Ppt on special types of chromosomes

UNIT 2: Cells Chapter 4: Cell Growth and Division I. The Cell Cycle has four main stages (5.1) A. The cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNA replication,

coordinated. II. Mitosis and Cytokinesis (5.2) A. Chromosomes condense at start of mitosis 1. Chromosome - one long continuous thread of DNA a. Consists of numerous genes b. You have 46 chromosomes c. Must be condensed to fit into cell nucleus 1)./cells can develop into different cell types 1. Stem cells - unique type of body cell a. Can divide and renew themselves for long periods of time b. Remain undifferentiated in form c. Develop into a variety of specialized cell types 2. Stem cells can be /

Cellular Reproduction and Chromosomes Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis and Gene Expression.

that regulates the amount of divisions a cell can make. Heart cells and the magic # of 50 Cell division is usually controlled by specialization –i.e. Skin cells vs nerve cells Cell Clock There are only two types of cells that are able / –All other cells (somatic) are diploid (2n) and contain two copies of each type of chromosome. –Page 161, table 5.1 Chromosomes reduction division.The first part of meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid, known as reduction division. Each sperm or egg /

DNA Part V Meiosis. 2 Eliminates the need to find a mate May reproduce at a faster rate May produce larger number of offspring using less overall energy.

carry genes controlling the same inherited characters. Human Somatic Chromosomes 15 A karyotype is an ordered display of the pairs of chromosomes from a given cell arranged from longest to shortest. Autosomes are non-sex chromosomes. Notice that the sex chromosomes in this karyotype are not homologous. What does that signify? Human Karyotype 16 This is a special type of cell division where ONE diploid cell produces FOUR haploid/

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Chapter 8 The Continuity of Life: How Cells Reproduce.

Eukaryotic Cells Organized?  Not all cells have paired chromosomes.  The ovaries and testes undergo a special kind of cell division, called meiotic cell division, to produce gametes (________ and _________). Gametes contain only one member of each pair of autosomes, plus one of the two sex chromosomes. Cells with half the number of each type of chromosome are called __________ cells. Fusion of two haploid cells at ______________ produces a diploid cell/

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3-1 CHAPTER 3 Cells as Units of Life.

of Cells and Their Specializations Free Surface of Epithelial Cells Free Surface of Epithelial Cells Cilia and Flagella Cilia and Flagella Motile extension of cell surface Motile extension of cell surface Composed of microtubules Composed of / containing half the parental number of chromosomes Parents produce sex cells (gametes) containing half the parental number of chromosomes Requires a reductional type of nuclear division, meiosis Requires a reductional type of nuclear division, meiosis Mitosis and/

Meiosis Stages. Agenda: Cell Cycle using Mitosis & Meiosis Learning Target: I can describe the role of genes and chromosomes in the process of cell reproduction,

binary fission. Most single-celled organisms like bacteria and protozoans reproduce this way. Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that involves special types of cells called sex cells. Chromosomes Can you remember how many chromosomes humans have in each of their body cells? Answer: 46 Predict what would happen during the production of offspring if organisms received a full set from each parent. Whoa! 92 Way too many/


genetic material usually transferred is the F factor itself. F+ types are able to synthesize a special "sex" pilus. Special F+ strains were found that transferred chromosomal DNA from the F+ to the F-, but only rarely transferred the F factor itself. It was found that the F factor plasmid had integrated into the chromosome of the F+ strain forming what was called a Hfr for/

Cells What do you already know? – Working as a group, on the piece of paper on your desk, draw an animal and plant cell with as much detail as you can.

similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis. Sexual reproduction Which type of cell division is happening…… a)To produce the gametes b)Once fertilisation has occurred a) b) MeiosisMitosis  Use  Product  Number of chromosomes  No. divisions  No. daugh. cells Used for /breaks down starch in the saliva (amylase) not also break down fats?  The long chains of amino acids are folded into a special shape which makes an ACTIVE SITE. Other substances with the opposite specific shape can then fit /

Lecture Presentation by Lee Ann Frederick University of Texas at Arlington Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

