Ppt on structure of chromosomes

 A. genotype  B. Phenotype  Sex Chromosome  Genetic Mutation  Natural selection.

 A. genotype  B. Phenotype  Sex Chromosome  Genetic Mutation  Natural selection a. Axons b. Synaptic vesicles c. Neurons d. Glial cells e. dendrties a. /surrounding the nerve cells is beginning to breakdown. c. The charges inside of the neurons are not working properly. d. She is not producing enough norepinephrine. a. Structuralism b. Functionalism c. Gestalt d. Psychoanalysis e. behaviorism a. Functionalism b. Structuralism c. Behaviorism d. Psychoanalysis e. Gestalt a. Sympathetic division b. /


REVIEWING CELL STRUCTURE WITH BILL NYE ( AND MUSIC !)

REVIEWING CELL STRUCTURE WITH BILL NYE ( AND MUSIC !) Part 1 What are cells? What does Bill say? Click on the link to find out! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RU5Ymc00S4w&feature=/both plant and animal cells have. 4. What does a nucleus do? 5. New cells are formed from ___ ___. Part 2 Review what the parts do! Make a Table of the cell parts Mr. Wolkenfeld will review in the song (like the one shown here) & be ready to write down their functions. Cell partFunction Cell Membrane Mitochondria Nucleus Cytoplasm/


Chromosome Structure, Nucleosome Model & Variation in chromosome number, Chromosome Alterations Dr. Madhumita Bhattacharjee Assiatant Professor Botany.

( Numerical)  Changes in chromosome Structure (Structural) VARIATIONS IN CHROMOSOME Number Variation In Chromosome Number  Euploidy  Normal variations of the number of complete sets of chromosomes  Haploid, Diploid, Triploid, Tetraploid, etc…  Aneuploidy  Variation in the number of particular chromosomes within a set  Monosomy, trisomy, polysomy VARIATIONS IN CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE (CHROMOSOMAL REARRANGEMENTS)  Deletions  Loss of a region of a chromosome  Duplications  Inversions  Pericentric/


Chromosomes Dr Pupak Derakhshandeh, PhD Ass Prof Medical Science of Tehran University.

, but it is less frequent and lacks a consistent phenotype Fragile X Syndrome Chromosome abnormalities Abnormality of chromosome number or structure: Abnormality of chromosome number or structure: Numerical Abnormalities Numerical Abnormalities Structural Abnormalities Structural Abnormalities Structural Abnormalities Deletions: A portion of the chromosome is missing or deleted (>5 Mb). Deletions: A portion of the chromosome is missing or deleted (>5 Mb). Deletions Paraderwilli Syndrome (Ch 15) Paraderwilli/


Chromosomes Dr. R. Siva VIT University, INDIA

they do during mitosis. whereas during meiosis II they must act as they do during mitosis. Therefore the centromere is an important component of chromosome structure and segregation. Therefore the centromere is an important component of chromosome structure and segregation. As a result, centromeres are the first parts of chromosomes to be seen moving towards the opposite poles during anaphase. As a result, centromeres are the first parts/


A Darwinian View of Life I. Darwin’s Contributions II. Mendels Contributions III. The Cellular Context.

3. “Ploidy” refers to the “information content” in the cell… how many ‘sets’ of chromosomes are there? III. The Cellular Context A. Cell Structure/Function Review B. Chromosomal Terminology 1. chromatin: indistinguishable, diffuse chromosomes 2. chromosome: condensed strand of chromatin 3. “Ploidy” refers to the “information content” in the cell… how many ‘sets’ of chromosomes are there? - in simplistic terms, if a cell has ‘one gene for every trait/


LECTURE 10B: MEIOSIS IN ACTION. first meiotic division: prophase: leptotene normaltrisomy 21 chromosome 21 other chromosomes © 2003 H. NUMABE M.D.

there is a position effect  gene disruption) reproductive consequences Unbalanced –loss or gain or chromosome material –abnormal phenotype association Robertsonian TranslocationReciprocal Translocation vs. Common form of structural rearrangements Reciprocal Translocation Balanced translocation results in a position effect only i.e. the exchange of chromosome material between 2 chromosomes no loss or gain of genetic information, usually no phenotype effect (unless there is a position effect resulting in/


Sources of Variation: Mutation Recombination. VII.Mutations I: Changes in Chromosome Number and Structure - Overview:

to env conditions may be heritable. VII.Mutations I: Changes in Chromosome Number and Structure - Overview: 3) Changes occur at 4 scales (large to small) - Change in the number of SETS of chromosomes (change in PLOIDY) - Change in the number of chromosomes in a set (ANEUPLOIDY: trisomy, monosomy) - Change in the number/arrangement of genes on a chromosome - Change in the nitrogenous base sequence within a gene In general/


Mitosis/Meiosis Review Yes, I know the Course description says you don’t have to know names of phases but I don’t know how you can talk about what happens.

