? If not how many design can you find? 3. Connect the **circuit** you designed **and** see if it works. There are 4 possible designs. In which design are the bulbs the brightest? In which design are they the dimmest? The bulbs connected in **parallel** with 3 branches The bulbs connected in **series** In which design do you think the battery will last the longest/

is the sum of the resistors’ currents. The effective resistance is less than for any individual resistor. Formula is R = **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuit** **Circuit** resistance = R 1 + 1/R 2 + 1/R 3 1 Group Work Determine current direction, current, voltage, **and** power dissipated for each resistor. 12 6 9 18 9 8 10 3 18 9 Group Work 4.Determine the power for each/

Vs R1R2R3 ITIT I1I1 I2I2 I3I3 I T = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 I 2 + I 3 **Parallel** **Circuits** Current Calculations ITIT I1I1 I3I3 I2I2 R1R 2 R3 Vs To measure current the **circuit** must be broken **and** the current meter must be placed in **series** with the component. Calculating Total Current (I T ) 1.First find total resistance R T R1 150 Ω R2/

Chapter 23 **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** Types of **Circuit** There are two types of electrical **circuits**; **SERIES** **CIRCUITS** **PARALLEL** **CIRCUITS** The components are connected end-to-end, one after the other. They make a simple loop for the current to flow round. **SERIES** **CIRCUITS** If one bulb ‘blows’ it breaks the whole **circuit** **and** all the bulbs go out. **PARALLEL** **CIRCUITS** The current has a choice of routes. The components are connected side by side. If one/

SINGLE (Cell) DOUBLE HIGH (Battery) VOLTAGE Connecting wire – Black line Electric **Circuits** Connecting wire – Black line Electric **Circuits** Open switch Electric **Circuits** Closed switch Electric **Circuits** Resistance Electric **Circuits** COMBINING RESISTORS: **Series** **and** **Parallel** See Fig. 35.8 Electric **Circuits** When in **series**, the resistance ADDS up to a larger resistance. Very bright Bright Dimmest Electric **Circuits** When in **Parallel**, the resistance SUBTRACTS to a smaller resistance. Bright Same Bright Same Bright/

increase the number of bulbs in a **series** **circuit**, the bulbs will Get dimmer Stay the same brightness Get brighter Well Done! That’s right, in a **SERIES** **circuit**, adding more bulbs makes them dimmer In a **PARALLEL** **circuit**, adding more bulbs has no effect on/Done! Ammeters must be connected in **series** Increasing the current will give a bigger reading on the ammeter **and** make a bulb brighter Question 7 Voltage is the amount of energy carried by the charges round the **circuit** We measure voltage using what? Voltmeter/

schematic diagrams predict what happens to voltage **and** current when cells are connected in **series** or **parallel** compare resistance in **series** **and** **parallel**. Connected end-to-end with another – (-) to (+) Voltage is the sum of the cells in **series**. Current produced is same as single cell. 2 - 1.5 volts cells in **series** = 3.0 volts in the **circuit**. Cells in **Series** Cells in **Parallel** Connected side-by-side – (-) to (-), (+) to/

reciprocals of the branch resistances. Unit 8 Combination **Circuits** Review: Combination **circuits** are **circuits** that contain both **series** **and** **parallel** branches. A node is where three or more paths come together. The total power is the sum of all the **circuit** resistors’ power. Unit 8 Combination **Circuits** Review: When solving combination **circuits**, simplify, reduce, **and** redraw equivalent value **circuits**. Apply the **series** rules **and** the **parallel** rules selectively to various parts of the combination/

**Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** **Circuits** IIn order for electricity to flow we need PPower source CClosed **circuit** TThere are two type of **circuits** we will explore S**Series** **circuit** P**Parallel** **circuit** **Series** **Circuit** IIn a **series** **circuit** there is only one path for the electrons to flow IIn other words all the components are in **series** with each other BBecause there is only one path each charge will go/

way? Results in excessive current Which can cause overheating **and** damage. **Circuits** are protected against excessive current by fuses **Series** **Circuit** G -ve +ve Where could we put this bulb if we want to add it in **series**? **Series** **Circuit**: Current G -ve +ve If the current through the/ 1 +V 2 +V 3 **Series** **Circuits** If this bulb blows what happens to the other bulbs? The **circuit** is open so there is no path for the current to travel. If current=0 Power=0 As power=EMF x Current **Parallel** **Circuit** G -ve +ve Where could /

