Ppt on study designs in epidemiology

Session II Study Design Session Overview Developing and testing hypotheses Study Designs: –Selection –Implementation Sampling.

eating egg salad at the church picnic –Outcome is laboratory confirmation of Salmonella Analytic Studies Used to test the current hypothesis: –Is there an association between exposure and disease? –How strong is the association? Analytic Studies Two types used in outbreak investigations –Cohort –Case-control Definition of a Cohort In epidemiology, “Any designated group of individuals who are followed or traced over a period of time/


Descriptive Research in Physical Activity Epidemiology Descriptive Research in Physical Activity Epidemiology CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 11.

patterns -Determinants Assessment of physical activity -Direct measurements -Questionnaires Epidemiologic Study Designs Descriptive epidemiology Analytical designs -Cross-sectional designs -Ecological designs -Cohort studies -Case-control studies Experimental designs: Randomized trials Design in Exercise Epidemiology Case-control studies: Select participants from a group with a disorder and compare with cases without the disorder Cohort studies -Groups exposed to cause of disorder versus those not exposed/


Session V Analyzing Data Session Overview Analysis planning Descriptive epidemiology –Attack rates Analytic epidemiology –Measures of association –Tests.

epidemiologic methods –Helps assure that the work leading up to analysis yields a database structure and content that your preferred analysis software needs to successfully run analysis programs Analysis Planning Several factors influence—and sometimes limit—your approach to data analysis: –Research question –Exposure and outcome variables –Study design/ into missing values that are expected versus those that are due to problems in data collection or entry The number of missing values for each variable can /


Study design Raj Bhopal, Bruce and John Usher Professor of Public Health, Public Health Sciences Section, Division of Community Health Sciences, University.

to places rather than individuals, rather than a design. There are conceptual and practical interrelationships between various study designs. Study design: introduction There are five basic designs based on individual data. There are modifications of these study designs. Discussions tend to consider each design as being distinct, but Ideas which underlie study design are interrelated. Commonalities in study design The common goal of epidemiological studies is understanding the frequency, pattern and causes/


The seven sins and 10 commandments of epidemiology 18th IEA World Congress of Epidemiology, Brazil 2008: Course on Epidemiologic Research and New Directions.

‘finding is not causal because the data come from a study of design x’ lazy and sloppy sin Every association places one somewhere on the pathway of causal analysis Where?-toughest question in epidemiology Sin 4: Causes-examples Herbst et al 1971 case-control study on adenocarcinoma of the vagina in young woman 8 cases in girls born in N. England hospitals 1946 – 1951 (treated 1966 – 1969) and/


Study Designs in Epidemiology

Qualitative methods Quantitative methods Choice of design References Porta M. A dictionary of epidemiology. 5th edition. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Rothman J, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology. Second edition. Lippincott - Raven Publishers, 1998. Bhopal R. Study design. University of Edinburgh. NLM. An introduction to Clinical trials. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2004 Songer T. Study designs in epidemiological research. In: South Asian Cardiovascular Research Methodology Workshop/


Principles of Epidemiology Lecture 9 Dona Schneider, PhD, MPH, FACE

You may need to do this with diagnostic tests or medical histories Single Sample Cohort Study Design TIME Diseased Disease-Free Cohort Exposed Not Diseased Target Population Diseased Not Exposed Not Diseased The Framingham Study Since 1948, samples of residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, have been subjects of investigations of risk factors in relation to the occurrence of heart disease and other outcomes The Framingham/


Study Design and Analysis in Epidemiology: Where does modeling fit? Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiologic Data, 2010 AIMS, Muizenberg, South Africa Steve.

are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ © 2010 Steve Bellan and the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data Clinichttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ Title: Study Design and Analysis in Epidemiology Attribution: Steve Bellan, Clinic on the Meaningful Modeling of Epidemiological Data Source URL: http://lalashan.mcmaster.ca/theobio/mmed/index.php/http://lalashan.mcmaster.ca/theobio/mmed/index.php/ For/


Curriculum Orientation for Teachers Teacher Orientation to Curriculum Epidemiology and the Energy Balance Equation Updated Feb 20, 2011.