.2:.a.4 Mitosis is a continuous process with observable structural features along the mitotic process. Evidence of student learning is demonstrated by knowing the order of the processes (replication, alignment, separation) 3.A.2:.c.3. Separation of the homologous chromosomes ensures that each gamete receives a haploid (1n) set of chromosomes composed of both maternal and paternal chromosomes. LO 3.7 The student can make predictions about/


Genomes. Definition Complete set of instructions for making an organism Complete set of instructions for making an organism master blueprints for all.

? Thomas Hunt Morgan Thomas Hunt Morgan Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes What Did These Individuals Contribute to Molecular Genetics? Rosalind Elsie Franklin Rosalind Elsie Franklin Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA What Did These Individuals Contribute to Molecular Genetics? James Watson/


Chromosomes & Cell Cycle What the heck is a Chromosome anyway?

thick fiber which starts to coil. These coils wind up even more and become “Supercoils” The super coils are wound up to form a larger structure that is called a “Chomosome” Only during cell division are these chromosomes ever visible. Chromosomes What part of the chromosomes should I know? Centromere – holds together the two chromatids Sister Chromatids – genetic material from each parent This is 1/


Chromosomes. What Exactly is a chromosome? Chromosomes are the rod-shaped, filamentous bodies present in the nucleus, which become visible during.

different from XX or XY, interesting changes occur. VARIATION IN STRUTURE OF CHROMOSOME Chromosomal Aberrations Sometime due to mutation or spontaneous (without any known causal factors), variation in chromosomal number or structure do arise in nature. - Chromosomal aberrations. Sometime due to mutation or spontaneous (without any known causal factors), variation in chromosomal number or structure do arise in nature. - Chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberration may be grouped into two broad classes/


Unit 4 – Reproduction and Genetics Lesson: Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Genetics Colorado Agriscience Curriculum.

?  What do I think I know about chromosomes?  What don’t I know about chromosomes? Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP4 Objectives  1. Identify the anatomy of chromosomes. 2. Understand how chromosomes determine gender. 2. Understand how chromosomes determine gender.  3. Identify chromosome structure and identify chromosome mutations. Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP5 I. Chromosome Terminology  A) Self – Replicating genetic structure of cells containing DNA that bears genes  B/


Genes and Genomes 6. 6 Genes and Genomes The Structure of Eukaryotic Genes Noncoding Sequences Chromosomes and Chromatin.

bone growth. The transposed retrogene is abnormally expressed, resulting in premature termination of bone growth. Figure 6.15 Transposition of a retrogene determines short legs in dog breeds Chromosomes and Chromatin Prokaryotes have a single chromosome, usually a circular DNA molecule. Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes, each containing a linear DNA molecule. The basic structure of chromosomes is the same in all eukaryotes, but number and size varies with/


Chromosomal Mutations Honors Biology. Review: Gene Mutations “Micromutations” Small changes to DNA – One or several bases – Change can be positive, negative,

” Small changes to DNA – One or several bases – Change can be positive, negative, or neutral Can be passed to offspring if in gametes Chromosomal Mutations “Macromutations” Large changes to DNA segments/chromosomes – Can be structural (part of chromosome) – Can be a change in chromosome number (whole chromosome) Usually a meiosis error – So not always a mutation passed from parents to offspring Diagnosable through karyotyping or gene testing/


Chromosomes and DNA replication. Procaryotes : DNA is in the cytoplasm, circular Chromosome E. Coli Bacterium Bases on the Chromosomes.

DNA has 1000 X the base pairs as bacteria. Located in the cell nucleus, on chromosomes Folds into a space 1/1000 th of its length by wrapping around the protein histone. –Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure Chromosome Su me DNA Coils Nucleosome: DNA wrapped around a histone DNA replication DNA molecule separates /Replication Fork Original strand New Strand Summary One DNA strand becomes 2 identical strands, following the rules of base pairing. Occurs at hundreds of sites along the chromosome at the same time.


