Ppt on simple distillation and fractional distillation

Lecture 9a Distillation. Introduction What is distillation? A distillation is the process that includes the vaporizing a liquid from a pot and the subsequent.

chemist: 1. Simple distillation Separating liquids boiling below 150 ˚C at 1 atm. The liquids should dissolve in each other and the difference in boiling point between various liquid components should be at least 25 ˚C (i.e., water from salt water solution). 2. Vacuum distillation Separating a liquid mixture boiling with boiling points above 150˚C at 1 atm. 3. Fractional distillation Separating liquid mixtures/


Distillation: So simple and yet so complex... and vice versa Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Trondheim, Norway.

SYSTEMS VIEW item CONCLUSION The response is nonlinear.... The response is nonlinear.... but this can be corrected by taking log X D = ln(x DL /x DH )xDxD SO SIMPLE.... and yet SO COMPLEX Distillation control CC LV Two-point LV TC TsTs xBxB CC xDxD Refinery Main Fractionator Can make problems... Detuned controller gain V V Multi-Effect Prefractionator Additional large energy savings


1 CHAPTER 14 Solutions The Dissolution Process 1.Effect of Temperature on Solubility 2.Molality and Mole Fraction Colligative Properties of Solutions 3.Lowering.

of Vapor Pressure and Raoult’s Law Remember that the sum of the mole fractions must equal 1. Thus X solvent + X solute = 1, which we can substitute into our expression. 11 Fractional Distillation Distillation is a technique used to separate solutions that have two or more volatile components with differing boiling points. A simple distillation has a single distilling column. –Simple distillations give reasonable separations. A fractional distillation gives increased separations/


Fall, 2008 1 Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds Dr. Ralph C. Gatrone Department of Chemistry and Physics Virginia State University.

distillation to purify organic liquids Fall, 200814 Distillation  bp of mixtures dependent upon mole fraction of component present Fall, 200815 DistillationSimpleFractional  Vacuum  Steam Fall, 200816 Simple Distillation Fall, 200817 Fractional Distillation Fall, 200818 Which?  SimpleFractional  Simple/against low light background  Very few compounds fluoresce  Primarily compounds from food, drugs, and dyes have this property Fall, 200856 Schematic Fall, 200857 UV Detectors  Compounds respond /


1 Structural Determination of Organic Compounds 34.1Introduction 34.2Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds 34.3Tests for Purity 34.4Qualitative.

2 Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds (SB p.82) Fractional Distillation The laboratory set-up of fractional distillation 32 34.2 Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds (SB p.82) Fractional Distillation A fractionating column is attached vertically between the flask and the /Organic comp- ound Density at 20 o C Melting point and boiling point Solubility In water or highly polar solvents In non- polar organic solvents AlcoholsAll simple alcohols have densities < 1.0 g cm –3 Straight/


Separation of Ternary Heteroazeotropic Mixtures in a Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation Column Stathis Skouras and Sigurd Skogestad N T N U International.

the vessels at the end of the process ØThe novel process is simple, there is no need for off-cut fractions and the column runs almost ‘by itself’ N T N U International Conference on Distillation & Absorption 2002, Baden-Baden Conclusions ØSeparation of heteroazeotropic mixtures is feasible in a closed multivessel batch distillation decanter hybrid ØSystems belonging to Serafimov’s topological classes 1.0-2/


Chapter 3 Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Changes.

only the physical properties of a material Change both physical and chemical properties of a material relatively simple to reversevery difficult to reverse Look to be fairly simple changesLook more dramatic Not Likely to be accompanied by changes in/ back to 3500 BC. In the modern organic chemistry laboratory, distillation is a powerful tool, both for the identification and the purification of organic compounds. Fractional Crystallization Separates different solutes from a solution based on differences in /


Distillation... A Separation Method. Background Concepts - Definitions Vapor Pressure – Gas pressure created by the molecules of a liquid which have acquired.