Authentic Assessment for Module 2 of the Epidemiology and the Energy Balance Equation Curriculum 47 Students will conduct, analyze, and interpret observational, cross- sectional studies among students in their class and then among students outside their class. Working in teams, students will have the opportunity to demonstrate their abilities to select a reasonable hypothesis of interest to them, design study questions about exposure and outcome, obtain/


DrugEpi 3-1 Associations and the 2x2 Table Module 3 Introduction Content Area: Analytical Epidemiology Essential Question (Generic): Is there an association.

the term “association;” the need for a control group; uses of the 2x2 table in calculating risks and relative risks; experimental study design; the importance of ethics in human research; observational study designs used in epidemiology; and the strengths and limitations of each design. Lesson 3-1: Associations and the 2x2 Table Lesson 3-2: Experimental Study - Buprenorphine Example Lesson 3-3: An Actual Randomized Controlled Trial Lesson 3-4/


Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Fall 2002 Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Patricia Cohen, Ph.D. Henian Chen, M.D., Ph. D. Teaching Assistants Julie KranickSylvia.

-adjusted mortality due to coronary heart disease not fully accounted for by a decline in the incidence of hospitalized myocardial infarction cases. Is it due to more effective hospital care or to a decline in severity of cases? Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Fall 2002 Population studied, study design, and sample size : MI study Olmstead Minnesota county is served by the Mayo Clinic Hospitals and one other hospital. Detailed/


Iressa and interstitial lung disease (ILD) in Japan - Lessons from a large nested case-control study to evaluate a safety issue Fredrik Nyberg 1, Shuji.

reported among treated non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at a rate of up to 6% within the first months after treatment. Objectives: To share study design insights from an ongoing epidemiologic investigation undertaken by AstraZeneca in Japan to estimate the relative risk of ILD among NSCLC patients treated with Iressa vs. other treatments, and elucidate mechanisms and risk factors of ILD. Methods/


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Odyssey Museum Tom Harkin Global Communications Center July 6-10, 2009 Teach Epidemiology Professional.

), it is not ethical to intentionally expose a group of people. In these circumstances, studies can be designed that observe groups of free-living people with and without the exposure. Enduring Understandings 73 Time Check 2:30 PM 74 75 Teach Epidemiology 76 77 Teach Epidemiology 78 National Research Council, Learning and Understanding Teach Epidemiology Enduring Epidemiological Understandings Knowledge that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to/


Integrating Epidemiology Education into Your Existing Curriculum Reading High School, April 12, 2008 Young Epidemiology Scholars Teaching Units Welcome.

Random Assignment E O O O O Healthy People E E O O O O 4 Basic Epidemiological Study Designs Enduring Understandings YES Teaching Units Professional Development Workshop Enduring Understandings YES Teaching Units Professional Development Workshop Enduring/ideas that reside at the heart of a discipline and have lasting value outside the classroom. Descriptive epidemiology in the classroom Demonstration of a student exercise YES Teaching Units Professional Development Workshop Video Review Hiroshima YES /


Introduce some Epidemiologic International Courses Elham Ahmadnezhad, MD, MPH, PhD student of Epidemiology 1.

Quantitative Medical Research August 9 - 27, 2010 Rotterdam, The Netherlands http://www.erasmussummerprogramme.nl/ New courses in 2010 Advances in Epidemiologic Study Design Advances in Genomics Research Markers and Prognostic Research Social Epidemiology Advances in Epidemiologic Study Design Advances in Genomics Research Markers and Prognostic Research Social Epidemiology 10 Summer School in Epidemiology & Global Health 28th June - 16th July 2010 University of Dundee, Scotland http://www.dundee.ac.uk/cmdn/


HLSC 4613 Principles of Epidemiology Instructor: Ches Jones, PhD University of Arkansas.

and controls Select individuals with the disease(cases) Select individuals without the disease (controls) Case-Control Study n Dominate form of epidemiologic study (>80%) n Difficult but rewarding design to use n Case-control studies have been used in other areas besides causation- preventive services and health services research Case-Control Study Strengths 1) Appropriate for rare diseases 2) Appropriate for disease with long induction time. 3/


1 Integrating Epidemiology Education into Your Existing Curriculum Clarion University, February 18-20, 2008 Young Epidemiology Scholars Teaching Units.