. 3-2 Organelles and the Cytoplasm Membranous Organelles Five types of membranous organelles 1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 2. Golgi/specialized cell functions only G 1 phase — cell growth, organelle duplication, protein synthesis S phase — DNA replication and histone synthesis G 2 phase — finishes protein synthesis and centriole replication © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3-24 Stages of a Cell’s Life Cycle (Part 1 of 11). 3-8 Cell Life Cycle Mitosis Divides duplicated DNA into two sets of chromosomes/


Sticky mucus secretion Ducts are filled with sticky mucus. Scaring of tissue DUPLICATIONS A segment of chromosome is doubled A good example of duplication is seen in the Bar mutants of Drosophila A chromosomal duplication is usually caused by abnormal events during recombination Duplications Figure 8.5 Tandem, reverse tandem, and tandem terminal duplications are three types of chromosome duplications. Duplications result in un-paired loops visible cytologically. Fig/

Part 1 Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Two types of reproduction Asexual reproduction is reproduction that requires only one parent. Most single-celled.

and protozoans reproduce this way. Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that involves special types of cells called sex cells. Chromosomes Sex cells contain half the number of chromosomes as body cells (all of the other cells in a multicellular organism). Human body cells have 46 chromosomes. Human sex cells have 23 chromosomes.  In body cells, the chromosomes occur in pairs.  The chromosomes in each pair are called homologous (equivalent) pairs. Gametes/

Meiosis Making Gametes Mitosis Review Mitosis: Division of the Nucleus ProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophase How many times does the nucleus divide in mitosis?ONE.

YOUR FAMILY??? MY FAMILY TREE: PARENTS, BROTHER, GRANDPARENTS, ME Human Inheritance Notes Blood Types Karyotypes Karyotypes, Nondisjunction, and Chromosome Disorders Genetic Disorders Detecting Genetic Disorders Special techniques are required to gather cell samples from an unborn fetus: AMNIOCENTESIS- A procedure in which a small sample of amniotic fluid is drawn out of the uterus through a needle inserted in the abdomen. It can be used/

© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Kathleen Fitzpatrick Simon Fraser University Chapter 23 The Regulation of Gene Expression.

present at a special site in the genome called the MAT locus Cells switch mating type by moving the alternate allele into the MAT locus © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The cassette mechanism The process of DNA rearrangement involved in mating type switching is called the cassette mechanism The MAT locus containing the a or  allele is on chromosome 3, between extra copies of the two alleles/

7 th Period Review Projects. LO 4.4: The student is able to make a prediction about the interactions of subcellular organelles. SP 6.4: Th e student can.

situations qualitatively to describe how interactions of sub cellular structures, which possess specialized functions, provide essential functions. Science Practice/is created during the evolutionary process. There are two types of evolution that contributes to the similarities and differences between /of chromosomes. This can result in the inability to interbreed with the original population due to the different number of sets of chromosomes. MC Question: Foxes on east side of mountain Foxes on west side of/

Genetics. Mendelian Genetics: Classical Genetics Gregor Mendel: Father of Genetics (1800s) Pea Plants.

in Genetics Multiple Alleles –Blood Group Antigens Type A Blood: I A I A or I A i Type B Blood: I B I B or I B i Type AB Blood: I A I B Type O: ii Special Situations in Genetics Sex-linkage and Sex Chromosomes –XY and XX –What are the chances from a mating of having a male? Having a female? –What are/

Chapter 3: The Cellular Level Of Organization BIO 137 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I.