Theoretical Plate – one of the horizontal lines in the previous graph or 1 simple equilibration between liquid and vapor phase Simple Distillation http://www.uwlas.edu/faculty/koster/Distillation305.htm (Use a 10-mL graduated cylinder to collect fractions, instead of a flask) Simple Distillation http://www.uwlas.edu/faculty/koster/Distillation305.htm Fractional Distillation http://www.uwlas.edu/faculty/koster/Distillation305.htm Increasing the surface area that the/


Petrochemical Feedstocks

reaction systems. C6H6 + C2H4  C6H5C2H5  C6H5CH=CH2 + H2 Introduction Hydrocarbon intermediates are obtained by subjecting crude oil to various processing schemes. Primary distillationsimple fractions  used as fuels Small % of these fractions  2ry raw materials (intermediates) for production of olefins, diolefins and aromatics. Further reaction may be required for other transformations. This chapter deals with the production of intermediates in correlation to different crude oil/


INTRODUCTION TO AROMATHERAPY

discovered. Because each essential oil has it’s own unique ‘fingerprint’. Adulterated Oils Fractionated / Rectified / Redistilled Oils: Some oils are double/triple distilled to remove "undesirable" constituents. Though this may be useful in some situations (terpeneless/ confidence to use essential oils safely, have fun, treat your friends and family and enjoy the wonderful benefits of aromatherapy in the home or office. Treat simple everyday ailments, but if they persist or become severe, then seek /


Polarized and Fluorescence Microscope (PFLM) Polarized and Fluorescence Microscope (PFLM) The PFLM comes with a digital camera and 46 components including.

remove traces of water from an almost-dry sample. Small Scale Simple Distillation Simple Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. It is used to separate a compound into more fractions for specific uses and also to remove impurities. Column Chromatography A method for the separation/


Structural Determination of Organic Compounds

travelled by the solvent is known as Rf value, which is the characteristic of the substance 38.2 Isolation and Purification of Organic Compounds (SB p.146) A summary of different techniques of isolation and purification Technique Separation Filtration Centrifugation Crystallization Solvent extraction Simple distillation Fractional distillation Steam distillation Sublimation Chromatography An insoluble solid from a liquid (slow) An insoluble solid from a liquid (fast) A dissolved/


Distillation and Alcohol Production Application

mixture forms an azeotrope in athmospheric pressure at a mole fraction of %89.4 of ethyl alcohol which means that by simple distillation of ethyl alcohol, it cannot be purified more than %95.6 w. As distillation equipments, bubble cap trays and tray columns are mostly used in alcohol distillation.(Figure on left)‏ Pot Distillation Process (Batch Distillation)‏ Entire batch of beer is heated in a large container/


Distillation. What is distillation? In general, a distillation is the process that includes the vaporizing a liquid from a pot and the subsequent condensation.

chemist: 1. Simple distillation Separating liquids boiling below 150 ˚C at 1 atm. The liquids should dissolve in each other and the difference in boiling point between various liquid components should be at least 25 ˚C (i.e., water from salt water solution). 2. Vacuum distillation Separating a liquid mixture boiling with boiling points above 150˚C at 1 atm 3. Fractional distillation Separating liquid mixtures/


Molality and Mole Fraction Modified from: Chem%20102%20week%202.ppt Molality is a concentration unit based.

. Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult’s Law This graph shows how the solution’s vapor pressure is changed by the mole fraction of the solute, which is Raoult’s law. Fractional Distillation Distillation is a technique used to separate solutions that have two or more volatile components with differing boiling points. A simple distillation has a single distilling column. – Simple distillations give reasonable separations. A fractional distillation gives increased separations because/


Fractional Distillation Boiling point of mixtures Separation of mixtures by distillation.

point? The boiling point goes up. Add Salt – Boiling Point P = P o *N Observed Pressure Pure Substance Mole Fraction Raoult’s Law Two Volatile Liquids a P a = P o a * N a b P b = P o/ and unlike molecules NONIDEAL MIXTURES: Strong attractions between like molecules Strong attractions between unlike molecules A. B. IDEAL MIXTURES: Minimum - boiling azeotrope Ethanol - Benzene Azeotrope Maximum-boiling azeotrope Acetone - Chloroform Maximum Azeotrope Simple Distillation Sample Equipment Distillation Equipment/


Introduction to Distillation: Steady State Design and Operation

Simple formula for feed stage location (Skogestad, 1987) Example. C3-splitter. zFL=0.65, xDH= 0.005, xBL=0.1, =1.12. Example: “5 min column design” IDEAL VLE (constant α) IDEAL MIXTURE Example: “5 min column design” Design a column for separating air Feed: 80 mol-% N2 (L) and 20% O2 (H) Products: Distillate is 99% N2 and/ which is fixed during operation FRACTIONATION (SEPARATION) Split D/F (external flows): Moves entire composition profile up or down. One product gets purer and the other less pure Large /


Gas Chromatography of Distillate CHEM 315 Week of November 1 st, 2010 Alexis Patanarut.

