제 2 법칙 : 열은 100% 일로 변환될 수 없다 열 병목현상 : 연료전지는 열변환 단계 우회 2.1.4. **Second** Low Chapter 2. Fuel Cell **Thermodynamics** √ 엔트로피 : 시스템 가능한 미소상태 수, 시스템을 구성하는 가능한 방법 수 √ 엔트로피 : 무질서도 측정 ☞ 가장 간단한 고립 시스템 ◈ The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (2.6) Where, 2.1.4. **Second** Low Chapter 2. Fuel Cell **Thermodynamics** Figure 2.2. (a) The entropy **of** this 100 atom perfect crystal is zero because there is only/ **Equations** 2.81 and 2.82 (2.83) √ The general form **of** Nernst **equation** (2.84) ◈ Nernst **equation** Chapter 2. Fuel Cell **Thermodynamics** 2/

Continued Chemical **Thermodynamics** **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** states that the entropy **of** the universe increases for spontaneous processes, and the entropy **of** the universe does not change for reversible processes. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical **Thermodynamics** **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** In other/for the products and reactants and use **Equation** 19.14: We multiply the molar quantities by the coefficients in the balanced **equation** and subtract the total for the reactants/

. PV=nRT (gas **law** for ideal gas) **equation** **of** state **of** ideal gas; heat capacity at constant P and constant V are related as C P =C V +R ; C P /C V = When the system undergoes change from one **thermodynamic** state to final state due change in properties like temperature, pressure, volume etc, the system is said to have undergone **thermodynamic** process. **Second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** introduces entropy S/

proportional to temperature 13.4 Thermal Expansion Change in length is proportional to temperature So the **equation** is a is called the coefficient **of** linear expansion T0 T L0 DL 13.4 Imagine an infinitely thin ring 13.4 Thermal / .005 m3 and T = 300 K. The cycle is Totals 15.2 15.4 The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**-Intro 15.3 The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**-Intro The first **law** deals with conservation **of** energy. However there are situations that would conserve energy, but do not occur. Falling objects convert/

basis by dividing both sides **of** the **equation** by the mass **of** the system, The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Incorporating the net entropy transport into the system due to the mass flows gives the complete form **of** the **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**! Notice that if the system is closed, The **Laws** **of** the Universe Conservation **of** Mass – The Continuity **Equation** Conservation **of** Energy – The First **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** The Entropy Balance – The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Special Application – Closed Systems Consider/

physics – the role **of** the **Second** **Law** Peter Ván HAS, RIPNP, Department **of** Theoretical Physics –Introduction **Second** **Law** Weak nonlocality –Liu procedure –Classical irreversible **thermodynamics** –Ginzburg-Landau **equation** –Discussion general framework **of** any **Thermodynamics** (?) macroscopic continuum theories **Thermodynamics** science **of** macroscopic energy changes **Thermodynamics** science **of** temperature Nonequilibrium **thermodynamics** reversibility – special limit General framework: – **Second** **Law** – fundamental balances/

and entropy decreases More About Entropy Note, the **equation** defines the change in entropy The entropy **of** the Universe increases in all natural processes This is another way **of** expressing the **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** There are processes in which the entropy **of** a system decreases If the entropy **of** one system, A, decreases it will be accompanied by the increase **of** entropy **of** another system, B. The change in entropy/

**Second** **Law** Weak nonlocality –Ginzburg-Landau **equation** –Schrödinger-Madelung **equation** –Digression: Stability and statistical physics –Discussion Weakly nonlocal nonequilibrium **thermodynamics** – fluids and beyond Peter Ván BCPL, University **of** Bergen, Bergen and RMKI, Department **of** Theoretical Physics, Budapest general framework **of** any **Thermodynamics** (?) macroscopiccontinuum theories **Thermodynamics** science **of** macroscopic energy changes **Thermodynamics** science **of** temperature Nonequilibrium **thermodynamics**/

true energy-based bond graph). The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** says that thermal energy is only partly convertible to free energy. A practical bond graph scheme for **thermodynamics** requires the efficient calculation **of** several **thermodynamic** properties. Preliminaries: This presentation is downloadable/, the output efforts are found from Chemical reactions, continued With more than one species present, the **equations** become Each μ i is a partial Gibbs free energy known as a chemical potential. This suggests the/

produces the very useful **equation**:This produces the very useful **equation**: 1 2 11 1 2 TT R H K K n T T 28 THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Δ A plot **of** ln K vs. 1/T yields a straight line with a slope **of** - Δ H o /R. 29 20.5 **THERMODYNAMICS** AND TIME The first and **second** **Laws** **of** **Thermodynamics** cannot be proven, they are **laws** **of** experience and tell us/