Chapter 3 The Chromosomal Basis of Heredity. 2 Chromosomes The chromosome complement = the complete set of chromosomes of plants and animals The nucleus.

=D1_-mQS_FZ0&feature=related 41 Chromosome Structure Eukaryotic chromosomes are highly coiled stable complexes of DNA and protein called chromatin Each eukaryotic chromosome contains a single DNA molecule of enormous length Some of the proteins present in chromatin determine chromosome structure and the changes in structure during the cell cycle Other chromatin proteins appear to have important roles in regulating chromosome functions Figure 3.13A: Separations of chromosomes of yeast Part A © 1988 Bio/


In this lab, you learn about the purpose of a karyotype and understand how it can be used to detect a chromosomal mutation. Let’s begin….

. Which terms represent an alteration in number mutation? terms e and f 3. Which terms represent an alteration in structure? terms a, b, c, d The Cause for an egg or sperm cell to have the wrong number of chromosomes It is the failure of chromosome pairs to separate during meiosis, gamete formation. When Olivia makes her egg, the pairs must separate. Click on next/


COMPARATIVE GENOMICS II Variation in Chromosome Structure GENE 330.

in Natural Pop. Cont... VARIATION IN CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE Chromosomes can undergo several types of changes which fall into two classes. The first type of change involves changes in chromosome number and is referred to as aneuploidy and euploidy The chromosomal changes alter the linear order of the chromosome and occur because of deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations and insertions of chromosomal DNA The analysis of these types of changes to a large part has been/


The nuclear envelope and traffic Internal organization of the nucleus The nucleolus The nucleus during mitosis The Nucleus between the nucleus and cytoplasm.

nucleus because proteins associated with heterochromatin bind to the matrix of the nuclear lamina.  Actively transcribed genes are adjacent to channel   heterochromatin   Fig.4.16 Structure of Metaphase Chromosomes Figure legend: An electrongraph of DNA loops attached to the protein scaffold of metaphase chromosomes that have been depleted of histones. 1)Like the DNA in metaphase chromosomes, the chromatin in interphase nuclei is organized into loop domains containing approximately/


Content Standard 1 1. Which statement describes the process of growth within an organism? 1. Which statement describes the process of growth within an.

structure 2 C structure 3 D structure 4 5. Which statement describes why an offspring and its mother share many common traits? 5. Which statement describes why an offspring and its mother share many common traits? A The mother and the offspring both have mitochondria. B The mother and the offspring both have identical nuclei. C The mother provided half of the offspring’s chromosomes/


Lecture 4: DNA and Proteins. I. DNA, RNA, and Chromosome Structure A. DNA and RNA Structure 1. monomers are “nucleotides” three parts: - pentose sugar.

RNA, and Chromosome Structure A. DNA and RNA Structure B. Chromosome Structure 1. Prokaryotes - usually one circular chromosome, tethered to the membrane, with some associated, non-histone proteins. V. DNA, RNA, and Chromosome Structure A. DNA and RNA Structure B. Chromosome Structure 1. Prokaryotes 2. Eukaryotes – usually many linear chromosomes, highly condensed with histone proteins into several levels of structure. V. DNA, RNA, and Chromosome Structure A. DNA and RNA Structure B. Chromosome Structure 1/


Majmaah University Preparatory Year Program Colleges of Medicine Biology for Premedical Students Course Title: Biology for Premedical Students Course Code:

نتوءات. mitochondrial matrix  The inner membrane encloses the mitochondrial matrix, a fluid-filled space with DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes. Functions: The cytoskeleton organizes يرتب the structures and activities of the cell.  functions in cell motility. - Responsible for cell motility )cilia & flagellum) - separation of chromosome during cell division. - Tracks for organelles movement - Cell motility (muscle cell) - Transport materials across the cell. - Reinforcing the cell shape - fixing position/


Chapter 16 - Variations in Chromosome Structure and Function: Chromosome structure Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation Focus of Cytogenetics.

