Ppt on sectors of economy for class 10

INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

Economic Blueprint: The Vision 20:2020 Making the Nigerian economy one of the top 20 by the year 2020 with a GDP of USD900bn Attracting US$130billion private capital over the next 10 years Optimising key sources of economic growth by enhancing production for real sector’s competitiveness and for exports Guaranteeing productivity by strengthening linkages between key sectors of the economy Fostering sustainable social and economic development by ensuring national/


Gender and Economic Isolation in an Era of Globalization Jennifer Olmsted Dept. of Economics Drew University

% Defeminization of the health care sector –From 10 to 5% of all female employment –From 50% to 14% of all health care workers Role of Internal vs. Global Factors? Role of Gender norms –Interviews with working class women suggest that society becoming more accepting of women working –Evidence from health sector suggests defeminization Role of Internal policy –PA job creation Biased in favor of educated, particularly in case of women Role of External policies/


The Information Society: Measuring the SMEs and the Digital Divide

SMEs and very small enterprises Economic Sectors policy Infrastructure, in particular broadband E-government E-content Territorial development policy Agreements-protocols between the National Statistical Office with Ministry of Innovation and Ministry of Economy and under definition with Ministry of Production Activities for building up data bases on information society for monitoring policies Defining Information Society OECD: information economy + social aspects = information society European Definition/


Gender and Economic Isolation in an Era of Globalization Jennifer C. Olmsted Dept. of Economics Drew University

choice/variety –More employment for women? Risks - –Increased volatility –Increased vulnerability to economic isolation IS IMPACT OF VOLATILITY GENDERED? CAN ECONOMIES FACING SANCTIONS TELL US ANYTHING/sector growing from 17 to 23% Defeminization of the health care sector –From 10 to 5% of all female employment –From 50% to 14% of all health care workers Conclusions Countries experiencing isolation provide insights into what downturn may do to women’s employment options. Evidence of both a gender and class/


STRATEGIC PLAN 2013 - 2018.

levels of intermediation are low. When banks do lend to the private sector, almost 60% of loans are for less than 1 year. This undermines investment in the productive economy and/ a 2009 study from the UK’s Department of Education: “Students who took all or part of their class online performed better, on average, than those /significantly underfinanced in SSA – just 10% of commercial bank portfolios.3 FSDA fit: Linkages with all four FSDA activity pillars. Primary lever for growth as well as poverty reduction/


LOGO Experience of development and application of the optimization models for strategic planning in the power sector under the recent technological, economic.

’ forecast National and regional energy balances Estimation of priorities for new technologies Estimation of the impact of pricing and investment policy in energy sector on the economy Recommendations for the national energy policy improvements Energy Research Institute RAS SCANER – multi-functional system of models for the investigation of the global and Russian energy sector development LOGO Energy Research Institute RAS Joint optimization of power sector structure with the gas and coal production and/


A Growth Path Towards Full Employment

the economy Outline steps to build the required state-capacities as identified in the 52nd Conference and in the Cosatu document Clarify the bias of the state in line with clarifying the class, race and gender character of the new growth path Clarify the role of the state in directly building infrastructure and providing basic services Elaborate on the role of the state in shaping key sectors/


Contents 1 What we have done Discussion of case studies 2

sources of advantage and disadvantage (1/2) Best in class/ Advantage Corporation tax rate, % 18 12.5 10-30 26 28 US: 35 28 Use of Zonal tax exemptions YES YES YES NO NO NO NO Ease of doing /for targeted support opportunities to embed and retail companies in local economy Creation of successful clusters through the use of formal mechanisms to encourage co-operation between sectors Open? 2007 Exports 46% of GDP ü Developed? 2007 GDP per capita 125% of NI ü Aspects NI is unlikely to learn from Choice of sector/


Contents Page Number Title 1. Introduction 3

of the area’s culture of creativity. We have a unique portfolio of assets including nationally significant museums, galleries and theatres; world class sports, leisure facilities and events. Environmental Economy The City Region aims to maximise opportunities within one of the economy’s fastest-growing sectors. There are major opportunities to develop innovative solutions for/ per capita up to £11,321 in 2004 from £10,742 in 2003. Key Economic Indicators for the Liverpool City Region (1)   Total GVA growth /