= (CV + nR) – V (dP/dT) At constant pressure, dP=0, the LHS becomes CP and, dP/dT = 0 Hence the **equation** reduce to (CP = CV + nR)/n cP = cV + R = 3R/2 + R = 5R/2 Chapter 6 The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** JIF 314 **Thermodynamics** Chapter 6 The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** Chapter 7 The Carnot cycle and the **thermodynamic** temperature scale JIF 314 **Thermodynamics** Chapter 7 The Carnot cycle and the/

fluid reversible pressure (Fisher entropy) Schrödinger-Madelung fluid Potential form: Bernoulli **equation** Schrödinger **equation** Euler-Lagrange form Variational origin Why nonequilibrium **thermodynamics**? science **of** temperature **Thermodynamics** science **of** macroscopic energy changes general framework **of** any **Thermodynamics** (?) macroscopic (?) continuum (?) theories General framework: fundamental balances objectivity - frame indifference **Second** **Law** reversibility – special limit Conclusions Not everything is a balance/

at first. Actually it is probably the most important **equation** in **Thermodynamics** and among the most important **equations** in natural sciences. T=T Any Slide 27 “Definition” **of** Temperature, Mass, etc… www.kostic.niu.edu The/ increased (The **Second** **Law**): 2009 January 10-12 © M. Kostic Slide 46 © M. Kostic “ The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** is considered one **of** the central **laws** **of** science, engineering and technology. “ The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** is considered one **of** the central **laws** **of** science, engineering /

distasteful. 60. In the general pattern **of** the oceans currents, the direction **of** the currents nearest the **equator** move from (A) east to /**of** energy in the form **of** heat" is an example **of** the_____________, (A) first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (B) **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (C) first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (D) first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; third **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (E) third **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**/

K? The **equation** for ideal efficiency is as follows: Answer: Zero efficiency; (400 - 400)/400 = 0. This means no work output is possible for any heat engine unless a temperature difference exists between the reservoir and the sink. Heat Engines and the **Second** **Law** Natural systems tend to proceed toward a state **of** greater disorder. Order Tends to Disorder The first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** states that energy/

slow to be truly reversible. **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** The entropy **of** the universe does not change for a reversible (non-spontaneous) process. The entropy **of** the universe increases for irreversible (spontaneous) process. (In words) The truth is… “as a result **of** all spontaneous processes the entropy **of** the universe increases.” For reversible processes: S univ = S sys + S surr = 0 (In mathematical **equation**) **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** (continued)… In fact, we can/

the heat transferred plus the work performed, E = q + w. spontaneous ∆S universe > 0 (∆S universe ) The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** states that for a spontaneous process, ∆S universe = ∆S system + ∆S surroundings > 0 (∆S universe positive) Figure /**equation**: ∆S 0 = mS 0 products - nS 0 reactants Lecture 2 given condition, ∆S 0 rxn <0 In many spontaneous reaction, the system become more ordered at a given condition, ∆S 0 rxn <0. The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** indicated that the decrease in entropy **of**/

**Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** 44 19.3 **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**: System 10. Predict the sign **of** ΔS 0 for each **of** the following reactions: a) Ca +2 (aq) + 2OH - (aq) → Ca(OH) 2 (s) b) MgCO 3 (s) → MgO(s) + CO 2 (g) d) H 2 (g) + Br 2 (g) → 2HBr(g) 45 **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** states that the entropy **of**/ + 2H 2 O(g) ΔH 0 = 114.4 kJ a) using Gibbs free Energy **equation** b) from standard free energies **of** formation. ( -76.0 kJ) 82 19.4 Gibbs free Energy: Example 18. For the /

in Engineering Curriculum Course Description: …learn to apply the first and **second** **laws** **of** **thermodynamics**. Analysis **of** closed and open systems. Study **of** power cycles and refrigeration cycles. Study **of** gas-vapor mixtures and psychrometry. Analysis **of** reaction equilibria and phase equilibria. Prerequisites at MSU: BE 101. Introduction to Biosystems Engineering MTH 235. Differential **Equations** (first-order linear **equations**, exact **equations**, introduction to PDEs) BS 161. Cells and Molecules (energy metabolism/

-4 M/s (0.08 M)(0.034 M) = 0.08/M s 13.2 rate = k [S 2 O 8 2- ][I - ] Chemical **Thermodynamics** Summary **of** the Kinetics **of** Zero-Order, First-Order and **Second**-Order Reactions OrderRate **Law** Concentration-Time **Equation** Half-Life 0 1 2 rate = k rate = k [A] rate = k [A] 2 ln[A] = ln[A] 0 - kt 1 [A] = 1/