in eukaryotes: a multi-kingdom perspective. Trends in Genetics, Volume 21, Issue 12, (2005), 673 – 682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2005.09.009 Chromosomal structural mutations - translocation: Change in location of chromosome segment; no DNA is lost or gained. May change expression = position effect. Intrachomosomal Interchromosomal Reciprocal - segments are exchanged. Non-reciprocal - no two-way exchange. Several human tumors are/


Chromosomes An overview

use these slides and their contents for non-commercial educational purposes. Chromosomes This presentation includes: The anatomical structure of chromosomes Classification of chromosomal anomalies Description of chromosomal anomalies Examples of chromosomal anomalies Explanation of normal and abnormal karyotypes Chromosomal findings in early miscarriages. Chromosomes Chromosomes are made of DNA. Gene for cystic fibrosis (chromosome 7) Chromosomes are made of DNA. Each contains genes in a linear order. Human/


Chromosome abnormalities

Homogeneous / Mosaic Meiosis Fecundation Mitosis Birth Chromosome abnormalities Constitutional / Acquired Homogeneous / Mosaic Numerical / structural Balanced Unbalanced Numerical abnormalities Numerical abnormalities : the ploidy Diploidy (normal somatic cell) : 2 haploïd sets of chromosomes Numerical abnormalities : the ploidy Diploidy (normal somatic cell) : 2 haploïd sets of chromosomes Polyploidy : more than 2 haploïd sets of chromosomes (ex: triploidy) Numerical abnormalities : polyploidy Anomaly/


Cells-Nucleus-Chromosomes-DNA-Genes The cells have nucleuses in them. The nucleus has chromosomes. The chromosomes have DNA. The DNA has genes.

nucleuses in them. The nucleus has chromosomes. The chromosomes have DNA. The DNA has genes. Traits-Inherit-Heredity You inherit traits from your parents which is called heredity. Dominant-Recessive Traits. Dominant traits are… Eye color. Hair color. Bone structure. Recessive traits are… Normal vision. No dimples. No freckles. Homozygous-Heterozygous Traits Heterozygous is a genotype consisting of two different alleles. Homozygous is having/


Section D: Chromosome StructureYang Xu, College of Life Sciences Section D Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure D1 Prokaryotic Chromosome Structure.

Section D Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure D1 Prokaryotic Chromosome Structure D2 Chromatin Structure D3 Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure D4 Genome Complexity D5 Central Dogma Section D: Chromosome StructureYang Xu, College of Life Sciences If the DNA of E. coli is isolated free of most attached proteins. D1 Prokaryotic Chromosome Structure (  Lk/Lk  = -0.06). Supercoiling 50~100kb Domain broken in one strand Section D: Chromosome StructureYang Xu, College of Life Sciences The Escherichia/


1 Review What are chromosomes Compare and Contrast How does the structure of chromosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 2 Review What happens during.

and Contrast How does the structure of chromosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 2 Review What happens during each of the four phases of mitosis- write one or two sentences about each Predict What do you think would happen if the spindle fibers were disrupted during metaphase Ch 10 Cell Growth and Division 10.2 The Process of Cell Division Chromosomes Carries and passes on genetic information/


Mitosis and Meiosis 8.2, 8.3, & 10.2.

, you get one from your mom and one from your dad) These are called homologous chromosomes The nucleus disappears Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell A structure called a spindle forms Made up of rod-like structures called microtubules DNA to Chromosomes Chromosome Structure Metaphase (“Middle”) Spindle fibers attach to centromeres of chromosomes Spindles extend from centriole on one side and attach to sister chromatid on that same/


Chromatin and chromosomes By Benjamin Lewin

not have any specific consensus sequence. 6.6 The centromere is essential for segregation A eukaryotic chromosome is held on the mitotic spindle by the attachment of microtubules to the kinetochore that forms in its centromeric region. Centromeres often have heterochromatin that / the nucleosome. 6.18 DNA structure varies on the nucleosomal surface 1.65 turns of DNA are wound around the histone octamer. The structure of the DNA is altered so that it has: an increased number of base pairs/turn in the middle/


Hereditary information is carried on Chromosomes that consist of both DNA and proteins Chromosomes in cells. (A) Two adjacent plant cells photographed.

stage and check that the previous stage is completed correctly Meiosis reduces the parental chromosome number Different levels of chromosome structure can be observed by microscopy THE NUCLEOSOME DNA Molecules Are Highly Condensed in Chromosomes Nucleosomes Are the Basic Unit of Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure Structural organization of the nucleosome. A nucleosome contains a protein core made of eight histone molecules. As indicated, the nucleosome core particle is released from chromatin by/