INDIAN ECONOMY AND TRENDS

Class in Developing Countries”, Homi Kharas, OECD JANUARY 2015 For updated information, please visit www.ibef.org INDIAN ECONOMY AND TRENDS DIVERSIFIED ECONOMY PROVIDING VARIOUS INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES Sector-wise GDP share in 2013-14 ( per cent of GDP) India has a diversified economy with no individual sector accounting for more than 25 per cent share Various major sectors/ of number of listed companies; NSE takes the third spot in terms of number of transactions India entered the elite club of world’s 10 /


1 2007 to 2014 : Emerging Markets Importance to Global GDP Growth Chris Taylor, Investment Director & Head of Research Neptune Investment Management.

consumer → growth of the middle class and increasing income – Resource intensive → convergence of resource intensity per capita The Long-Term Case for Investing in Emerging Markets Remains Intact 4 The Global Environment BRICs have critical mass & economic momentum – Differ in economic structure from OECD countries – Low financial risk = less debt, more equity & structurally lower inflation – Companies and economies more open & better managed than previously What/


‘‘Heading off-piste’’ Some food for thought MCT Wealth Management Investment Views for 2006.

corporate sector is relatively sheltered from the negative effects of the tightening liquidity environment and more expensive materials. Corporate America is on course for the longest unbroken stretch (10 quarters) of double-digit earnings growth; the longevity of /The continued rise of Asia and other emerging economies with huge and diverse benefits for the global economy. Core inflation remaining under control and tempering any rise in bond yields. Equities outperforming other asset classes. The USD /


Faculty of Economics and Business Undergraduate Professional Study Programme Course coordinator: Boglarka Kiss Kulenovi ć (signatures, final exams) Course.

allocation of scarce resources depends on a society’s answers to some basic questions. ECONOMIC QUESTIONS → TYPE OF ECONOMY What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce? Why to produce? MARKET ECONOMY PLANNED ECONOMY MIXED ECONOMY /the same word family as “ECONOMY” economiceconomicaleconomise economisteconomics → CB, p 10 Unit 2: Sectors of the economy Which sectors of the economy? labour-intensive ??? Use your smartphones to check on the meaning and usage of: Harvest Consumer goods Extract Capital /


[Stock Market] Introduction

for stock markets as a whole. Factors such as GDP, economic growth, inflation, interest rates and energy prices will be considered. The analyst will then move on to: Sector Analysis Identifies which sectors of the economy/ a growth rate of less than 10%, for instance, might have/classes of stock, usually Class A or Class B. Classes of stock are used to separate ownership and control. A company may issue a new class of stock for a specific purpose, such as financing an acquisition or merger. Some classes of/


Agenda Prologue: The International Context

. Additionally, Best-in-Class companies are also stressing the importance of KPI visibility throughout the /0.10 0.25 0.15 0.20 Increase in/of sectoral output Percentage of Industry Output that is Exported Source: National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy (2009) Evolving Global Value Chains Company Cultural and Behavioural changes Shared services Shared information/collaboration Shopper Dialogue A new interface with the consumer Information Sharing Open platforms for/


EMERGING ECONOMIES: GROWTH, RESILIENCE, IMPACT, INVESTMENT MICHAEL SPENCE APRIL 18, 2013 PIONEER IN BEIJING.

to other economies sector by sector matters So for me there are few natural asset classes – You have a set of growth models that go with the stage of development/ income levels/comparative advantage – Network structure – evolving rapidly – Elements of growth and development/of the economies China and the Middle Income Transition Third largest economy if Europe is counted as a unit About half the size of US or Europe – Will be same size in 10-15 years – When it grows at 8% real - that is the equivalent of/


Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice

,000 years to “grow” 1 inch of soil Agriculture Livestock responsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than the entire transportation sector Methane, CO2, and NO Grass-fed cattle healthier, produce less methane, contain less saturated fat Agriculture Water use has tripled since 1950, up 6-fold over 20th Century 70% of freshwater use in agriculture; 20% for agriculture; 10% for domestic purposes Large scale irrigation/power projects/


RUSSIAN ECONOMY Communist Economic Systems. Russia’s transition to planned economics In a planned economy, the __________ regulates or “plans” p_____________.

for more gradual reforms after 1992 – This path necessitated abandoning several aspects of liberal market reform Privatization in Theory: 3 Main goals of privatization 1 st : creation of a middle class 2 nd : creation of a market economy 3 rd : separation of ownership from management Privatization in Theory: 1 st goal of privatization First, creation of socioeconomic stratification, particularly a middle class/ sector – Russia’s manufacturing received little attention even after the collapse – The economy /


Geography of International Trade Jinan University Department of International Economics and Trade Students of Year 2001 Autumn, 2004.

the site (a commercial plane needs about 3,300 meters of track for landing and take off), the climate, fog and aerial currents. Air activities are linked to the tertiary sectors, notably finance and tourism that require movements of people. More recently, air transportation has been accommodating growing quantities of high value freight. World ’ s 10 Largest Passengers Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers) World ’ s/


Report Card – Q1, 2010 Compliments of: Investment Planning Counsel,, Phone: Email: Website: www.ipcc.cawww.ipcc.ca Prepared for:, Date: Quarter Ending.