Cell Characteristics Are free of the body’s controls Have chromosomal abnormalities Have metabolic abnormalities Loss of attachment to nearby cells – Malignancy through blood and lymph Often grow their own blood supply Stem Cells Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential to give rise to other types of specialized cells Differentiation – Process where a cell becomes specialized Stem Cells 3 main populations of stem cells Adult/

SEX DETERMINATION from these studies concluded that genes are on

on chromosomes and specialized chromosomes determine sex Modes of Sex Determination XX/XY (ZZ/ZW) (Lygaeus) - heteromorphic sex chromosomes XX/XO (Protenor) heteromorphic chromosomes - a chromosome pair with some homology, but differing in size, shape or staining properties heterogametic sex (e.g. XY OR ZW) - the sex with different sex chromosomes; the gametes have different sex chromosomes …..the opposite of homogametic sex Human Males have Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes XY Method of Sex/

Chapter 18: Regulation of Gene Expression

a newly formed phage. Specialized Transduction In this process, a temperate phage (a phage that can use the lytic or lysogenic mode of reproduction), inserts its genome into a bacterial chromosome becoming a prophage. Specialized transduction occurs when the/ all cells contain the necessary genetic information to make an entire organism. However, the different cell types exist because of the variations in gene expression. Nuclear Transplanting and Cloning In 1997, Scottish researchers cloned a sheep named/

Conference on BIOLOGICAL INFORMATICS 6-8 July 1998 Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia.

[HBB; SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, INCLUDED; BETA-THALASSEMIAS, INCLUDED; HEINZ BODY ANEMIAS, BETA-GLOBIN TYPE,...] The alpha and beta loci determine the structure of the 2 types of polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin, Hb A. By autoradiography using heavy-labeled hemoglobin-specific messenger RNA, Price et al. (1972) found labeling of a chromosome 2 and a group B chromo- some. They concluded, incorrectly as it turned out/

Chapter 9 The passage of life’s organization and information from one generation to the next One way, but are there others? How do organisms pass genetic.

) Letters are placed next to each of the 12 distinct types of chromosomes found in lubber grasshopper cells. Note there are two of each type of chromosome. (b) The two members of a chromosome pair are called homologs. In this drawing, homologous chromosomes are indicated in blue and red. e k b d a j f X i h c g Meiosis is a Special Type of Cell Division that Occurs in Sexually Reproducing/



Fertilization Fertilization – Union of 2 parent cells.

from ectoderm; becomes brain, spinal cord and nerves. Review- form teams of 4 1. What is fertilization 2. Describe how a sperm is specialized for its function. 3. What occurs to assure an egg can be /Describe the types of asexual reproduction and compare that to sexual reproduction Compare haploid (n) to diploid cells (2n). Differentiate between homologous chromosomes, autosomes, and sex chromosomes Compare and contrast two chromatids of a chromosome with two homologous chromosomes. Differentiate between/

Taryono Faculty of Agriculture Gadjah Mada University

that the other economic characters remain unaltered Mutagens can be used to solve special problems in plant breeding for instance by increasing the number of genetic recombinations and breaks of undesirable linkages, transferring chromosomal fragment from one plant species into chromosomes of another during hybridization, obtaining homozygous mutant through irradiation of haploids with subsequent doubling of chromosome number Mutation useful for crop improvement Useful mutation Any mutational change in/

Bacterial Genetics.

both mutants and wild type to grow, the plate containing tryptophan in this case. They are allowed to grow fro a while, then a copy of the plate is made by pressing a piece of velvet onto the surface of the plate, then /takes over the cell’s machinery and replicates many virus particles. Two forms of transduction: 1. generalized: any piece of the bacterial genome can be transferred 2. specialized: only specific pieces of the chromosome can be transferred. General Phage Life Cycle 1. Phage attaches to the /

Biology EOC Review.

that are contaminated by it. 136 Describe the general life cycle of a parasite. What are T cells? The T cells are specialized white blood cells (lymphocytes) who act like soldiers to search out and destroy the targeted invaders (viruses and bacteria) 138 What are B cells? B cells are a type of white blood cell (called a b-lymphocyte) that produce antibodies. Antibodies/

Development Across the Life Span

they are to themselves Piaget’s Formal Operations Revisited 2 types of adolescent egocentrism Personal fable – young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm They become convinced they are special: “You just don’t understand me, I’m /theory Suggests cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage (called they hayflick limit) Evidence for this theory is the existence of telomeres, structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces /


type of bacteria is Clarithromycin especially good? Clarithromycin is good for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex) Fluoroquinolones What is the mechanism of action of fluroquionolones? They inhibit the topoisomerases, subsequently inhibiting DNA replication. Topoisomerase II formerly called DNA Gyrase, this enzyme is required to unwind the superwound DNA for replication. Topo IV – Topo 4 is responsible for separation of chromosomal/ of action, and use. Learn the names of second-line drugs and the special /