. – You can use the retention times from the GC-acetates experiment to identify the peaks Inject the saved distillate fractions for the simple and fractional distillations Calculate the mol % composition of the unknown – Use the thermal response ratios from the GC acetates lab to calculate out the mole ratios and then the mol % composition for your unknown – Compare your results with your conclusions by graphical methods last/


Formation, Composition, Purification and Properties

the chain length increases they become less flammable and so purification is aimed to make simple mixtures containing similar molecules with similar behaviour. Crude Oil Fractional Distillation Fractional distillation Crude oil can be separated by fractional distillation. The oil is evaporated and the hydrocarbon chains of different lengths condense at different temperatures: Fractions with low boiling points condense at the top Fractions with high boiling points condense at the bottom The/


1 PLANTWIDE CONTROL Sigurd Skogestad Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Tecnology (NTNU) Trondheim, Norway 01 April.

 I = min (  1, 4[  c +  ]), Typical:  c =  –“Probably the best simple PID tuning rules in the world” © Carlsberg Outstanding structural issue: What loops to close, that is, which variables (y 2/and pressure 30 Heat-integrated distillation process 31 Heat-integrated distillation process 32 Heat exchanger with bypasses 33 Heat exchanger with bypasses 34 Steady-state degrees of freedom (N ss ): 3. Typical number for some process units each external feedstream: 1 (feedrate) splitter: n-1 (split fractions/


Physical and Chemical Changes Pure Substances Mixtures States of Matter.

liquids are separated. It is made possible due to the fact that each liquid has its unique boiling point. Types of Distillation Simple distillation Fractional distillation Simple Distillation This is a technique used to separate a mixture of a soluble substance and a solvent. E.g salt and water Fractional distillation This is the technique used to separate a mixture of two miscible liquids with different boiling points. E.g water/


Are you prepared? Some problems: 1.Please draw the structure of methanol. 2.Why is it dangerous to heat an organic compound in a distilling assembly that.

of the boiling mixture is richer in methanol. Boiling point diagram of CH 3 CH 2 OH/H 2 O Ethanol and water are fully miscible. Diagram is unsymmetrical (distortion). Ethanol/water mix is a non-ideal mixture. The vapor of the/ 78.4 o C. The azeotrope of an ethanol-water mixture has a boiling point of 78.1 o C. Distillation curves for methanol/water Simple distillation Fractionated distillation with columns Can you estimate the ratio of this methanol/ water mixture? Laboratory procedures, 5.4 A,B (Wilcox /


Organic Chemistry. What do Diamonds, Coal, Clothes, and Humans have in common?

much cooler at the top. As the vaporized oil rises, it cools and condenses. 3. Heavy fractions (containing large molecules) have a high boiling point and condense near the bottom of the column. 4. Lighter fractions (containing small molecules) have a lower boiling point and condense further up the column. Fractional distillation in the lab Fractional distillation of crude oil can be done in the laboratory by heating crude/


Continuous Column Distillation

fractional recovery (FR) of benzene in the distillate? What is the fractional recovery (FR) of toluene in the bottoms? Most volatile component (MVC) is benzene: xF = 0.46 Calculating fractional/ 4 • xB Column internals Sieve tray Also called a perforated tray Simple, cheap, easy to clean Good for feeds that contain suspended solids / structured packing: random packing: • larger surface area, for better contact between liquid and vapor • preferred for column diameters < 2.5´ • packing is considerably more /


Distillation Modeling and Dynamics Distillation Part 2.

dynamic response of distillation column is strongly nonlinear. However, simple logarithmic transformations counteract most of the nonlinearity. Derivation: ln x i : Logarithmic composition CONCLUSION: Response nearly linear (constant gain) with log. comp. Ref. S. Skogestad. “Dynamics and control of distillation columns: A tutorial introduction”, Trans. IChemE, Vol. 75, 1997, p. 553 X i+1 XiXi In general: Use logarithmic compositions Mole fraction of Light key/


A Selection of Chemical Engineering Problems Solved using Mathematica

% acetic acid P S F E1 RN 5.35 equilibrium stages are needed to achive raffinate specifications McCabe and Thiele Diagram wt % Acetic Acid in Raffinate wt % Acetic Acid in Extract Equilibrium Curve Operating Line 5/phase mole fractions : Residue curve map for the ternary system acetone-methanol-chloroform at P=760 mmHg Azeotrope Residue Curve UN SN SP y x Simple reactive distillation Chemical reaction Phase equilibrium Reaction equilibrium Transformed compositions Equation for simple distillation with /


The Politics and Economics of International Energy (Spring 2009- E657) Lecture 3 Playing with the Molecules Prof. Giacomo Luciani.