, not just in the U.S., but also in other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, inflationary pressures remain low/economy Australian banks – benefited from recovery in the financial system and Australian dollar Canadian dollar – appreciated against major currencies Bank of Yokohama – declined in Canadian dollar terms due to the depreciation of the Japanese yen Alstom –short term fall in demand Counsel International Growth Effective Asset Class Mix Effective Top 10 Sector/


Indian Economy. Growth and Development of the Economic Firmament.

.8 All Classes 100.0 urban (%) Characteristics Contd >>>>>>>.  Poor Quality of human capital /48787,9332.4128,6731.77 10. General Economic Services14,81147,/of savings & investment & near absence of infrastructural facilities, Indian economy needed a big push. Contd>>>>>>>>>> The basic argument for the expansion of the public sector, the government added additional reasons over time: o To accelerate the growth of core sectors of the economy. o To serve the equipment needs of strategically important sectors/


Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P.

Century 70% of freshwater use in agriculture; 20% for agriculture; 10% for domestic purposes 70% of freshwater use in agriculture; 20% for agriculture; 10% for domestic purposes/of entitlement Sense of entitlement Less attention to lower classes Less attention to lower classes Presumption of superiority, “earned” rights Presumption of superiority, “earned” rights Less ethical behavior Less ethical behavior The Booming Economy Inflation-adjusted income of the median U.S. household Inflation-adjusted income of/


India Scan: External IEEE Strategic Planning and Research Providence More, Manager of Strategic Planning & Competitive Intelligence March 2008.

far reaching. Source: Straight Talk, U.S. and Global Economies, The Conference Board, January 2008 IEEE Strategic Planning and Research//380 billion). Source: “Next Big Spenders: India’s Middle Class,” Business Week, May 19, 2007. IEEE Strategic Planning and /of total power generation, State and Central Government account for 58% and 32% respectively, whereas private sector accounts for only 10% Power generation capacity is anticipated to increase by about 60,000 MW during 2007-12 Source: CII Initiative for/


NISM MF MODULE 1. C ONCEPT AND R OLE OF A M UTUAL F UND Chapter I 2.

challenging if all the companies in the sector together are worth only about Rs 10,000 crore. On the other hand, too small a fund size means that the scheme will not benefit from economies of scale 260 A joint venture between SBI/the son a doctor, call for commitments over a period of about 6 years – 2 years of undergraduate studies, coaching class expenses for preparing for the medical entrance exams, followed by the medical education and hostel expenses. An estimate of these future expenses (the financial /


ZIMBABWE: WHERE TO NOW? Tony Hawkins Graduate School of Management University of Zimbabwe.

agricultural inputs for 2009/10. STRUCTURAL REFORMS  Central Bank independence  Restructuring the parastatal sector - currently as much as 40% of GDP - including privatization.  Land Commission to  Repeal the Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act.  THE FUTURE TWO REALITIES  Whoever comes out on top in the current stalled negotiations will have to take drastic, radical measures – along the lines just indicated – to turn the economy around.  He/


A knowledge sharing session on sectoral balance sheet data reporting SBP: Statistics Department By: Malik Muhammad Ashraf Naseer.

Quality Reliable Doubtful High Low A base for decision making Why compile quality statistics?  Evaluate results of the actions taken;  Analyze the developments of economy  Watch behavior of various sectors of the economy  Record their role in transferring funds / arise from the recording of dividends when the dividends are declared, rather than when the dividends are paid. This is distribution of earnings to shareholders prorated by the class of security and paid in the shape of money, stock, scrip/


0 Energy Efficiency Policy Development and Planning in Japan The Energy Conservation Center, JapanECCJContents 1.Outline of Energy Conservation Promotion.