/R3… Add **parallel** resistances first Make the **circuit** appear to be **series** Add **series** resistances 35.7 **Parallel** **Circuits** & Overloading Homes are fed with **parallel** **circuits** from utility companies More appliances added allows for lower resistance for the current Greater current can occur in the wires Overloaded- higher amount of current in wires than is safe Fire may result Short **Circuit**- a new, shorter path is offered **and** often bypasses/

Farahmand CET 236 Outline Identify a **series**/**parallel** **circuit** Determine the current **and** voltage in a **circuit** Determine total resistance Apply Ohm’s law Apply Kirchhoff’s voltage law **Series** **Circuit** A **series** **circuit** provides only one path for current between two points current is the same through each **series** resistor. Find the total resistance in a **series** **circuit** sum of the resistances of each individual **series** resistor. R T = R 1 + R/

system The electrical system on a car is essentially a **parallel** system. **Parallel** computer bus connections The bus connectors are connected in **parallel** with common connections to the power supply, address **and** data buses, control signals, **and** ground. Expanded view of an automobile’s electrical system. Application of a **Parallel** **Circuit** One advantage of a **parallel** **circuit** over a **series** **circuit** is that when one branch opens, the other branches are/

of these items are insulators? What ’ s the Best Pathway for Electrons? There are two main types of **circuits**: ParallelSeries **and** **Parallel** **circuits** are **circuits** with more than one pathway through which electrons can flow. **Series** **circuits** are **circuits** with only one pathway through which electrons can flow. **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** Comparison **Series** CircuitParallel **Circuit** Definition Resistance Examples Only one path for current to flow Multiple paths for current to flow Total resistance/

can flow Metals are good conductors Other materials like carbon or water are also good conductors Schematic diagrams are diagrams of electric **circuits** Symbols are used to represent different parts of an electrical **circuit** Schematic Diagram **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** **Series** **circuits** have a single pathway for the current **Parallel** **circuits** have more than one pathway for the current Meters are used to measure current, voltage or resistance in a/

**series** The other is called **parallel** Each has unique properties which we now examine **Series** **Circuits** A single pathway through the **circuit** The current is the same everywhere in the **circuit** Each device provides resistance **and** total resistance is the sum of the devices Voltage divides among the devices Voltage drop across each device is Ir device **Parallel** **Circuits**/ questions Let’s do some sample calculations **Series** **Circuit** Calculation 12 Volt 10 ohm20 ohm30 ohm **Parallel** **Circuit** Calculation 12 Volt 10 ohm 20 ohm /

currents entering a junction equals the sum of the currents leaving it. For these **circuits** we use Kirchhoff’s rules. Some **circuits** cannot be broken down into **series** **and** **parallel** connections. At junction - a Kirchhoff’s Rules **and** Complex DC **Circuits** Direct Current **Circuits** Which diagram shows correct current direction in a segment of an electric **circuit**? (A) (B) (C) (D) Review of Chapter Equivalent resistance of resistors in/

to follow R Ch 35 **Series** **Circuits** pg 4 **Series** **circuits** have a single path for the electrons to follow. **Series** **circuits** are only used in cheap xmas lights because a single break in the **circuit** kills the whole **circuit** R Ch 35 **Parallel** **Circuits** pg 5 **Parallel** **circuits** have multiple paths for the electrons to follow, so any one device can be turned off or on **and** not effect the rest of/

**Circuits** **Series** **Circuits** **Series** **circuits** are the type of **circuits** that most Christams tree lights have. If one bulb goes out, all the bulbs go out. **Parallel** **Circuits** **Parallel** **circuits** are the type of **circuits** that are used in houses. If one bulb goes out…..(your tv goes out), all the other things……refrigerator, lights, **and** radio can still work. Open **circuit** An open **circuits** is when the electricity can not flow (since it needs/

1 HVACR - Refrigeration **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** 2 **Series** **Circuits** A **series** **circuit** has one single path for current flow. The loads are arranged so current must flow through load #1, then load #2, then load #3. If the connection is broken anywhere, or if one load fails, current flow stops in the entire **circuit**. A **series** **circuit** has one single path for current flow. The loads are arranged so current must/

. 3. Do this for all the **Parallel** Paths. 4. Do your calculation on the **Series** **Circuit**. } 1 R 23 1R21R2 1R31R3 =+ 1 R 23 1414 1414 =+ R 23 = 2Ω + - V=10v R 3 =4Ω R 1 =8Ω R 2 =4Ω Block + - V=10v R 1 =8Ω R 23 =2Ω R 23 is an equivalent resistor to R 2 **and** R 3. R T = R/