, which are more valuable and reduce residuals, which constitute a problem 2. Refining Process 8 Petroleum Refining Process Content of a Typical Barrel of Crude Oil Gasoline 25% Kerosine 12% Distillate Fuels 25% Residual Oil 39% From Distillation Only Gasoline 58% Kerosine 8% Distillate Fuels 24% Residual Oil 10% From Modern Refining Process 9 Petroleum Refining Process Simple Distillation Process – straight run Fractionating Tower Gasoline 30  C/


Developing fuels. Why burn it? Come up with a definition and description, uses AND equation for COMBUSTION of octane.

to the formation of carbon or carbon monoxide. As a simple way of thinking about it, the hydrogen in the hydrocarbon gets the first chance at the oxygen, and the carbon gets whatever is left over! The presence of / and hydrogen atoms) Petrol and Crude Oil Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation works because the molecules have different boiling/condensation points many of these hydrocarbons are alkanes, and are sorted into fractions each fraction has a range of boiling points in the distillation/


Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) Lab

Point, Refractive Index, etc. is one of the tools we introduce you to in the Organic I & II courses Simple Distillation will be introduced here as a means to purify the unknown sample and to obtain an approximate boiling point of the compound Simple Distillation and Fractional Distillation will be used in a future experiment as a means of separating compounds in a mixture Boiling point is one/


Chemical Separations What is a chemical separation? Examples:

must separate into various molecular weight fractions (different boiling points) The results are still complex mixtures Chemical Separations Distillation As heat is added to the system the lower volatility compounds will boil away and can be collected. In the spirits/in one phase and the other compound in the opposite phase. It is not that simple. Example System I Da = 32 Db = 0.032 (A ratio of 1000) Vr= 1 Lets recall our equations q (fraction in aqueous)  =  1 /  (DVr + 1) p (fraction in organic)       =  /


รองศาสตราจารย์ ดร อรพิน เกิดชูชื่น รองศาสตราจารย์ ดร ณัฎฐา เลาหกุลจิตต์ School of Bioresources and Technology King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi,

free from the original solvent Easy, simple, low energy Absolutes Free from wax and resinoids Steam/hydro distillation Essential oils concentrate hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds and rich of bioactive compounds (aliphatic,/APPLE JUICE, PEAR, COFFEE, ORANGE, Coliander FLAVOR, FRAGRANCE, AND COLORANTS CONCERN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Consumer demand, new, improved, natural, high quality FRACTIONATION DEODERIZATION TOTAL EXTRACTION TRIPLE POINT CRITICAL POINT LIQUID SOLID SUPERCRITICAL /


Syllabus. To make a standard solution, A take a weighing bottle and place on B a balance, and weigh to 2.d.p. Then transfer solid from bottle to volumetric.

paper questions Specimen Test tube reactions – inorganic ions organicinorganic ions simple test tube reactions To identify unknown organic compounds or unknown inorganic ions (sulphates etc), simple test tube reactions can be performed. ammonium dampred litmus paper /Explaining how fractional distillation works In an exam you will be asked to sketch a vapour/liquid composition graph and use it to explain how the process of fractional distillation works. The graph should show boiling points and composition /


MUMBAI REFINERY.

liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is seperated into its components fractions of desired purity by application and removal of heat This process of seperating components of liquid mixture is based on their difference in boiling points. SIMPLE DISTILLATION WATER Thermometer Cooler / condenser WATER Mixture Heat Distillate CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT UNSATBILISED NAPHTHA TO STABILISER + COMPRESSOR FBS D/O ATF / KERO D/O LVGO/


Chemistry of Lipids.

distilled from 5 grams of fat. Short-chain fatty acid (less than 10 carbons) is distillated by steam. Uses: This studies the natural composition of the fat and/the cell membrane phospholipids fraction of brain and muscle (10% of it is plasmalogens), liver, semen and eggs. Structure: Plasmalogens resemble lecithins and cephalins in structure but/atom length), 3 molecules of hexoses (1 glucose + 2 galactose) and hexosamine. The most simple type of it the monosialoganglioside,. It works as a receptor for cholera/


1 Chemical Separations What is a chemical separation? Examples: Filtration Precipitations Crystallizations Distillation HPLC GC Solvent Extraction Zone.

volatile. –So we must separate into various molecular weight fractions (different boiling points) –The results are still complex mixtures 6 Chemical Separations 7 Distillation As heat is added to the system the lower volatility compounds will boil away and can be collected. –In the spirits industry the low/ D c for each compound we could end up with most of one compound in one phase and the other compound in the opposite phase. It is not that simple. 35 Example System I D a = 32 D b = 0.032 (A ratio of 1000/


ERT 313 BIOSEPARATION ENGINEERING DISTILLATION Prepared by: Miss Hairul Nazirah Abdul Halim.

