see above). – The second, third- and fourth-generation inhibition of drug metabolism - may raise the serum levels of warfarin, theophylline, caffeine, and cyclosporine. Cimetidine interferes with elimination of the fluoroquinolones. FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS Coenzymes containing folic acid – required for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidinesand other compounds necessary for cellular growth and replication. In the absence of folic acid, bacteria cannot grow or divide. – Humans cannot/


Chapter 9 Water Soluble Vitamins Objectives: Understand what a vitamin is Learn the 9 water soluble vitamins and their food sources Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

amino acids can be used in The synthesis of new proteins for growth, or replacement of cellular proteins Production of important non-protein nitrogen containing molecules (glutathione, carnitine, creatine, choline, purines and pyrimidines) Oxidation as an energy source Synthesis of glucose, ketones or fatty acids Understand how the liver and muscle handle amino acid metabolism, and how excess nitrogen from proteins is disposed of. What is gout and how is it related to BUN/


Chase Findley, MSIV. Vitamins, Fat Soluble, 94  Vitamins A, D, E, K Absorption dependent on ileum and pancreas Absorption dependent on ileum and pancreas.

ATP and dATP imbalances nucleotide pool (feedback inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase)  Prevents DNA synthesis  Decreased lymphocyte count  Major cause of severe combined immunodeficiency disorder Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, 111  Absence of HGPRT leads to defective purine salvage pathway  Excess uric acid production  X-linked recessive  Mental retardation, self-mutilation, aggression, hyperuricemia, gout, choreoathetosis Orotic aciduria, 111  Inability to convert orotic acid UMP in de novo pyrimidine/


Integration of Metabolism

Pyrimidine Synth: Carbamyl Pi Synthetase II (UTP) Purine Synthesis : PRPP amidotransferase (Nucleotides) Heme Synthesis: -Aminolevulinic acid synthase (Heme) Ammoniagenesis: Glutamate Dehydrogenase (ADP/GDP) Citric Acid Cycle Citrate Synthase, IC and/Pi   Oxid. Phosp., Glycolysis, Glycogenolysis  B A - Hyperuricemia/Gout ( HGPRT  ) (Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome) Phosphate Trapping: Fructose Intolerance, /and 5-HO-Trp Melatonin Other PKUs: Classical : (> 95 % of PKU’s) Most common inborn error - only degradative/


Chapter 25: Metabolism Primary sources for figures and content:

, low triglycerides and phospholipids Deliver cholesterol from liver to tissues 5. High Density Lipoproteins Equal protein and lipids (cholesterol and phospholipids Return cholesterols to liver for degradation Lipoprotein Distribution Liver synthesizes VLDLs and releases them into/and phosphate Sugar  glycolysis for ATP Pyrimidine bases (C, U)  acetyl  citric acid cycle for ATP Purine bases (A, G)  deaminated excreted as uric acid NOT USED FOR ATP Gout Crystals of uric acid in joints Causes pain and/


Nucleotide Metabolism

age of two. VI. Pyrimidine Synthesis and Degradation Unlike the synthesis of the purine ring, which is constructed on a preexisting ribose 5-phosphate, the pyrimidine ring is synthesized before being attached to ribose 5-phosphate, which is donated by PRPP. The sources of the atoms in the pyrimidine ring are glutamine, CO2, and aspartic acid. [Note: Glutamine and aspartic acid are thus required for both purine and pyrimidine synthesis.] A. Synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate The regulated step of this/


UNIT IV: Nitrogen Metabolism Nucleotide Metabolism Part 2.

, less likely to initiate an inflammatory response In patients with normal levels of HGPRT, the hypoxanthine can be salvaged, thus reducing the levels of PRPP and, therefore, de novo purine synthesis. 12 C. Treatment of gout C. Treatment of gout VI. Pyrimidine Synthesis and Degradation Unlike the synthesis of the purine ring, which is constructed on a preexisting ribose 5-phosphate, the pyrimidine ring is synthesized before being attached to ribose 5-phosphate, which is donated by/


SFA 2073 NUCLEOTIDES: STRUCTURE & METABOLISM Nik Norma Nik Mahmood (Ph.D) U.N.S.W Sydney.