O O O O Randomized Controlled Trial Timeline O O E E E E Case-Control Study Timeline E E O Cross-Sectional Study O Timeline Epidemiologic studies of natural experiments in which the investigator is not involved in the intervention other than to record, classify, count, and statistically analyze results Study Designs 120 Enduring Understandings YES Teaching Units Professional Development Workshop 121 122 YES Teaching Units Professional/


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morgantown, West Virginia June 20-24, 2011 Teach Epidemiology Professional Development Workshop Day 4.

deficits  Reading cessation  Alzheimer’s Cross-sectional study  For example: Sexual activity/Marijuana Minimize effect of reverse causality Done in the planning and implementation phase of a study Pick study designs in which exposure is measured before disease onset Assess disease /career paths related to the public’s health. Top 8 Reasons to Teach / Learn about Epidemiology Teach Epidemiology 207 208 Teach Epidemiology Innovation … an idea, practice or object that is perceived as new by an individual or/


Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Fall 2002 Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Patricia Cohen, Ph.D. Henian Chen, M.D., Ph. D. Teaching Assistants Julie KranickSylvia.

confounders and matched timing for cases and controls C. Cohort studies in which data on exposures are gathered prospectively and disease outcomes are assessed in subsequent follow-up Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Fall 2002 Retrospective studies Designs in which measurement of exposures, including timing, are retrospective (gathered at a single time point in case-referent and cross-sectional cohort studies), or based on collection of pre-existing records. Accuracy of/


Introduction to Epidemiology Introduction to Epidemiology Introduction to Epidemiology TRAINING FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS Children’s Health and the Environment.

data are available have much lower exposure than that in animal experiments.  Third, epidemiological studies better represent the genetic diversity and variability in host factors in human populations than do animal studies. Introduction to Epidemiology Aspects that should be taken into account when interpreting epidemiological studies on children’s health and the environment  What are the study questions?  What is the study design?  How has exposure been assessed?  How have health effects/


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Odyssey Museum Tom Harkin Global Communications Center June 6-10, 2011 Teach Epidemiology Professional.

that “… is connected and organized, and … ‘conditionalized’ to specify the context in which it is applicable.” The goal of every epidemiological study is to harvest valid and precise information about the relationship between an exposure and a disease in a population. The various study designs merely represent different ways of harvesting this information. Essentials in Epidemiology in Public Health Ann Aschengrau and George R. Seage III Making Group Comparisons/


Concept for a German Environmental Health Birth Cohort Design and Feasibility Issues Schmidt B, Moebus S, Lösch C, Pieper C, Hoffmann B, Andrich S, Schulz.

Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology University Hospital of Essen, 2011 Review of existing birth cohort studies First idea for design issues and framework Generating possible research questions 1. expert meeting Determining design and main research questions/Study Timeline Start 1. year 2. year 3. year 4. year Update of study protocol 14 Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology University Hospital of Essen, 2011 Next Steps  Announcing the study locations  Feasibility studies in /


Carnegie Institution for Science 1530 P Street, NW Washington, DC 20005 April 18-21, 2011 Teach Epidemiology Professional Development Workshop Day 2.

effect, it is not ethical to intentionally expose a group of people. In these circumstances, studies can be designed that observe groups of free- living people with and without the exposure. 134 Time Check 3:15 PM 135 136 Teach Epidemiology 137 Time Check 3:30 PM 138 139 Teach Epidemiology 140 Teach Epidemiology Teachers Team-Teaching Teachers (TTTT) TTTT 1 (pages 1-33) 141 Teach/


Epidemiologic design from a sampling perspective Epidemiology II Lecture April 14, 2005 David Jacobs.

, 2005 David Jacobs Why different epidemiologic designs? It is generally not possible to observe everyone in a population New questions arise after data / samples have been collected Cost and feasibility Statistical efficiency and appropriateness to study question The possibilities There are many approaches  Sampling from the whole population  Sampling from exposure  Sampling from caseness  Haphazard selection True Population Configuration Underlying Epidemiologic Study Designs Exposed N = A + B/


Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Fall 2002 Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Patricia Cohen, Ph.D. Henian Chen, M.D., Ph. D. Teaching Assistants Julie KranickSylvia.

; participation rates are linked to exposures of interest. Coping mechanisms include: 1. Minimize such risk in the design of the study. 2. Include variables related to missingness in the analysis. 3. Examine the potential magnitude of the bias attributable to these factors (sensitivity analysis). Applied Epidemiologic Analysis Fall 2002 Study design to minimize missing data Recruitment and completion of information is generally highest when: 1. Carried out/


DrugEpi 3-5 Fundamentals of Study Design Module 3 Introduction Content Area: Analytical Epidemiology Essential Question (Generic): Is there an association.