**parallel** part of the **circuit** **and** the individual R n ’s refer to the individual resistors in **parallel**. Finding Current To find current, use Ohm’s Law for any individual resistance across a **parallel** **circuit** or for the total resistance across the **parallel** **circuit**./ **Parallel** **Circuits** Voltage: If there are **parallel** **circuits** within **parallel** **circuits** such as in the diagram below, you must keep in mind that voltage is the same across each piece of a **parallel** **circuit**. Since there are no resistors in **series** below/

Electric **Circuits** **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** Light a bulb You are given: Wires, a bulb **and** a battery. Your job is to: Light the bulb. To light a bulb, the most important thing is: There must be a complete path, or NO GAPS. This is a **CIRCUIT**. Electric **Circuit** An electric **Circuit** is any path along which electrons can flow. For a continuous flow of electrons, there must be no/

Back To battery Voltage Resistance **Series** **Circuits** – only one path for the current R1R1 R2R2 R5R5 R4R4 R3R3 I I I IA Find the current in this **circuit** R 1 =1Ω R 2 =2Ω R 3 =3 Ω R 4 =4Ω R 5 =5Ω V=10v R = 15 Ω I = 0.666 A **Parallel** **circuits** – current has a / I1I1 I3I3 I5I5 I7I7 I7I7 V = 10 v R 1 =1Ω R 2 =2Ω R 3 =3 Ω R 4 =4Ω Find the current through the battery **and** the 4 Ω resistor. The battery = 10v, R 1 = 1 Ω, etc. Battery R1R1 R2R2 R3R3 R4R4 I3I3 First find the equivalent resistance of the bottom 3 resistors./

a complex **circuit** into a **series** **circuit**. Complex **Circuit** A complex **circuit** is a **circuit** that has some parts like a **series** **circuit** **and** some parts like a **parallel** **circuit**. & Complex **Circuits** Consider the following **circuit**: 8Ω2Ω8Ω2Ω 6Ω 1Ω 9V Complex **Circuits** It looks a lot like a regular **series** **circuit** except for this part: 8Ω2Ω8Ω2Ω 6Ω 1Ω 9V Complex **Circuits** This extra loop works like a **parallel** **circuit** stuck inside the **series** **circuit**. So/

Ed Figure 9.7-1 Natural response of the underdamped **parallel** RLC **circuit**. Chapter 9: The Complete Response of **Circuits** with Two Energy Storage Elements ©2001, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Introduction To Electric **Circuits**, 5th Ed Figure 9.8-1 **Circuit** for Examples 9.8-1 **and** 9.8-2. Chapter 9: The Complete Response of **Circuits** with Two Energy Storage Elements ©2001, John Wiley & Sons, Inc/

resonance condition: Q = 0 => B = 0 - the angular resonant frequency: Remark: In practice (that is having real L **and** C), the resonant frequencies are different for the **series** **and** **parallel** connections. Chapter 4. Resonance in electric **circuits**. Saturday, November 14, 201512 The vector diagram (phasorial representation): Remarks: a)I = I R = GU = U/R is minimum (B = 0), the current is minimum: b) I L/

are de-energized because the flow of current is interrupted. That is why switches **and** controls are in **series** with the loads they control. 120v **Circuit** is open No current flow © 2005 Refrigeration Training Services - E1#3 Meters, **Circuits**, Loads & Switches v1.2 25 **Parallel** **Circuits** Loads are **parallel** to each other, not in **series** There is more than one path for electrons to flow Therefore: Each load/

when investigating **circuits**. These laws describe the behavior of electric potential difference (voltage) **and** current in an electric **circuit**. When engineers design **circuits**, they use Kirchhoff’s laws to understand what will happen to voltage **and** current as the **circuit** operates./electric potential decreases (voltage drops) throughout the rest of the **circuit** loop. A **series** **circuit** has only one complete path, so the loads must share the voltage: A **parallel** **circuit** has more than one path, so voltage drops at each/

Types of **Circuits** **Series** & **Parallel** Objective Students will be able to compare **series** **and** **parallel** **circuits** in order to describe how energy is transferred to produce light **Series** Duracell **Series** Duracell **Series** Duracell **Series** Duracell **Series** Duracell **Series** Duracell **Parallel** Duracell **Parallel** Duracell **Parallel** Duracell **Parallel** Duracell **Parallel** Duracell **Parallel** Duracell Comparison **Series** CircuitParallel **Circuit** Definition Resistance Examples Only one path for current to flow Multiple paths for current to/

full voltage of the source, resulting in all globes burning at the same brightness regardless of the number of globes. Serial **circuits** are cheap **and** easy to construct. **Parallel** **circuits** require more effort to construct. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN **SERIES** & **PARALLEL** **CIRCUITS** This is called a SHORT **circuit** PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN THE SWITCH IS ON PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN THE SWITCH IS OFF This is also called/