Chapter 17 Chemical **Thermodynamics** Chemical **Thermodynamics** Spontaneous Processes Entropy **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Third **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Gibbs Free Energy Predicting Spontaneity Standard Enthalpies **of** Formation Gibbs Free Energies **of** Formation Free Energy Changes Contents Chemical **Thermodynamics** **Thermodynamics** is the study **of** energy relationships that involve heat, mechanical work, and other aspects **of** energy and heat transfer. Chemical **Thermodynamics** First **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** You will recall/

Temperature 14.2 Internal Energy Internal Energy **equation** First internal Energy (U) is equal to the number **of** particles (N) times average kinetic energy Since The **equation** changes to And since 14.2 **Thermodynamics** 14.3 Specific Heat and Calorimetry / monatomic gas that goes from 500 K to 372 K? **Thermodynamics** 15.4 The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**-Intro 15.3 The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**-Intro The first **law** deals with conservation **of** energy. However there are situations that would conserve energy, but/

p, equals the enthalpy change, H. –The **second** **law** for a spontaneous reaction at constant temperature and pressure becomes (Spontaneous reaction, constant T and P) Entropy, Enthalpy, and Spontaneity Now you can see how **thermodynamics** is applied to the question **of** reaction spontaneity. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company.All rights reserved. Presentation **of** Lecture Outlines, 19–12 –Rearranging this **equation**, we find –This inequality implies that for/

/lb) – how much for water? Sensible heat vs Latent heat LHV/LHF **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**: must expend energy to get process to work Refrigeration Cycle Refrigeration - Cooling **of** an object and maintenance **of** its temp below that **of** surroundings Working substance must alternate b/t colder and hotter regions Most common: vapor compression –Reverse **of** power cycle –Heat absorbed in low temp region and released in high/

**Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** **Equations** **of** state and Ideal gas **law** Ideal Gas **Law**: PV= nRT PV/nT = constant (R) Ideal Gas Constant (R) *R is used in other **thermodynamic** **equations** * * **Equations** **of** State are **equations** that relate the major macroscopic variables **of** a physical state Volume is a decreasing function **of** pressure Boyle’s **Law**/ Usually the **equation** is trunicated after the **second** or third term. The Compression Factor Real gases show deviations from the ideal gas **law** mainly because **of** molecular interactions /

(rhombic)(s)° Chapter Summary: Key Points 5 Energy and Energy Changes Forms **of** Energy Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions Units **of** Energy Introduction to **Thermodynamics** States and State Functions The First **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Work and Heat Enthalpy Reactions Carried Out at Constant Volume or at Constant Pressure Enthalpy and Enthalpy Changes Thermochemical **Equations** Calorimetry Specific Heat and Heat Capacity Constant-Pressure Calorimetry Constant-Volume Calorimetry Hess/

distasteful. 60. In the general pattern **of** the oceans currents, the direction **of** the currents nearest the **equator** move from (A) east to /**of** energy in the form **of** heat" is an example **of** the_____________, (A) first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (B) **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (C) first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (D) first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; third **law** **of** **thermodynamics** (E) third **law** **of** **thermodynamics**; first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**/

dT is only valid for reversible processes,while **Equation** (2.1)is always true. There exist many formulations for the first **law** **of** **thermodynamics**,which all have the same meaning, for example,there is no perpetuum mobile **of** the first kind. Example2.1: Internal energy/,in an isolated system the entropy is constant dS=0.Every experience confirms that this extremum is a maximum. R.Clausius **Second** **law**--For isolated systems in equilibrium it holds that dS=0 S=S max and for irreversible processes it holds that dS 〉/

16 Figure: Basic Energy Balance **of** the First **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** ELO 1.2 © Copyright 2016Operator Generic Fundamentals General Energy **Equation** 17 Figure: General Energy **Equation** for the First **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** ELO 1.2 © Copyright 2016Operator Generic Fundamentals **Thermodynamic** Processes 18 Figure: Six Basic Processes **of** Steady Flow Systems ELO 1.2 © Copyright 2016Operator Generic Fundamentals **Thermodynamic** Processes Our four basic processes **of** our **thermodynamic** cycle are: –Steam Generator Process/

is Now the conservation **of** energy principle, or the first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** for closed systems, is written as If the system does not move with a velocity and has no change in elevation, the conservation **of** energy **equation** reduces to We will / derive this last expression for h again once we have discussed the first **law** for the open system in Chapter 5 and the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** in Chapter 7. The specific heats **of** selected liquids and solids are given in Table A-3. Example 4-8 Incompressible/