7/18/2015 1.  Nuclear DNA Condenses during the cell division and appears as ‘colored bodies’ (with stains); the Chromo+somes.  Chromosomes were discovered.

an organized DNA and protein found in the cell.  Chromosome is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes.  Chromosomes are structures ready to pass genetic information to next generation: the heredity 7/18/2015 12 7/18/2015 13 Objectives  To study the methods of chromosome analysis i.e. Karyotyping and other methods.  Chromosomal abnormalities (2 nd lecture) 7/18/2015 14  Karyotyping  Fluorescent In/


Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2009, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives  After studying this module, you should be able to: Describe morphology and structure of eukaryotic chromosomes Describe characteristics features of eukaryotic chromosomes School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2009, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.6 Introduction - 1 DNA encode the all information that living organisms require to comes into his form and/


DNA, RNA, and Proteins.

, and Proteins Section 1: The Structure of DNA Preview DNA: The Genetic Material Searching for the Genetic Material The Shape of DNA The Information in DNA Discovering DNA’s Structure Summary DNA: The Genetic Material The instructions for inherited traits are called genes. A gene is a small segment of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, that is located in a chromosome. DNA is the primary material that/


CHAPTER 2 DNA: The Genetic Material

twice as much protein as DNA by weight. The DNA-protein complex is called chromatin, and it is highly conserved in all eukaryotes. 台大農藝系 遺傳學 601 20000 Chromatin Structure 1. Both histones and non-histones are involved in physical structure of the chromosome. 2. Histones are abundant, small proteins with a net (+) charge. The five main types are H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. By weight/


Chapter 9 DNA and the Molecular Structure of Chromosomes

Chapter 9 DNA and the Molecular Structure of Chromosomes © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter Outline Functions of the Genetic Material Proof That Genetic Information Is Stored in DNA The Structures of DNA and RNA Chromosome Structure in Prokaryotes and Viruses Chromosome Structure in Eukaryotes © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Functions of the Genetic Material The genetic material must replicate, control the growth and development of the organism, and allow the organism to adapt to/


Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Cecie Starr Christine Evers Lisa Starr www.cengage.com/biology/starr Chapter 8 DNA Structure and Function (Sections 8.1.

they reproduce In cells, each DNA molecule is organized as a chromosome chromosome Structure consisting of DNA and associated proteins Carries part or all of a cell’s genetic information Eukaryotic cells have a number of chromosomes Chromosome Duplication During most of a cell’s life, each of its chromosomes consists of one DNA molecule As it prepares to divide, the cell duplicates its chromosomes, so both offspring get a full set After/


Chapter10. DNA Structure and Analysis With few exceptions, the nucleic acid DNA serves as the genetic material in every living thing. The structure of.

genetic material. Proteins therefore became widely accepted as the genetic material, and DNA was assumed to function merely as the structural framework of the chromosomes. The experiments described below finally demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material. Transformation Studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 肺炎双球菌 ) Transformation Studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae ( 肺炎双球菌 ) An important first step was taken by Frederick Griffith in 1928 An important first step was taken by/


DNA & Chromosome structure I.DNA – a quick review II.Prokaryotes have “nucleoids” III.Eukaryotes – DNA is organized into Chromatin IV.Chromosome organization.

) Histones & Nucleosomes are the key to packaging DNA into chromosomes. Chromatin = nucleoprotein structure, loose Chromatin = nucleoprotein structure, loose Chromsomes = only visible during mitosis, most packed state Chromsomes = only visible during mitosis, most packed state Chromosomes Structures that contain the DNA for proper distribution of the genetic material during cell division III. Chromosome organization there are several levels of organization – DNA 1.solenoid 2. chromatin fiber 3. scaffold/


CONGENITAL ANOMALIES (Birth defects)

and functional abnormalities, particularly of the brain and eyes. Causes of congenital anomalies 1-Genetic factors such as chromosomal abnormalities and mutant genes. 2-Environmental factors e.g.: the mother had German measles in early pregnancy will cause abnormality in the embryo. 3-Combined genetic and environmental factors (mutlifactorials factors). Types of abnormalities 1-Malformations: this occurs during the formation of the structures of the organ (during/