Biology. The study of living things What is considered living? anything that has the ability to nourish, grow, and reproduce cells must be present.

used for cell growth, tissue repair, and asexual reproduction Meiosis resulting cells have half the number of chromosomes as parent cell used for gamete formation The study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment Biome = a large area characterized by a certain climate and types of plants and animals 6 major biomes on Earth NameCharacteristicsTundra permanently frozen subsoil Taiga long severe winters/


indicate uncertainty 45, XY, -?8 45 chromosomes XY is male Missing a chromosome, probably #8 There is special nomenclature for inversions, deletions, translocations, insertions, etc.; but its is beyond the scope of this class Other Types of Staining C-Banding: stains constitutive heterochromatin Regions of chromosomes that are highly compacted containing highly repetitive DNA Results from selective removal of the chromosomes except from regions of the C-Bands Used for determining/

Welcome Each of You to My Molecular Biology Class.

protein) and so only cells bearing that “ receptor ” can be infected by a given phage. Two Basic Types 1.Lytic phage: eg. T phage infect a bacterial cell DNA replication coat proteins expression host cell lysed to /.  Phage-mediated transduction Generalized transduction: A fragment of chromosomal DNA is packaged instead of phage DNA. When such a phage infects a cell, it introduces the segment of chromosomal DNA to the new cell. Specialized transduction Figure 21-7 Phage- mediated generalized transduction /

Medical Genetics. Medical Genetics "Genetics" Fields: Heredity and its variation. Subfields: - "Human Genetics”: denotes the science of heredity.

oxygen from lungs to the tissues, while it transports CO2 from tissues to the lungs. Types of Hemoglobin in adults Globin genes Gene product Tetramers Name of Conc. in Chromosome (globin) in RBCs haemoglobin adult 11   , -chain 2 2 Hb A/ cultural cohesion High rate of Consanguinous marriages Special views on Reproductive issues Artificial insemination Family planning In-vitro fertilization Abortion Adoption Fetal rights Establishment of Mendelian Inheritance Pattern of transmission judged from family /

Chapter 1: Cells, Reproduction, and Heredity

work together? 42 – Organs An organ is a structure made up of at least two types of tissues that work together to perform a specific job in the body./specialized and form tissues. Body cells make more body cells by mitosis. Mitosis has 6 stages. 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce? 52 – Mitosis Body cells are not involved in producing offspring, but reproductive cells are. Body cells make more body cells by mitosis. Mitosis has 6 stages. After mitosis, the two new cells have the same number of chromosomes/

Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material (conjugative plasmid) between bacteria through direct cell to cell contact, or through a bridge-like.

A B C D Transduction:  Is the process of moving a piece of chromosome (DNA ) from one cell to another using a bacteriophage to carry DNA.  First described by Zinder and Lederburg in 1952.  There are two types of transducing phage 1- Generalized: capable of moving any piece of DNA from one cell to another. 2- specialized: move the same piece of DNA every time.  P1 has a double/

Cell Biology Mrs.Sridevi.

utilissima 36 sugarcane Saccharum officinarum 80 Chromosome -Components Secondary Constriction Satellite Primary Constriction Chromosome -Types Polytene Chromosomes Discovery C.G. Balbiani (1881) in the salivary glands of Drosophila. Characteristic features Inter bands, along the length of the chromosome. Balbiani ring or chromosomal puff. Other Name Salivary gland chromosomes, as they occur in the salivary glands. Special Types: Lampbrush Chromosomes Discovery Observation by Flemming (1882) Description/