Statistics 209.8 105.0 Industrial sector Transportation sector Consumer sector 221.9 Changes in Final Energy Consumption by Sector ECCJ 4 Changes in Primary Energy Intensity/average value of representative units of energy efficient models of wall-type models with both cooling and heating function in the 2.8kW class. Source/10 Turkey NECC 2000/8 – 2005/7 Thailand ECCT 2002/4 – 2005/4 Iran NTCEM 2003/4 – 2007/3 Poland ECTC 2004/7 – 2008/6ECCJ 59 ECCJ METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) Agency for/


1 IT and Telecom Sector Analysis. 2 Overall Project Objectives Adopt a baseline of NYC economic forecasts prior to September 11 Assess economic impact.

sector’s ability to support a NYC recovery Rebuild World-Class Infrastructure n Replace one-time capital losses suffered by the industry as a result of the 9/11 events n Drive the NYC infrastructure forward by upgrading it where possible Collaborate for the Future n Develop ongoing mechanism to determine technology requirements of different industries and NYC economy/ services by educating businesses on available service alternatives 84 10.) HIGH-PRIORITY ACTION – Channel investments to technologies critical/


Republic of Ghana Presentation to Investors September 2014.

for Democracy Rising Middle Class Advantage Diverse Economy and Focused Approach to Address Challenges Committed to fiscal reforms and development agency support to tackle short term pressures Economic diversity supports the long-term outlook for Ghana, including moving into value-added sectors such as gas-processing Ghana benefits from a relative diverse domestic economy with services sector which accounted for an estimated 49% of GDP in 2013 Robust framework for/for future growth Ghana is one of the top 10/


Understanding Your Local Economy Garen Evans. Outline –Anatomy of a local economy –Data Demographics Economics Fiscal –Issues Commuting Health.

of production Measuring the Economy Composition –BLS: 12 industry super sectors Indicators –Demographic Population, income –Economic Industry sales, jobs –Fiscal Revenues and expenditures BLS Industry Super Sectors/ of value. One Mill = 1/10 th of One Cent (0.001) Example – Class 1 Property Assessed Value: $120,000 Taxable Value: $12,000 (120000/10/2027 –Exceed system peak by 2017 2. Health Issues Mississippi ranks highest for –Obesity –Heart Disease –Diabetes –Infant Mortality Employers –Educated workforce –/


Issuance and Investments in the Low-Rate “New Normal” Economy January 12, 2011 Presented by: Girard Miller, Senior Strategist PFM Asset Management LLC.

for 10% of portfolios, simply on age demographics Americans becoming more like Europeans in 2010s 9 © 2011 PFM Asset Management LLC The New Normal: What’s Different (and What’s Not) PFM Investment Advisors to the Public Sector BUT, some things won’t change! Expect to see luxury spending increase –Wealth class/pools will remain popular in 2011 and likely to lag once economy regains momentum –Spread between LAIF and commercial money market funds of JPA pools should narrow cyclically as rates tick upward. Total/


UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme Regional Office for Africa and the Arab States Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS)

for a list of participants in the city consultation). The background includes data on administration, urban planning, economy, the informal and private sector,/of 44 pupils per class. There are 1,108 classes in Menouf for the first section of elementary phase of education (primary). The next section of the elementary phase (preparatory) has 441 classes, with 38 pupils per class. The secondary phase also has up to 38 students/class, with a total number of 536 classes. It is necessary to establish a system of/


PARTNERSHIP OF GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN THE FIELD OF TOURISM: THE HUNGARIAN EXPERIENCE AKOS NIKLAI Vice President of the Hungarian.

standard guarantee 2006  introduced 2007  Accredited by HOTREC (EHQ level 2) Valid for 3 years Currently 171 applied hotels and restaurants  147 winners Future plans: TA, TO, Taxi Recent Development Hotelstars  national trademark of Hungary Operation: Operation: Ministry of National Economy with the cooperation of HHRA Recently – the negotiation is ongoing between Ministry of National Economy and HHRA  NEW AGREEMENT TO BE SIGNED SOON Benefits: Benefits:  transparent/


Economic and Asset Class update is an Authorised Representative of RI Advice Group Pty Ltd November 2011 -

, OptiMix Multi Strategies Team Contribution to aggregate world GDP 2000 2010 Changing structure of global economy Source: IMF & INGIM OptiMix Source: Panning for Gold in a River of Mud – November 2011 Lewis South, Senior Portfolio Manager, OptiMix Multi Strategies Team/. Australian vs. US markets Source: Iress As at 25 November 2011 Growth of $10,000 invested in Australian and US markets over time Section 4 – Asset class review Key asset sector index performance summary 1 month % 3 months % 1 Year % 3 Years/