Example Lesson 3-5: Fundamentals of Study Design Lesson 3-6: Study Design Exercises DrugEpi 3-5 Fundamentals of Study Design Module 3 - Analytical Epidemiology Lesson 3-5 Fundamentals of Study Design Content Introduction to concepts of epidemiology study designs Overview of the four main study designs used in epidemiology: 1) controlled trial; 2) cohort study; 3) case-control study; and 4) cross-sectional study Ways of explaining the flow of each study design, in text and visually The uncovering of the/


Michael H. Dong MPH, DrPA, PhD  readings Epidemiology and Risk Assessment (4th of 10 Lectures on Toxicologic Epidemiology)

Epidemiologic Study Designs Using primarily observational data. Descriptive studies. Cohort studies. Case-control studies. Cross-sectional studies. Ecological studies. Guidance for Epidemiology Studies Epidemiologic study designs can be used to assess human exposures. Good epidemiology practices by: International Society for Pharmaco- epidemiology; International Epidemiological/interperson variability. Multiple factors causing biological variation in dose-response. Biomarkers: Legal and Ethical /


Outbreak Investigation HSPH Infectious Disease Epidemiology April 29, 2015 Natasha Hochberg, MD, MPH Boston University School of Medicine Boston University.

outbreak and diagnosis Define a case Find and count cases Descriptive epidemiology Generate hypotheses Design and conduct epidemiologic study Laboratory and environmental investigation Implement and evaluate control measures Communicate findings Consider additional studies Confirm outbreak and diagnosis No change in lab procedures at ADHS No known change in clinical practices in AZ or elsewhere No change in reporting Steps in outbreak investigation Confirm outbreak and diagnosis Define a case Find/


Epidemiology and Sex(ually Transmitted Diseases): The Basics Willard Cates, Jr., MD, MPH Family Health International Principles of STD/HIV Research University.

Categories of Study Design DescriptiveDescriptive AnalyticAnalytic ExperimentalExperimental Knowledge Continuum LessMore  DescriptiveAnalytic Search for cluesClues available  Most Experimental Descriptive Studies Patterns of occurrencePatterns of occurrence No comparison groupNo comparison group Generate hypotheses about E-D relationshipsGenerate hypotheses about E-D relationships Descriptive Studies: Examples from STD Epidemiology of chlamydia in NorwayEpidemiology of chlamydia in Norway Prevalence/


1 GLOBAL BIOMETRICS Biostatistics Clinical Data Management Epidemiology & Patient Reported Outcomes Statistical Programming and Analysis Strategic Planning,

the program - these factors will impact your modular design GLOBAL BIOMETRICS Biostatistics Clinical Data Management Epidemiology & Patient Reported Outcomes Statistical Programming and Analysis Strategic Planning, Operations and Collaborations/ */ What rules have you seen here in previous study requirements? What are you aware is requested or could possibly be for future studies? GLOBAL BIOMETRICS Biostatistics Clinical Data Management Epidemiology & Patient Reported Outcomes Statistical Programming and /


Showing Cause, Introduction to Study Design Principles of Epidemiology.

cannot be used to assess individual risk To do this is to commit ecological fallacy Epidemiology (Schneider) Types of Study Designs (cont.) Analytic studies (to test hypotheses) Experimental studies Clinical trials Field trials Intervention studies Observational studies Case-control studies Cohort studies Epidemiology (Schneider) The Key to Study Design The key to any epidemiologic study is in the definition of what constitutes a case and what constitutes exposure Definitions must be exclusive, categorical/


EPIDEMIOLOGY I. DEFINITION - EPIDEMIOLOGY Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease or health outcomes in specified populations,

water had spread cholera. JOHN SNOW Snows work is often considered the beginning of epidemiology, the study of health outcomes in populations. This figure shows a map of cholera in London prepared by John Snow. By the end of the outbreak, more than 600/or an estimate is based on the measurement. (TP+TN)/(TP+TN+FP+FN) I.E Total screened patient RESEARCH STUDY DESIGN Cohort Studies: -group who are free from condition under investigation -exposure to risk factors linked to cause of illness -assessment of /


Types of studies Introduction to common epidemiological terms Jaakko Tuomilehto.