results when there is a lack of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) (ribonucleotide reductase & DNA synthesis are inhibited due to accumulation of dGTP). Catabolism/Degradation of pyrimidine nucleotides pyrimidine nucleotides pyrimidine nucleotides nucleotidases pyrimidine nucleoside pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase pyrimidine The pyrimidine are then degraded further into β - alanine and β - amino isobutyrate involving ring cleavage: - Atoms 2 and 3 of both rings are released as ammonia/


10-24-11: Nitrogen metabolism Part B Nucleotide metabolism.

gene Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) is essential for salvage of guanylate and inosinate Lesch-Nyhan patients have elevated serum urate levels, develop kidney stones and gout Virtual absence of HGPRT causes elevated PRPP levels that drives purine synthesis and the overproduction of urate as unused purines are degraded Neurological signs include self-mutilation, social aggression, mental deficiency and spasticity The biochemical basis for the disease remains uncertain During muscle/


Nucleotides metabolism. 【目的与要求】 记住嘌呤核苷酸有两条合成途径。结合嘌呤核苷酸 结构与从头合成途径,说出嘌呤核苷酸各元素或组 件的材料来源。熟记二磷酸核苷还原生成脱氧嘌呤 核苷酸。写出与嘌呤核苷酸补救合成有关的酶的名 称、功能、酶缺陷相关的疾病 结合嘌呤核苷酸合成途径、调节,熟记嘌呤核苷酸.

记住嘌呤核苷酸体内分解代谢终产物 - 尿酸及其与医 学的关系 熟记嘧啶核苷酸从头合成的原料及合成调节。说出 嘧啶核苷酸补救合成所需的酶及其催化的反应。明 白嘧啶核苷酸抗代谢药物作用机理,记住嘧啶核苷 酸分解代谢产物名称 8.1 Purine metabolism -8.1.1 The Biosynthesis of Purines -8.1.2 Purine Salvage -8.1.3 De-oxyribonucleotide Synthesis -8.1.4 Purine Degradation 8.2 Pyrimidine metabolism -8.2.1 Biosynthesis of Pyrimidines -8.2.2 Pyrimidine Degradation Outline Deoxyribonucleotide umol food protein nuclear acid (RNA and DNA) (intestine) Endonucleases (phosphodiesterase) mononucleotide Nucleotidase ( phosphoesterase/


متابولیسم چربیها. Text Cholesterol Phospholipid Triglycerides Bile Salts T G Emulsion Lipase Fatty acids +Monoglycrid+Diglycrid <10 carbone Absorbed >

-1-pyrophosphate) is active donor of R-5-P. c. AMP and GMP are synthesized further at the base of IMP(Inosine-5-Monophosphate). Text Purine Nucleotide Synthesis Text Purine Nucleotide Synthesis Text Deoxyribonucleotide synthesis at the NDP level Text Purine nucleotide biosynthesis is regulated by feedback inhibition Text Purine Salvage Pathway Absence of activity of HGPRT leads to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Text تجزیه و دفع بازهای پورین - Text Gout Impaired excretion or overproduction of uric acid Uric acid/


February 19 Chapter 27 Nucleic acid metabolism

Gln) The synthesis of AMP and GMP from IMP Regulation of purine biosynthesis Purine catabolism leads to uric acid Purine Degradation Purine catabolism leads to uric acid Nucleotidases and nucleosidases release ribose and phosphates and leave free bases Xanthine oxidase and guanine deaminase route everything to xanthine Xanthine oxidase converts xanthine to uric acid Xanthine oxidase can oxidize two different sites on the purine ring system Purine catabolism in animals Xanthine Oxidase and Gout XO in liver/


Nucleotide Metabolism. Bases/Nucleosides/Nucleotides Base= Base Base + Sugar= Nucleoside Base + Sugar + Phosphate= Nucleotide AdenineDeoxyadenosine 5’-triphosphate.

make this at least bearable if not mildly interesting Purines and PyrimidinesSynthesis (de novo and salvage pathways) –Degradation –Relevant disease states –Relevant clinical applications (Friday) You are not responsible for any structures Purines and Pyrimidines AdenineGuanine Thymine/UracilCytosine Two Purines Two Pyrimidines Synthesis Pathways For both purines and pyrimidines there are two means of synthesis (often regulate one another) –de novo (from bits and parts) –salvage (recycle from pre-existing/


Nucleotide Metabolism -Biosynthesis- Dr. Sooad Al-Daihan 1.