The “Informal Sector” in Africa May 27 and 29, 2014 ECON 3510, Arch Ritter Source: Class Notes.

using domestic inputs rather than imported input) Potential Contribution of the Informal Economy for Future Development, continued ?? 10.“Last resort” activities will diminish and disappear with the expansion of the formal economy – one hopes……. 12. Many low productivity activities will evolve into higher productivity activities or else disappear. Potential Contribution of the Informal Economy for Future Development, continued?? The Informal Sector and Future Development: Two concurrent future scenarios: A/


New Hampshire Economic Outlook: What is the NH Advantage? Ross Gittell James R Carter Professor Whittemore School of Business and Economics University.

employment 2000-10 According to NH Dept Employment Security Top Occupations by total openings 2000 to 2010 According to NH Dept Employment Security The Creative Class in Rockingham Looking Forward yRockingham is one the hubs of high technology /Use quality of life as an attraction to skilled workers and entrepreneurs and to further develop the creative economy yEnhance relationships between business, K-12 and the University of New Hampshire and other local colleges –Use cutting edge research for new business/


The (shrinking) Left in Europe Alistair Cole. (Northern European) Social Democracy: core and features Strong working class anchoring, but not strictly.

national, rather than … internationalist parties corporatism corporatism mixed economy mixed economy northern-southern divide northern-southern divide French Socialists (again in search of a role) Alistair Cole How does the French PS fit with this model? Strong working class anchoring: not really…party of public sector middle classes under SFIO, but PCF Strong working class anchoring: not really…party of public sector middle classes under SFIO, but PCF mass parties : not/


© 2011 Grant Thornton South Africa. All rights reserved. | | West Rand District Municipality West Rand Tourism Sector Strategy June 2011 Strategic Solutions.

the national target). One of the questions in Tourism Sector Index To increase domestic tourisms contribution to the tourism economy Domestic tourism GDP as a percentage of tourisms overall contribution to GDP 10%10.8%11.1% Focus /class visitor experience Delivering experiences that equal or surpass the expectations of our visitors Unknown Strive to be best performing province on national satisfaction index To deliver world class visitor experience in respect of identified core experiences for the WRDM 10/


The Foundation of the Turkish Republic W1&2.  The Ottoman Empire started experiencing serious economic and politico-military problems during the 18 th.

to view their interests more closely with those of landlords and Islamic clergy (din adamlari).  The two major classes of the day; Anatolian eşraf (landlord- /of cultivation. Compulsory agricultural training was instituted for soldiers during their military service.  This was a ‘productionist’, rather than ‘re- distributionist’ strategy.  The landlords’ control over the mechanism of state aid to the agricultural sector did, nevertheless, expand the growth of output in some sectors of the rural economy/


The U.S. Economy After the Great Recession: America’s Deleveraging and Recovery Experience Sherle R. Schwenninger and Samuel Sherraden Economic Growth.

public sector, such as government debt held by the Social Security Trust Fund. US federal government debt is slightly above the average for advanced economies of 76%. But it is well below its immediate post-war high of 113% of GDP in 1945. 9 The middle class /gap larger than it would otherwise have been, costing the economy over this time hundreds of billions of dollars in lost income and millions of jobs. 14 The official unemployment rate declined from a peak of 10% in October 2009 to 6.6% in January 2014./


Thailand in the New Global Landscape Suvit Maesincee Sasin Institute for Global Affairs (SIGA)

parts of the economy in some of the most critical sectors Modernization did not bring homogenization; culture and identity are powerful enduring forces between and within societies By hosting the Olympic Games, China, for example,/USA Vietnam Singapore China Thailand Hong Kong Sri Lanka Malaysia South Africa Bolivia Namibia Share of Income (%) Poorest 10 PercentileRichest 10 Percentile Income Inequality Turning from Constructive to Destructive Social Structure InequalityWealth Power Opportunity Privilege /


Public Finance Introduction Igor Baranov Graduate School of Management, St. Petersburg University.

high-tech industries in Saint-Petersburg)”, 2001-2003  USAID, “Regional Policy of Development of the Real Economy sector”, 2001-2002  Fond Foundation, “Higher Economic Education in Russia: Challenges of Acquiring New Content”, 2001-2003  RAO UES of Russia, “Energy Saving Program”, 2001  Ministry of Finance of RF, “Survey of Social Program Expenditure”, 2000-2001  State Property Fund of RF, “Changes in Organizational Behavior in the Post-Privatization Period”, 1997-1998/


Innovation System and Inequality: The Experience of South Africa Wits Innovation Symposium Presentation 24 February 2010 Luci Abrahams, Wits LINK Centre.