P, but different Intro Stuff Power … Intro Stuff Wiring **Circuits** – **Series** / **Parallel** **Parallel** WHY? C // WHY? C **Series** Quantitative Summary Coulomb’s Law: Force between any 2 charges/**Circuits** Must Obey… OHM’S LAW: All **Circuits** Must Obey… 12V 6666 Electrical Power: From P=W/t **Series** **Circuits** **Parallel** **Circuits** **Circuits** w/Capacitors EXAMPLE #1 Three 12 resistors are used in two **circuits**; one in **series** **and** one in **parallel**. What is the R equivalent of each **circuit**? **Series** 12 **Parallel** 12 **Series** + **Parallel**/

standard at 120 V European systems are standard at 220 V **Parallel** **circuits** **and** current Capacity of a battery is how long it can generate/**and** the battery’s cathodes to each other Voltage is unchanged, capacity increases **Series** versus **Parallel** In a **series** connection, voltages add, but capacity is not changed In **parallel** connections, voltages remain the same, but capacity increases **Series** connection – only Voltage increases **Parallel** connection – only capacity increases **Series** versus **parallel** Sometimes a **circuit**/

RESISTORS IN **SERIES** OR IN **PARALLEL** CHAPTER 20.2 1 RESISTORS IN **SERIES** In a **circuit** that consists of a single bulb **and** a battery, the potential difference across the bulb equals the terminal voltage. 2 RESISTORS IN **SERIES** The total current in the **circuit** can be found using the equation ∆V = IR 3 RESISTORS IN **SERIES** What happens when a second bulb is added to such a **circuit**, as/

the current must have changed The dimming occurred because the house wiring had a small resistance Applications of **Circuits** Combined **Series**-**Parallel** **Circuits** As shown in the figure, this resistance was in **series** with the **parallel** **circuit** A **circuit** that includes **series** **and** **parallel** branches is called a combination **series**-**parallel** **circuit** Applications of **Circuits** Ammeters **and** Voltmeters An ammeter is a device that is used to measure the current in any branch or part of/

their electrons can move. Box #1 Introduction There are two network configurations – **series** **and** **parallel**. Last class we covered a **series** network. In this lesson we will cover the **parallel** **circuit** **and** all the methods **and** laws associated with it. Do You Remember? What did we say was the biggest DISADVANTAGE of using a **series** **circuit**? Branching Out **Parallel** **circuits** have independent paths. We call these independent paths branches. Box #2-3/

current through each is therefore 1.5 A. 35.6 Combining Resistors in a Compound **Circuit** What is the equivalent resistance of resistors in **series**? Of equal resistors in **parallel**? 35.7 **Parallel** **Circuits** **and** Overloading To prevent overloading in **circuits**, fuses or **circuit** breakers are connected in **series** along the supply line. 35.7 **Parallel** **Circuits** **and** Overloading Electric current is fed into a home by two wires called lines. About/

21 st, 2013 The plan: Video clip of the day Practice question for **series** **circuit** Understanding basic electric measurement tools **Parallel** **circuits** **Series** **Circuit** As the current goes through the **circuit**, the charges must USE ENERGY to get through the resistor. So each individual/individual loop currents adding to the total current It is important to understand that **parallel** **circuits** will all have some position where the current splits **and** comes back together. We call these JUNCTIONS. The current going IN to a/

you added two more lamps? Agenda: Review the slides **and** summarize the information from the slides on **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits**. You will complete the online lab. Ticket out the door a quiz: A connection with only one current path is called a **series** connection. **Series** **Circuit** A **circuit** in which all current travels through each device, is called a **series** **circuit**. **Parallel** **Circuit** When a voltmeter is connected across another component, it/