Karyotyping.

week to complete a karyotype Clinical Steps to Karyotyping 1. Sample Collection 2. Separating cells 3. Growing Cells 4. Synchronizing Cells 5. Releasing Chromosomes from their cells 6. Staining Chromosomes 7. Analysis a. Counting & Sorting of chromosomes b. Looking at Chromosomes Structure Sample Collection In newborns, a blood sample which contains red bloods cells, white blood cells, serum and other fluids is collected. A karyotype will/


Welcome to Part 2 of Bio 219 Lecturer – David Ray

1. During cell division, nuclear material became organized into visible threads called chromosomes (colored bodies) 2. Chromosomes appeared as doubled structures, split to single structures & doubled at next division Were chromosomes important for inheritance? Chromosomes Are chromosomes important for inheritance? Hypothesis: If chromosomes are important for reproduction and inheritance, altering the number of chromosomes delivered to offspring should screw up the process. Theodore Boveri (German biologist/


Overview: Locating Genes Along Chromosomes

more normal in appearance than aneuploids Hexaploidy (6n) Triploidy (3n) Octoploidy (8n) Alterations of Chromosome Structure Breakage of a chromosome can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure Deletion removes a chromosomal segment Duplication repeats a segment Inversion reverses orientation of a segment within a chromosome Translocation moves a segment from one chromosome to another Alterations of Chromosome Structure (a) Deletion A C D E F G H B A deletion removes a/


CHAPTER 10 The Nature of the Gene and the Genome.

been useful to observe specific bands correlated with individual genes. “Puffs” in polytene chromosomes allow visualization of gene expression. Polytene chromosomes 10.3 The Chemical Nature of the Gene (1) DNA is the genetic material in all organisms. The Structure of DNA: The nucleotide is the building block of DNA. It consists of a phosphate, a sugar, and either a pyrimidine or purine nitrogenous base. There are two/


Genes Are located on chromosomes

without receiving a fragment in return. Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations Alterations of chromosome number and structure Are associated with a number of serious human disorders Down Syndrome Down syndrome Is usually the result of an extra chromosome 21, trisomy 21 Aneuploidy of Sex Chromosomes Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes Produces a variety of aneuploid conditions Klinefelter syndrome Is the result of an extra chromosome in a male, producing XXY individuals Turner syndrome Is/


Parents can produce many types of offspring

actually assort independently Remember… Every cell has a nucleus Every nucleus has chromosomes Genes are located on chromosomes genes control the TRAITS of the individual Chromosomes are simply DNA wound up into a threadlike structure found in the nucleus. The number of chromosomes depends on the species Ex.  Humans have 46 Homologous Chromosomes Organisms which reproduce sexually must inherit half its genetic material from one parent (aka dad/


Ka-Lok Ng Dept. of Bioinformatics Asia University

and SNP http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/R/RFLPs.html The Core Aims of Genomics Science (5) To characterize DNA sequence diversity Characterize the level of haplotype structure due to linkage disequilibrium (LD) haplotype = a set of adjacent polymorphisms found on a single chromosome LD = groups of closely linked alleles that tend to be inherited together, can be used to map human disease/


CHROMOSOME VARIATION.

= Low copy repeats (LCRs) (>1 kb- 3 Mb with similarity >90%) -- include copy number variants (CNVs) (submicroscopic) Large chromosomal rearrangements: Mb-range duplication, insertion, deletion (CNVs), inversion, translocation (microscopic structural variation) Changes in chromosome numbers = aneuploidy (typically deleterious) (microscopic structural variation) Types of Chromosomal Mutations Variations in chromosome structure or number can arise spontaneously or be induced by chemicals or radiation/


Recap of 8.1 and 8.2. Structure of DNA Using the diagrams above as visual aids, list as many important facts about DNA structure as you can. There are.

information to work out the amino acids that are coded for? 8.3 DNA and chromosomes Todays Lesson Chromosomes Now that we know the structure and function of DNA, it’s necessary to determine how it is stored in the nucleus. Remember that/ THE ANSWER! In Eukaryotes, DNA is combined with proteins into structures called chromosomes. It is very important to know that chromosomes only appear for very short periods of time in a cells life. Chromosomes Chromosomes are only visible in their most ‘famous’ form while a/


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