– Female (51.3%) Screening: – Questionnaire – Physical examination – Blood samples incl. OGTT Prevalence of Diabetes and IGT in Denmark, DiaRisk (n=6,784) age % Types of studies Common epidemiological terms Types of studies –Ecological –Cross-sectional Problem: Simultaneous assessment of disease and exposure Liable to bias –Cohort studies Design: Cohort-study (a) 1/1-1999 31/12-2000 Incidence: 2/(5x2+1x½+1x1½) = 2/12 = 16% per year/


Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Epidemiology and Public Health Nursing.

reserved. 22 Cohort Study Largest of observational studies Follows a group of people through time Prospective design –Framingham study Retrospective design Relative risk Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 23 Randomized Clinical Trial Experimental study Often used to study: –Safety and efficacy of new drugs –Lifestyle changes Can be used in health promotion and disease prevention Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 24 Sources of Epidemiologic Data Census Bureau/


Integrated HIV Research and Prevention Epidemiology – principles & approach CITAR Vietnam Workshop 2008 Lu-Yu Hwang, M.D. The University of Texas-Houston,

of population with condition –Characteristics of interest defined by eligibility criteria : benefit from intervention –Inclusive/Exclusive criteria be defined in advanced, because the impact will have on study design ability to generalize, Participant recruitment Experimental Methods In Epidemiology Study Design Randomized trials –Randomized control study –Cross-over trial Non-randomized trials –Concurrent non-randomized trial –Historical control trial (nonconcurrent) Sample Nonparticipants Randomization to/


Epidemiology Definition and Concept. What is epidemiology ? What sciences does it draw from ? What are its uses ? What are its basic concepts ? What are.

, genetic, life- course, CVD, nutritional, cancer, disaster, etc Broad Types of Epidemiology Examining the distribution of a disease in a population, and observing the basic features of its distribution in terms of time, place, and person. We try to formulate hypothesis, look into associations ? Typical study design: community health survey (synonyms: cross-sectional study, descriptive study) Testing a specific hypothesis about the relationship of a disease to/


Epidemiology DPT- 6 Dr Muhammad Zahid Latif HOD Community Medicine ANMC Date:

/ Interventional Observational Community Trials Field Trials RCT Cross sectional Case Control Cohort Analytical Studies Descriptive studies look at the entire population In Analytical studies the subject of interest is the individual with in population Two Types Case Control Study Cohort Study Case Control Study A case-control study is a type of study design used widely, originally developed in epidemiology, although its use has also been advocated for the social sciences. It is/


Department of Epidemiology & Community Medicine,

higher marriage rate than bachelors 8/2009 Some Key Dates in Epidemiology 400BC Hippocrates 1660s John Graunt (birth of vital statistics) 1660s Thomas Sydenham (Classification of fevers) 1753 James Lind (Studies on Scurvy) 1774 Jenner and Jesty (smallpox immunization) 1830/work moved Epi from infectious diseases to chronic diseases. 8/2009 Examples(2):Smoking & lung cancer Invented case-control design. 709 cases and 709 controls. Used personal interview to recall smoking and other behaviours. 99.7% of male /


Research Methodology and Epidemiology Dr. Sean Lynch.

of group based methods 3. To understand sources of data loss and bias in qualitative studies Research Methodology and Epidemiology -4 Programme (approximate times) 1030 - 1115 Feedback on problems in last session Interview designs in qualitative research Interview designs in qualitative research 1115 - 1130 Break 1130 - 1215 Group, observational and ethnographic methods in qualitative research methods in qualitative research 1215 - 1230 Discussion of morning 1230 - 1330 Lunch 1330 - 1530 Small/


Competencies for Applied Epidemiologists in Governmental Public Health Agencies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Council of State and Territorial.

to study design and data collection, dissemination, and use Manage data Analyze data Summarize results, and draw conclusions Recommend evidence-based interventions and control measures Evaluate programs 2: Basic Public Health Sciences Tier 2 Competencies Use knowledge of causes of disease to guide epidemiologic practice Use laboratory resources to support epidemiologic activities Apply principles of informatics, including data collection, processing, and analysis, in support of epidemiologic/


A short introduction to epidemiology Chapter 1: Introduction

systematic body of epidemiologic principles by which to design and judge [epidemiologic] studies has begun to form only in the last two decades” (Rothman, 1986) “Modern EpidemiologyEpidemiology is a generic method The word “populations” is not necessary for its definition The focus is on measuring individual exposure-disease associations Certain study designs are most valid We should focus on hypotheses that fit these study designs “Modern” Epidemiology Concentrates on studying individual “risk/


Introduction to clinical epidemiology Hui Jin Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics School of Public Health Southeast University

interventions) Good healthIll health Health promotion Preventive measures Public health services Two Broad Types of Epidemiology Examining the distribution of a disease in a population, and observing the basic features of its distribution in terms of time, place, and person. Typical study design: community health survey (approximate synonyms - cross-sectional study, descriptive study) Hypothesis generating Testing a specific hypothesis about the relationship of a disease to a/


06/05/2015 Risk Management Plan 24. April 2008 Helge Gydesen Epidemiology Novo Nordisk A/S.