)The separation of crude petroleum into gasoline, kerosene and fuel oil 3.0Types of Distillation 2 types of operations: a)Batch distillation b)Continuous distillation 2 types of continuous distillation process: a)Flash distillation (without reflux) b)Rectification distillation (with reflux) 3.1Batch Distillation It is a simple distillation where the liquid is charged to a reboiler (still), is boiled slowly and the vapors are taken directly from the condenser. Batch/


Module 3 Heat and Energy in Chemical Reactions.. Introduction: Thermochemistry Chemical reactions often involve changes in temperature, and in the heat.

mixtures the “plateaus” are less clear, and the melting and boiling points less clearly defined. Melting Range Boiling Range solid liquid slushy foamy gas First fractional distillation point Second fractional distillation point Third fractional distillation point Sometimes the difference in boiling points /3 - NH 4 NO 3(s) + 25.7 kJ/mol  NH 4 + + NO 3 -  This method is simple, but it is not widely used. Remember, in exothermic reactions the heat is listed after the arrow, in endothermic reactions the heat /


Unit 8 Petroleum Processing.  Aims and Requirements 1. To know the constituents of petroleum in English 2. To know the petroleum processing in general.

petrochemical industry. A Few Terms Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a very light fraction of petroleum. It is also a fairly simple fraction containing mainly propane and butane. First, it should be noted that under normal pressures LPG is actually a/a factor of a hundred. A Few Terms Gasoline is a light fraction of petroleum which is quite volatile and burns rapidly. Straight run gasoline refers to gasoline produced by distillation instead of cracking, although it really doesnt make a difference. Gasoline /


Ethylene glycol, HOCH 2 CH 2 OH, boils at 198 o C and melts at -13 o C. What happens to the melting point of water if you add antifreeze? Melting point.

Pressure Pure Substance Mole Fraction Raoult’s Law Two /Distilling Column Thermometer Adapter Digital Thermometer Probe for digital thermometer Digital Thermometer Water in Water out Clamps Same interactions between like and unlike molecules NONIDEAL MIXTURES: Strong attractions between like molecules Strong attractions between unlike molecules A. B. IDEAL MIXTURES: Minimum - boiling azeotrope Ethanol - Benzene Min Azeotrope Maximum-boiling azeotrope Acetone - Chloroform Max Azeotrope Simple Distillation/


ERT 313 BIOSEPARATION ENGINEERING DISTILLATION Prepared by: Miss Hairul Nazirah Abdul Halim.

)The separation of crude petroleum into gasoline, kerosene and fuel oil 3.0Types of Distillation 2 types of operations: a)Batch distillation b)Continuous distillation 2 types of continuous distillation process: a)Flash distillation (without reflux) b)Rectification distillation (with reflux) 3.1Batch Distillation It is a simple distillation where the liquid is charged to a reboiler (still), is boiled slowly and the vapors are taken directly from the condenser. Batch/


1 PLANTWIDE CONTROL Sigurd Skogestad Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Tecnology (NTNU) Trondheim, Norway.

values obtained by ”benchmarking” Investment (portofolio management). J = profit. c = Fraction of investment in shares (50%) Biological systems: –”Self-optimizing” controlled variables c / for promising alternatives 70 Selection of controlled variables More examples and exercises HDA process Cooling cycle Distillation (C3-splitter) Blending 71 Summary ”self-optimizing” control Operation/ regulatory control layer 1.Allow for manual operation 2.Simple decentralized (local) PID controllers that can be tuned /


Chemistry of Lipids. Definition: - Lipids are organic compounds formed mainly from alcohol and fatty acids combined together by ester linkage.