, 73.5% of households lived in a formal dwelling, 10.5% in a traditional dwelling and 1,8 million h/h or 13.4% in informal settlements. (Government RSA, 2009, p.30). Significant demand for rental housing by individuals earning below R7500 per month (FFC, 2009 p. 59). Middle class chooses private schooling and healthcare, at a premium price, with innovation. Public sector provides economic/


Launching World-Class Open Data Initiatives in the GCC April 29, 2014 Ibrahim Elbadawi 5 Key Strategy Ingredients.

Class Open Data Initiatives in the GCC April 29, 2014 And Sustaining @TheExantium @iBadawi Ibrahim Elbadawi 5 Key Strategy Ingredients © Exantium, exantium.com, info@exantium.com 2 Adapt to the New Digital Age1 © Exantium, exantium.com, info@exantium.com 4 Adapt to The New Digital Age Connected and Empowered Today’s citizen: © Exantium, exantium.com, info@exantium.com 5 Searching for/ of Business estimated the annual value of opening up public sector information to be: $ 3bn *Based on 2012 UK economy /


CHAPTER 6 The Economic Role of the State PUBLIC SECTOR ECONOMICS: The Role of Government in the American Economy Randall Holcombe.

political process PUBLIC SECTOR ECONOMICS: The Role of Government in the American Economy Randall Holcombe 6-14 Reasons for Government Redistribution   Two general reasons:   Provide a safety net   Greater equality   Not necessarily the same thing   Example: worldwide poverty PUBLIC SECTOR ECONOMICS: The Role of Government in the American Economy Randall Holcombe 6-15 Politics and Redistribution  Bulk of government transfers go to the middle class in the United States/


1 The cultural political economy of embedding neoliberalism in Uganda An analysis of changes in the relationships and trade practices (moral economy) between.

’ welfare, norms: socially constituted reasons for actions 19 JW, 10/5/09 Moving away from (mainstream) economics we find that... Moving away from (mainstream) economics we find that...... other branches of social sciences conceptualise markets, market actors and relationships differently... 20JW, 10/5/09 Economies, markets, economic actors and relationships are embedded (constituted) Cognitively Cognitively Socially (power, class, gender, age) Socially (power, class, gender, age) Culturally (e/


Information Technology Finance 724/824 SIM Class Christopher Moran Suresh Ramasubramanian Sean Ramsey.

.10% 40,300NCR Corp.$409,045.00($660,691)2.84%-21.92% 38,420Oracle Corp$743,042.80$78,6915.16%3.33% Business Analysis Diverse sector with a focus on computer technology. Innovation is a key driver for success within the sector. High R&D costs are required to generate future growth. Industry is very cyclical. Often seen to lead the economy out of/


INFORMAL ECONOMY – THE CHALLENGE FOR TRADE UNIONS Fred Parry, ILO Harare Fred Parry, ILO Harare.

10 Challenges continued….. Legal changes: if a country’s laws are an obstacle to organising workers in the informal economyfor instance, if it only recognises organisations of wage workers with clearly identifiable employers- unions need to lobby for/the initiative themselves, often in collaboration with other sectors of civil society. 17 Initiatives continued…. in addition to its international trade union affiliations, two international networks of informal economy workers have also been created. One is /


© Natalya Brown 2008 ECON 3066 Economic Development Classic Theories of Economic Development Reading: Todaro Chapter 3 1.

of economic growth are well established. Transition from traditional to modern economy 17 4. The Drive to Maturity The drive to maturity refers to the need for the economy itself to diversify. The sectors of the economy which lead initially begin to level off, while other sectors/security issues, on equality and welfare issues, or on developing great luxuries for its upper class. 19 Criticism Strong bias towards western model of modernization (free vs. controlled markets, China). Tries to fit economic /


1 Ford and the European Automotive Market The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Executive MBA Program.

MODERATE European Automotive Sector 6 Competitors Threat of Substitutes Power of Buyers Power of Suppliers Threat of Entry European Automotive Sector Threat of Rivalry Many Competitors Competitors of Equal Size Low Switching Costs Intense Rivalry High “First Mover” Advantages High Exit Barriers Low Entry of New Firms STRONG 7 Threat of Rivalry Threat of Substitutes Buyers Power of Suppliers New Entrants European Automotive Sector Threat of Entry Economies of Scale Technology Advantages Experience/


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