/05/2015 Risk management - Future Global Epidemiology will be involved in all Risk Management Activities in NN Input to design and protocol Timely epidemiology support to project teams to design and implement epidemiological studies to evaluate safety issues. Setup an organised collaborative team with IPS as an Integrated Risk Management Expert Group (IRMEG) within NN. Responsible for study design, analysis, interpretation and publication of studies related to safety issues of NN/


Descriptive Epidemiology

the validity of a hypothesis concerning the occurrence of disease. Deliberate manipulation of the cause is predictably followed by an alteration in the effect not due to chance Overview of epidemiologic design strategies Descriptive Populations{Correlational studies} Individual Case report Case series Cross sectional studies Analytic studies Observational Case control Cohort Retrospective Prospective Interventional/Experimental Randomized controlled trial Field trial Clinical trial Descriptive vs. Analytic/


SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HIV IN KAZAKHSTAN: A MEASUREMENT CHALLENGE FOR 2007 FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON “ECOLOGY. RADIATION. HEALTH”, SEMEY STATE.

PLANNING GROUPS APPLY THE PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, EVALUATION & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE THEORIES TO DESIGN PREVENTION PROGRAMS IN ORDER TO GET GRANT FUNDING  SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGIES WHICH ARE MOST RELEVANT TO DEFINING & SOLVING THE HIV EPIDEMIC ARE -  EPIDEMIOLOGY & SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS,  BASIC BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE & CHANGE THEORY,  EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS & EVALUATION METHODS. SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY MODELS BRIEFLY,  EPIDEMIOLOGY IS THE STUDY OF POPULATION HEALTH THE OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTION/


The epidemiological tool-box A ssociations – quantification using rate ratios, rate differences, odds ratios.

Y-axis and plotting the data Z-score and statistical inference Ж - ????? The epidemiological tool-box Steps in Designing and Conducting an Epidemiologic Investigation You have made an observation based on descriptive cancer statistics……. Specify TOPIC and PURPOSE Determining what is KNOWN and UNKNOWN State the CASE FOR ACTION Formulate STUDY OBJECTIVES Formulate HYPOTHESES “There are two possible outcomes: If the result confirms the hypothesis/


Report of the Epidemiology Subcommittee Members: Kathy Dumbleton (Chair) Christine Purslow (SC Liaison) Murat Dogru (Consultant) Barbara Caffery Sheila.

– Corneal and conjunctival staining Young et al 2012 3 – NO common sign in symptomatic wearers – 23% of symptomatic wearers did not exhibit any of the typical clinical signs of dryness Epidemiology Subcommittee Prevalence – Population Based Studies – PubMed search “Contact lens discomfort” and “population study” or “epidemiological study” No prospectively designed epidemiological studies Only epidemiological studies to investigate prevalence of dry eye disease – Older populations, CL wear infrequently/


Lecture 7 – The RCT Mathew J. Reeves BVSc, PhD

J. Reeves,PhD © Dept. of Epidemiology, MSU Experimental (Intervention) Studies Investigator completely controls exposure type, amount, duration, and who receives it (randomization) Regarded as the most scientifically vigorous study design. Why? Random assignment reduces confounding bias/ Risk RRR = CER – EER / CER x 100 {Or RRR = ARR / CER} ARR= The absolute difference in risk of the outcome between the treatment and control groups. Usually calculated as the difference between the unexposed or control event/


Epidemiology of Healthcare- Associated Infections.

edition. Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. 2007; 3-23. Doshi RK, Patel G, MacKay R, Wallach F. Health care- Associated Infections: Epidemiology, Prevention, and Therapy. Mount Sinai J Med 2009; 76: 84–94. Overview of Epidemiologic Study Designs. In: Essentials of Epidemiology in Public Health. Aschengrau, A, Seage, GR, eds. Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury MA. 2006; 135-162. December 1, 2013 37 Web Resource Centers for/


BCPM Scientific Literacy - Module III, June 5, 2008

” 16 Distribution of world airports 3100 airports in 220 countries In nature or human culture, few distributions are random 17 Epidemiologic inference Descriptive epidemiology Who? What? Where? When? How many? Rule out Bias Chance Confounding Descriptive study Design Implement Analyze Interpret Observe Analytic epidemiology Why? How? Control for Bias Chance Confounding Analytic study Design Implement Analyze Interpret Compare subgroups Hypothesize Epidemiologic inference Causal inference 17 "The main point/


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