acids distilled from 5 grams of fat. Short-chain fatty acid (less than 10 carbons) is distillated by /fraction of brain and muscle (10% of it is plasmalogens), liver, semen and eggs.Definition: Plasmalogens are found in the cell membrane phospholipids fraction of brain and muscle (10% of it is plasmalogens), liver, semen and eggs. StructurePlasmalogens resemble lecithins and/3 molecules of hexoses (1 glucose + 2 galactose) and hexosamine. The most simple type of it the monosialoganglioside,. It works as a /


Analytical Science A course (in 15 Chapters) developed as an Open Educational Resource, designed for use at 2nd year UK & Wales undergraduate level and.

require careful monitoring and control. This is achieved using process GC. An example is the crude distillation process (see next slide). 41 41 Example - Crude oil distillation using process GC Crude oil is a combination of a wide range of hydrocarbon fractions. These are: Fuel/ in signal. Beam of radiation Lens Figure 14.34 on-line filter photometer Figure (14.34) shows a simple filter photometer type analyser. The background absorption is determined by using an unabsorbing gas (N2). When the sample /


distillation column control

= Avoid “drift” Control on fast time scale Simple (PI) Identify secondary controlled variables (y2) pressures, levels, selected temperatures and pair with inputs (u2) y2 = ? 3. Primary controlled variables distillation Cost to be minimized (economics) J = - / saves energy Control implications valueable product: Control purity at spec. Cheap product Control implications cheap product: Over-fractionate cheap product? Trade-off: Yes, increased recovery of valuable product (less loss) No, costs energy Control/


Developing fuels DF 3 Petrol is popular. Petrol and Crude Oil Petrol is a mixture of many different compounds blended to give the right properties 30%

and hydrogen atoms) Petrol and Crude Oil Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation works because the molecules have different boiling/condensation points many of these hydrocarbons are alkanes, and are sorted into fractions each fraction has a range of boiling points in the distillation/the hydrocarbons) More volatile oils distils Oils are used as fuel oils in power stations or ships Others are used as base for lubricating oils Winter and summer petrol Not as simple as sending straight run gasoline /


Today: Conclusion of Distillation/GC Introduction to Exp

Introduction to Exp Today: Conclusion of Distillation/GC Introduction to Exp.4: Steam Distillation. IR Simple & Fractional Distillation Curve GC conditions for your EA and EP Analysis: Sample injection volume: 0.5 mL GC column: 15 m x 0.53 mm (I.D.) PhMe-silicone stationary phase, Rtx-50 column Initial oven temperature = 35oC Initial /


1. 2 Chemical Separations What is a chemical separation? Examples: Filtration Precipitations Crystallizations Distillation HPLC GC Solvent Extraction.

volatile. –So we must separate into various molecular weight fractions (different boiling points) –The results are still complex mixtures 7 Chemical Separations 8 Distillation As heat is added to the system the lower volatility compounds will boil away and can be collected. –In the spirits industry the low/ D c for each compound we could end up with most of one compound in one phase and the other compound in the opposite phase. It is not that simple. 33 Example System I D a = 32 D b = 0.032 (A ratio of 1000/


Chemistry and technology of petroleum By Dr. Dang Saebea.

A catalyst of Co–Mo on alumina is used. 2. Middle Distillates Hydrotreating  Middle distillate is mainly composed of saturated paraffins and also some aromatics which include simple compounds with up to three aromatic rings.  Kerosene, jet fuel oil and diesel fuel are all derived from middle distillate fractions. 2. Middle Distillates Hydrotreating A hydrogen sulphide scrubber and a gas purging are usually used to improve the quality of/


Unit 1: Fundamental Chemistry CHEMISTRY: the science of materials, their composition and structure, and the changes they undergo.

can do this separation technique! 3. SIMPLE DISTILLATION Distillation is used to separate solid solute from liquid solvent Distillation is used to make distilled water and many different alcohol products. Distillation is based on a phase difference (the solid remains in the original flask and the liquid boils, evaporates, then condenses and drips into a new container in a purified form)‏ 4. Fractional Distillation Used to separate miscible liquids MISCIBLE LIQUIDS/


Research on Quantum Algorithms at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter J. Preskill, L. Schulman, Caltech /

obfuscation schemes based on the connections between quantum circuits and braids. -Efficient magic-state distillation protocol using a new class of triorthogonal quantum codes./enables the trap door, but is hidden from the adversary. Preferably a simple scheme, so potential attacks are obvious --- no well hidden vulnerabilities. Schulman/To ensure hardness of tensor decomposition, dual of C should have positive fractional distance. Schulman (Multivariate Quadratic + Code)-Based Cryptosystem -- Codes with the/


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