. Lecture no.7 34 Conversion of dUMP to dTMP by thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase. In the synthesis of dTMP, all three hydrogens of the added methyl group are derived from the N 5,N 10 -methylenetetrahydrofolate, as shown in red and gray. Continue… Pyrimidine Salvage pathway 35 Lecture no.7 Nucleotide Metabolism -Degradation- Lecture no.7 Purine Catabolism Purine nucleotides (AMP and GMP)are degraded by a pathway in which they/


Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D. H UMAN P HYSIOLOGY PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide.

INTEGRATED APPROACH T H I R D E D I T I O N Purine degradation & Gout (Musculoskeletal Block) Purine degradation pathway Fate of uric acid in humans Gout and hyperuricemia: Biochemistry Types Treatment 1 Lecture Dr. Sumbul Fatma Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Purine degradation pathway The major source of dietary nucleic acids (purines and pyrimidines) is meat Purine and pyrimidine bases are absorbed by the intestine The ingested bases are mostly/


06 May 2008 Nucleic Acid Metabolism Andy Howard Introductory Biochemistry 6 May 2008.

by GTP (makes sense!) PDB 1S1M 240 kDa tetramer dimer shown E.coli 06 May 2008 Nucleic Acid Metabolism p.13 of 56 Purine synthesis Considerably more complex than pyrimidine synthesis More atoms to condense and two rings to make More ATP to sacrifice during synthesis Several synthetase (ligase) reactions require ATP Based on PRPP, gln, 10-formyl THF, asp 06 May 2008 Nucleic Acid Metabolism p/


Hyperuricemia and Related Diseases

as monosodium urate Uric Acid Pool Base, Sugar (Ribose or Deoxyribose) and Phosphate DNA and RNA Nucleotides Base and Sugar (Ribose or Deoxyribose) Nucleosides Bases Urate Urine Intestine Tophi Salvage Pathways Diet De novo biosynthesis Nucleic Acids Adenine and Guanine (Purines). The pyrimidines cytosine and thymine not degraded to urate Urate Production varies with diet purine content and rates of purine synthesis, degradation and salvage Normal urate pool 1200mg in male. Females half Steady state/


FCH 532 Lecture 27 Chapter 28: Nucleotide metabolism Quiz on Monday (4/18) - IMP biosynthesis pathway ACS exam has been moved to Monday (5/2) Final is.

by deposition of nearly insoluble crystals of sodium urate or uric acid. Clinical disorders of purine metabolism Excessive accumulation of uric acid: Gout The three defects shown each result in elevated de novo purine biosynthesis Common treatment for gout: allopurinol Allopurinol is an analogue of hypoxanthine that strongly inhibits xanthine oxidase. Xanthine and hypoxanthine, which are soluble, are accumulated and excreted. Catabolism of pyrimidines Animal cells degrade pyrimidines to their component/


Amino acids, N-containing molecules Nucleotides

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fig 22-30 Nucleotide Ribose 1 C transfer Purine synthesis (II) IMP (inosinate, inosine monophosphate) GTP AMP IMP + Asp  AMP/Purine degradation Fig 22-43 left modified Release bases can be salvaged for reuse Pyrimidine degradation NH4+  urea Produce all soluble compounds (Fig 22-44). b-aminoisobutyrate, methylmalonylsemialdehyde (intermediate of Val catabolism) Purine degradation Uric acid (low solubility) Gout Allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) Xanthine oxidase Fig 22-45 Inhibitors and/


Year Two Review Eric Niederhoffer, Ph.D. SIU-SOM.

Pyrimidine and purine synthesis Glycogen storage disorders including salvage and degradation Glycogen storage disorders Lysosomal storage disorders Heme synthesis and degradation including oxygen binding/unloading of heme Integration of metabolism including lipid synthesis/degradation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle and glycogenolysis/glycogen synthesis Pyrimidine and Purine Synthesis/, hepatomegaly, xanthomas, manifestations of gout, hypertension, renal failure, and short stature. Fasting glucose,/


Eric Niederhoffer, Ph.D. SIU-SOM Year Two Review Part 2.