**Equations** 熱化學方程式 Standard States and Standard Enthalpy Changes Standard Molar Enthalpies **of** Formation, Hfo Hess’s **Law** Bond Energies Changes in Internal Energy, E Relationship **of** H and E Outline Spontaneity **of** Physical and Chemical Changes The Two Aspects **of** Spontaneity Dispersal **of** Energy and Matter Entropy熵, S, and Entropy Change, DS The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Free Energy Change, DG, and Spontaneity The Temperature Dependence **of** Spontaneity The First **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** 熱力學第一定律 **Thermodynamics**/

component). The number **of** holes (the **second** Betti number) is apparently 4. The **second** Betti number is a topological property ( an invariant **of** continuous deformation) **of** the sample box (~/ Evolution (with topological change) is the abstract and dynamical equivalent **of** the FIRST **LAW** **OF** **THERMODYNAMICS** L(J)A = i(J)dA + d{i(J)A} => Q /by Solutions to the **equations** **of** Continuous Topological Evolution Limit Cycle core Z = t Vortex and Spiral Arms Surprise Two Classes **Of** Solutions. 1.Those Solutions/

**of** energy principle, or the first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** for closed systems, is written as Chapter 4 Closed System First **Law** for a Cycle If the system does not move with a velocity and has no change in elevation, the conservation **of** energy **equation** / derive this last expression for h again once we have discussed the first **law** for the open system in Chapter 5 and the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** in Chapter 7. The specific heats **of** selected liquids and solids are given in Table A-3. Chapter 4 Example/

Specific Heat Capacities where the capital letter C refers to the molar specific heat capacity in units **of** J/(mol·K). The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** THE **SECOND** **LAW** **OF** **THERMODYNAMICS**: THE HEAT FLOW STATEMENT Heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance/without reference to algebraic signs. Therefore, when these symbols appear in an **equation**, they do not have negative values assigned to them. Efficiencies are often quoted as percentages obtained by /

we usually we do not worry about the universe at large! The language **of** TD To understand the **laws** **of** **thermodynamics** and how they work, first we need to get the terminology right. Some **of** the terms may look familiar (as they are used in everyday language as / the above **equations** is called a perfect gas. Internal energy (a state function) is normally a function **of** T & V: U = U(T,V). For a perfect gas: U = U(T) only. Humorous look at the three **laws** The first **law** says: “you cannot win”. The **second** **law** says: “/

is Now the conservation **of** energy principle, or the first **law** **of** **thermodynamics** for closed systems, is written as If the system does not move with a velocity and has no change in elevation, the conservation **of** energy **equation** reduces to We will / derive this last expression for h again once we have discussed the first **law** for the open system in Chapter 5 and the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** in Chapter 7. The specific heats **of** selected liquids and solids are given in Table A-3. Example 4-8 Incompressible/

’ thinking from introductory through advanced-level course Develop research-based curricular materials In collaboration with John Thompson, University **of** Maine Studies **of** university students in general physics courses have revealed substantial learning difficulties with fundamental concepts, including heat, work, and the first and **second** **laws** **of** **thermodynamics**: USA M. E. Loverude, C. H. Kautz, and P. R. L. Heron (2002); D. E. Meltzer (2004); M. Cochran/

the isolated system The total entropy change for the isolated system is 18 This **equation** is the working definition **of** the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics**. The **second** **law**, known as the principle **of** increase **of** entropy, is stated as The total entropy change **of** an isolated system during a process always increases or, in the limiting case **of** a reversible process, remains constant. Now consider a general system exchanging mass as well/

–Hierarchy **of** heat **equations** - balances –Discussion general framework **of** any **Thermodynamics** (?) macroscopic (?) continuum (?) theories **Thermodynamics** science **of** macroscopic energy changes **Thermodynamics** science **of** temperature Why nonequilibrium **thermodynamics**? reversibility – special limit General framework: – **Second** **Law** – fundamental balances – objectivity - frame indifference Nonlocalities: Restrictions from the **Second** **Law**. change **of** the entropy current change **of** the entropy Change **of** the constitutive/