BIOLOGY GRADUATION TEST REVIEW. Cells What is biology? The study of living things What is considered living? – anything that has the ability to nourish,

of one cell all bacteria and protists non-specialized cells MULTICELLULAR multi-celled composed of many cells all other organisms (fungi, plants, & animals) cells are specialized to perform different functions Asexual Reproduction involves only one parent no specialized sex cells are produced does not undergo meiosis chromosomes/have half the number of chromosomes as parent cell used for gamete formation ECOLOGY Biomes Biome = a large area characterized by a certain climate and types of plants and animals 6 /

Biology Keystone Exam Review Packet

Endoplasmic reticulum Vacuoles Lysosomes golgi apparatus Nucleus with DNA Nucleolus Have a greater division of labor. Organelles are specialized. Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells both contain ribosomes, cytoplasm, a plasma membrane, / question: Which type of change in chromosome composition is illustrated in the diagram? Deletion Insertion Inversion Translocation Entire sections of a chromosome swap positions… Trans “Between” Location “position/place”. So between places on a chromosome. 29. Which/

5/23/2015 Meiosis. 5/23/2015 Terminology Heredity – continuity of biological traits from one generation to the next: Results from transmission of hereditary.

amount (diploid) when the two gametes fuse during fertilisation. 5/23/2015 Definitions Ploidy is a term referring to the number of sets of chromosomes. Haploid organisms have one set of chromosomes; diploid – two. Meiosis is a special type of nuclear division which segregates one copy of each homologous chromosome into each new "gamete". 5/23/2015 Definitions Somatic (most) cells in the human body are produced by mitosis. Germ/

2 Types of Cells Recall that there are two types of cells in multicellular organisms Recall that there are two types of cells in multicellular organisms.

Dystrophy –Cleft Palate –Vitamin D Resistant Ricketts –3 types of deafness –Male Pattern Baldness X-linked recessive disorder Who does a boy get his Y chromosome from? His X? Sex-Linked Genes Genes that occur on sex chromosomes are written with X’s and Y’s to show this special situation. Genes that occur on sex chromosomes are written with X’s and Y’s to/

Genetics and Prenatal Development

: Sex cells (ovum or sperm) Diploid cells: Cells having 2 copies of each chromosome Haploid gametes: Gametes having 1 copy of each chromosome Meiosis Meiosis takes place in the testicles and ovaries. A diploid cell (having 2 copies of each chromosome) undergoes a special form of cell division to create haploid gametes (having 1 copy of each chromosome). An egg and a sperm fuse together to form a new diploid/

Genetica per Scienze Naturali a.a. 03-04 prof S. Presciuttini Cell Division Cell division is the basis for all forms of organismal reproduction. Cell division.

. Cell division in multicellular organisms produces specialized reproductive cells, such as egg and sperm. In order for a cell to divide, the genome must also divide, so, in all types of cell division in all organisms, DNA /Metaphase chromosomes Some of the orders of chromatin packing thought to give rise to the highly condensed mitotic chromosome. The folding of naked DNA into nucleosomes is the best understood level of packing. The structures corresponding to the additional layers of chromosome packing /

Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics

interphase with 3 different types of probes FISH at metaphase and interphase with 3 different types of probes. F-VIII, α-satellite (chr. 17), painting probe (chr. X) FISH 2,3 and even 4-color applications to diagnose specific deletions, duplications, rearrangements in metaphase and interphase. With specialized imaging procedure, 24 colors can be detected (SKY) Chromosome and Genome Analysis by Use of Microarrays Chromosome analysis can be performed/

Genetica per Scienze Naturali a.a. 06-07 prof S. Presciuttini 1. Cell Division Cell division is the basis for all forms of organismal reproduction. Cell.

in multicellular organisms produces specialized reproductive cells, such as egg and sperm. In order for a cell to divide, the genome must also divide, so, in all types of cell division in /of pairs of replicated DNA molecules), and continue contracting during the entire stage. Homologous chromosomes form pairs (this does not happen in Mitosis); each chromosome has a pairing partner, and the two become progressively paired, or synapsed, along their lengths. Thus, the number of homologous pairs of chromosomes/


will inject this foreign DNA into its new host. Some of this DNA can subsequently replace the homologous region of the second cell. This type of transduction transfers bacterial genes at random. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Specialized transduction occurs via a temperate phage. When the prophage viral genome is excised from the chromosome, it sometimes takes with it a small region/