Pyrimidine and purine synthesis including salvage and degradation Glycogen storage disorders Lysosomal storage disorders Heme synthesis and degradation including oxygen binding/unloading of heme Integration of metabolism including lipid synthesis/degradation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle and glycogenolysis/glycogen synthesis Pyrimidine and Purine Synthesis/seizures, hypotonia, hepatomegaly, xanthomas, manifestations of gout, hypertension, renal failure, and short stature. Fasting glucose, ischemic /


UNIT IV: Nitrogen Metabolism Nucleotide Metabolism.

9 3- Synthesis Of Purine Nucleotides Atoms of purine ring are contributed by: Asp, Gly and Gln/ CO 2 / and N 10 -formyl- tetrahydrofolate Ring is constructed in the liver by reactions that add donated carbons and nitrogens to preformed ribose 5-phosphate. Figure 22.5 Sources of individual atoms in the purine ring 10 PRPP is an “activated pentose”, participates in synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, and in salvage of purine bases Synthesis of PRPP from ATP and ribose-5/


HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS. NUCLEINIC ACIDS KARAGANDA STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY Karaganda 2014 y.

possible to alter heterocyclic ring or sugar moiety, and produce synthetic analogs of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides. Some of the synthetic analogs are highly useful in clinical medicine. The structures of selected purine and pyrimidine analogs are given in Fig.7. Fig. 7: Structures of selectedpurine andpyrimidine analogs. The pharmacological applications of certain analogs are listed below Allopurinol is used in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout (For details, Refer Chapter 17). 5/


Metabolism & Nutrition 2012 Clinical Enzymology Metabolism & Nutrition 2012 Clinical Enzymology (Prof. Dr. Jerapan Krungkrai) Objectives & Contents Objectives.

recessive inheritance pattern) purine nucleotides then leads to increase degradation of purines to uric acid through xanthine oxidase. Figure 10. [PRPP] + ve 2. Enzyme deficiency Identification and treatment of enzyme deficiency. Enzyme deficiencies usually lead to increased accumulation of specific metabolites in plasma and hence in urine. This is useful in pinpointing enzyme defects. E.g., De novo pyrimidine pathway: defects of OPRT and OMPDC leads to accumulation of orotate ----> Hereditary orotic/


Water Soluble Vitamins

primary blood form Folate Functions Single carbon metabolism Folate Functions Interconversion of serine and glycine ser + THF <---> gly + 5,10-Me-THF Degradation of histidine his->->->formiminoglutamate(FIGLU) FIGLU+THF -> glu + 5-forminino-THF histidine load test Functional test for folate status Folate Functions Purine and Pyrimidine Synthesis Methionine Synthesis dUMP + 5,10-Me-THF -> dTMP + THF Methionine Synthesis homocysteine + 5-Me-THF -> MET + THF MET as a methyl donor/


Nitrogen Metabolism Copyright  2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 20 - 1.

Pearson Canada Inc. 1 - 8 Glutamine synthetase Copyright  2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 1 - 9 Glutamic acid, glutamine, and  -ketoglutarate are primary players in moving nitrogens. Regulation Copyright  2013 Pearson Canada Inc. 1 - 10 Glutamine is involved in the metabolism of: Aromatic a.a.s Several other a.a.s Purines Pyrimidines Amino sugars Regulated by feedback inhibition Also regulated globally by signal cascades Adenylation/


Pathology Review Flash Cards General Pathology Spring 2009.

–Due to increased synthesis of structural components –Caused by increased/ –Pyrimidine dimers (radiation, UV) –Chromosomal/and Spread of Tumors Invasion & Metastasis –Discohesiveness from clonal population  loss of homotypic adhesion proteins [cadherins/catenins] –Access to vasculature  leaky angiogenic vessels; Type IV collagenase degradation of basement membranes –Binding and growth at distant site  adhesion to epithelium with laminin and fibronectin (CXCR4 and/)— muscle weakness Gout, Urate Nephropathy /


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