The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** is one **of** three **Laws** **of** **Thermodynamics**. The term "**thermodynamics**" comes from two root words: "thermo," meaning heat, and "dynamic," meaning power. Thus, the **Laws** **of** **Thermodynamics** are the **Laws** **of** "Heat Power." As far as we can tell, these **Laws** are absolute. All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the **Laws** **of** **Thermodynamics**. WHAT IS THE 2 ND **LAW** **OF** **THERMODYNAMICS** (2 **of** 3) **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** - Increased Entropy The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics**/

it possible for a spontaneous process to exhibit a decrease in entropy? Yes, if the surroundings ____________________. The **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** Chapter Seventeen General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Hall © 2005 Prentice Hall © 2005/ p G f °(products) – v r G f °(reactants) Standard Free Energy Change, ∆G° The form **of** this **equation** should appear very familiar by now! Chapter Seventeen General Chemistry 4 th edition, Hill, Petrucci, McCreary, Perry Hall © 2005 Prentice/

Section 12.5 More About Entropy Note, the **equation** defines the change in entropy The entropy **of** the Universe increases in all natural processes – This is another way **of** expressing the **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** There are processes in which the entropy **of** a system decreases – If the entropy **of** one system, A, decreases it will be accompanied by the increase **of** entropy **of** another system, B – The change in entropy/

equilibrium with each other. It is so called because only after the first, **second**, and third **laws** **of** **thermodynamics** had been formulated was it realized that the zeroth **law** is needed for the development **of** **thermodynamics**. Moreover, a statement **of** the zeroth **law** logically precedes the other three. The zeroth **law** allows us to assert the existence **of** temperature as a state function. 1.4The Mole Relative Atomic Mass, Ar The/

s **law** **of** heat summation states that for a chemical **equation** that can be written as the sum **of** two or more steps, the enthalpy change for the overall **equation** is the sum **of** the enthalpy changes for the individual steps. Hess’s **Law** / spontaneous. **Thermodynamics** is used to help predict if a reaction will occur. Another factor is needed. Entropy The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** - the universe spontaneously tends toward increasing disorder or randomness. Entropy (S o ) - a measure **of** the randomness **of** a chemical/

from absolute zero, the entropy increases. Standard Entropy: S 0 = q rev (heat added)/T (temperature in Kelvin) Gibbs Free-Energy Gibbs Free-Energy **Equation**: G 0 = H 0 - T S 0 –**Equation** is derived directly from the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics**. Electrochemistry Essential Definitions Electrolysis- a non-spontaneous chemical reaction is forced to occur when two electrodes are immersed in an electrically conductive sample, and/

.This entropy change is calculated by considering the two terms that make up this entropy. 36 **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** ΔS o universe = ΔS o surroundings + ΔS o system, where ΔS o surroundings = q surroundings / T = - ΔH o system / T and Δ S o system = ΔS o (products) - ΔS o (reactants), **Equation** 20.1. Be sure to include the stoichiometric coefficient with each term. 37 2nd/

, H. 18 | 7 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy 2. Entropy and the **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** a.Define spontaneous process. b.Define entropy. c.Relate entropy to disorder in a molecular system (energy dispersal). d.State the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** in terms **of** system plus surroundings. 18 | 8 2. Entropy and the **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** (cont) e.State the **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** in terms **of** the system only. f.Calculate the entropy change for a phase/

e.g. Nonlocalities: Restrictions from the **Second** **Law**. change **of** the entropy current change **of** the entropy Change **of** the constitutive space **Second** **Law**: basic balances – basic state: – constitutive state: – constitutive functions: weakly nonlocal **Second** **law**: Constitutive theory Method: Liu procedure (universality) (and more) Irreversible **thermodynamics**: – basic state: – constitutive state: – constitutive functions: primary!! Liu procedure (Farkas lemma): A) Liu **equations**: Heat conduction: a=e B) Dissipation/

the enthalpy **of** the stable modification **of** an element is taken zero, that **of** a compound is taken equal to the enthalpy **of** formation. Remember: The zero level **of** entropy is fixed by the third **law** **of** **thermodynamics**: the entropy **of** pure /**equation** **of** state **second** third fourth virial coefficient This virial **equation** **of** state it is basically a power series **of** the concentration (1/V m ) Substituting V/n for V m : (2.64) (2.65) 74 2.13 The principle **of** corresponding states The deviation from the ideal gas **law**/

11 Chemical **Thermodynamics** **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** The **second** **law** **of** **thermodynamics** states that the entropy **of** the universe increases for spontaneous processes, and the entropy **of** the universe does not change for reversible processes. 12 Chemical **Thermodynamics** **Second** **Law** **of** **Thermodynamics** In / m are the coefficients in the balanced chemical **equation**. 30 Chemical **Thermodynamics** SAMPLE EXERCISE 19.5 Calculating S from Tabulated Entropies Calculate S° for the synthesis **of** ammonia from N 2 (g) and H/

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