Switch Light Bulb Fuse Bell Earth Transformer 5 principles of dc **circuits** Current in **Series** In a **series** **circuit** (i.e. no **parallel** **circuits**), the current is the same at all points of the **circuit** Worked Example 1 What is the reading of Ammeter X? /**Parallel** In a **parallel** **circuit**, there must be branches Current follows the “what goes in must come out” rule Worked Example 2 What is the value of I? 0.3 A I 0.2 A Worked Example 3 What is the value **and** direction of current in wire X? Potential Difference in **Series**/

one cycle. Electrical Review 300 f λ Wavelength MHz meters 300 = f x λ f = 300 / λ λ = 300 / f Electrical Review AC **and** DC Waveforms Electromagnetic Spectrum Electrical Review **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** **Series** **Circuit**. Only one path for current to flow. Current is same through each device. Electrical Review **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** **Parallel** **Circuit**. Multiple paths for current to flow. Voltage is same across each device. Electrical Review Decibels Measures a ratio. Logarithmic scale/

in **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** Basic Formulas for Rapid Computation of **Circuit** Resistance Introduction Informational lecture by Fred Baker Electronics Instructor for U.S. Navy Topics of Discussion Resistance totaling values, dependent on the **circuit** structure Knowing how to calculate resistance depending on **circuit** structure Understanding these basics can save valuable time **and** effort Resistance Rules for **Series** **Circuits** **Series** **circuits** are always one-for-one additive Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 + Rn **Series** **Circuit**/

. Burned out light bulb **Parallel** Continued So would **series** or **parallel** be better to wire a house? **Parallel** because if one light is missing or not working, the other lights have alternate paths to follow **and** will STAY LIT! Building **Circuits** Materials: Wire Cell Bulbs switch Build a **series** **circuit** with a switch to control the light bulb Build a **parallel** **circuit** with 2 light bulbs **and** a switch that controls/

= RT IT VA 5A 90A 18Ω Troubleshooting: Opens **and** Shorts in **Series**-**Parallel** **Circuits** In **series**-**parallel** **circuits**, an open or short in one part of the **circuit** changes the values in the entire **circuit**. When troubleshooting **series**-**parallel** **circuits**, combine the techniques used when troubleshooting individual **series** **and** **parallel** **circuits**. Troubleshooting: Opens **and** Shorts in **Series**-**Parallel** **Circuits** Effect of a Short in a **Series**-**Parallel** **Circuit** The total current **and** total power increase. . Fig. 6-13: Effect of/

between two or more Branches Loop – Any closed path contained within the **circuit** of interest **Series** **and** **Parallel** Two (or more) branches are in **Series** if they share a single node exclusively. –Branches in **Series** carry identical current Two (or more) branches are in **Parallel** if they connect to the same two nodes –Branches in **Parallel** have identical voltage Types of Branches Branches that are a Source of/

DAVID M. BUCHLA Chapter 6 – **Series** **and** **Parallel** Combination **Circuits** Identifying **series**-**parallel** relationships Most practical **circuits** have combinations of **series** **and** **parallel** components. From Chapters 4 **and** 5 Components that are connected in **series** will share a common path. Components that are connected in **parallel** will be connected across the same two nodes. 1 2 Combination **circuits** **Circuits** containing both **series** **and** **parallel** **circuits** are called COMBINATION **circuits** You can frequently simplify analysis/

I = 11.11 Amps Complex **Circuits** Complex **circuits** are also know as **Series**-**Parallel** **Circuits**. A **Series**-**Parallel** **circuit** is a combination **circuit** containing loads in both **series** **and** **parallel**. Complex **circuits** are the most widely used **circuits** in industry today. Solving a Complex **Circuit** Start with a small simple chunk of the **circuit** that you know how to work with that’s either all **series** or all **parallel**. Then keep redrawing **circuit** at each step as it simplifies/

**parallel** **circuit**? A.It equals the average of each branch current B.It decreases as more **parallel** branches are added to the **circuit** C.It equals the sum of the currents through each branch D.It is the sum of the reciprocal of each individual voltage drop G5C05 If three equal value resistors in **parallel** produce 50 ohms of resistance, **and** the same three resistors in **series**/

Resistors in **Series** or in **Parallel** Chapter 20 Section 2 Single Resistor Alone In a **circuit** that consist of single bulb **and** a battery, the potential difference across the bulb equals the terminal voltage. In a **circuit** that consist of single bulb **and** a battery, the potential difference across the bulb equals the terminal voltage. The current can be found using Ohm’s Law if the resistance/

Law! BASIC PROCEDURE FOR DC CALCULATIONS Reduce the Complex **Circuit** to a Simple Equivalent Reduce the **circuit** to Individual **Series** **and** **Parallel** **Circuits** Perform Calculations on the Individual **Circuits** Combine Calculations as Appropriate COMBINATION **CIRCUIT** EXAMPLE 10 20 A 10 ohm resistor is In **series** with two 20 ohm resistors Reduce to individual **series** **and** **parallel** **circuit** DETERMINE SIMPLE **SERIES** **PARALLEL** PARTS In the **parallel** portion of the **circuit**, the equivalent of two 20 ohm resistors is/

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