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

I. Meiosis Meiosis is a special type of cell division that produces haploid cells. It only occurs in the gametes (sex) forming cells of the male and female organism. When the gametes unite at fertilization, the original chromosome number for that organism is restored in the new individual. The formation of gametes is essential to the continuation of a species. This special process of gamete formation from diploid cells/

Chapter 4: DNA and Chromosomes

/ 30 million nucleosomes Packing of DNA into Chromosomes Characteristics of Histone Proteins 60 million/cell Histone mass of chromosome = DNA mass Responsible for packaging DNA into nucleosomes 4 different types: H2A, H2B, H3, H4 Highly conserved, 102-135 aa Rich in lys and arg Long N-terminal tail subjected to covalent modification Specialized variant histones Packing of DNA into Chromosomes Histones as basic unit of nucleosomes Interface btwn DNA and/

DNA The Indispensable Forensic Tool 1. Introduction Genetic information is carried in the form of DNA in all cellular organisms. DNA is the genetic code.

of chromosomes; body cells have two.Sex cells have one set of chromosomes; body cells have two. 7 Classical Genetics 9 9 Specialized chromosomes determine gender. Specialized chromosomes determine gender. 10 10 Chromosomes carry genes.Chromosomes carry genes. 11 11Genes get shuffled when chromosomes exchange pieces.Genes get shuffled when chromosomes/www.nap.edu/catalog/5141.html PCR-based analyses has facilitated typing of minute amounts of evidence, allowing for more matches to be made between standards /

Environmental Influence,

, Sex-Linked Traits In this presentation Slides 3-4: Punnett Square Slide 5-7: Co-Dominance and Blood-typing Slide 8: Incomplete Dominance Slide 9: Sex Linked Traits (X-Linked Traits) Slides 10 & 12: Meiosis /of chromosomes to separate properly, causing organism to have extra chromosome (Trisomy 21) Karyotypes and Genetic Disorder Karyotypes are mapping of human chromosomes A normal human karyotype has 46 chromosomes (diploid), and 23 pair (haploid). Chromosomes 1-22 are called autosomes. The sex chromosomes/

Stem Cells. Starter Define these words: Gene Locus Allele Mitosis Meiosis Homologous chromosomes Chromatid Diploid A.One of the two copies of a chromosome.

division B. A type of cell division where the chromosome number is halved C.One of the different forms of a particular gene D.A section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide E.A type of cell division where the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent/systems. Rest phase Cells often stop dividing once they are fully differentiated, so where do they fit into the cell cycle? Specialized cells move from G1 into a resting phase known as G0. G0 is also the phase in which stem cells wait until/

Welcome to Biotechnology! August 26 th, 2013 Grab one of each of the following and put your name on it:  1. file folder  2. student information card.

Sept 20 th, 2013 Using the Biotech handout, answer the following questions: 1. Why would a biotechnology company specialize in particular product area? 2. What are the questions that must be answered in a “product development plan/ Breakage of a chromosome can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure. List them. Biotech Warm Up, Thursday March 20 th, 2014 1. Breakage of a chromosome can lead to four types of changes in chromosome structure. List them. a. A deletion removes a chromosomal segment./

BIOLOGY END OF COURSE TEST STUDY GUIDE Content Domain 1: Cells The ________ is the basic unit of structure and function in all living organisms.

Mollusa ____ notochord, gill slits, tail Match the animal phylum characteristics with the correct phylum name: _E__Contain no specialized tissue. Have many pores.A. Platyhelminthes _F__ Bodies with radial symmetry. Stinging cellsB. Chordata _A__ Flat worms. Only/. The karyotype below illustrates what would happen if this mutation occurred. What type of disorder would this individual have? What is the sex of the individual? Chromosomes come in pairs known as tetrads. During meiosis, when these pairs don’/

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