Ppt on reduced instruction set computer

Instruction Set Architecture

zero) Examples (Versions) First Introduced in Intel (8086, 80386, Pentium, ...) 1978 MIPS (MIPS I, II, III, IV, V) 1986 PowerPC (601, 604, …) 1993 Instructions Instructions are the language of the machine We will study the MIPS instruction set architecture Known as Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Elegant and relatively simple design Similar to RISC architectures developed in mid-1980’s and 90’s Very popular, used in many/


Computer Systems Architecture

Computer Organization and Architecture: Themes and Variations, 1st Edition Clements Everything is the same until 9.16(e) when ADD r1,r2,r1 at address 10 is mapped onto line 2 (set size 4) currently occupied by BL Adder. The corresponding location in the second cache in the associative pair is free and, therefore, the instruction/ that wants to go into the cache has to prove its worthiness. Annex cache reduces cache pollution by preventing rarely accessed data entering the cache. A cache is operating /


C HAPTER 4 Computer Organization and Architecture © 2014 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 1 Computer Organization and Architecture: Themes.

. The already slim MIPS instruction set is further reduced by dropping one of the op-code bits. Second, the number of registers is reduced from 32 to 8, saving two register specifier bits per register. Finally, the size of the immediate value in the I-format instruction is reduced from 16 bits to 5. © 2014 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 154 Computer Organization and Architecture: Themes/


CSE502 Computer Architecture Textbook: Computer Architecture: A quantitative Approach (3 rd edition) Introduction (Chap.

organizing structures? DNA Systems/Quantum Computing? Our focus: how to exploit cool architectural features through novel systems software Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) instruction set software hardware Evolution of Instruction Sets Single Accumulator (EDSAC 1950)/ Increasing length of pipe increases impact of hazards; pipelining helps instruction bandwidth, not latency Interrupts, Instruction Set, FP makes pipelining harder Compilers reduce cost of data and control hazards –Load delay slots –Branch/


Embedded Computer Architecture

generation (2nd slide-set) Hands-on 4/16/2017 Embedded Computer Architecture H. Corporaal and B. Mesman Speed-up Pipelined Execution of Instructions IF: Instruction Fetch DC: Instruction Decode RF: Register Fetch EX: Execute instruction WB: Write Result Register CYCLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 IF DC RF EX WB 2 INSTRUCTION 3 4 Simple 5-stage pipeline Purpose of pipelining: Reduce #gate_levels in/


EECC722 - Shaaban #1 lec # 8 Fall 2004 10-11-2004 Computing Engine Choices General Purpose Processors (GPPs): Intended for general purpose computing (desktops,

(DSPs), Network Processors (NPs), Media Processors, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) - Type and complexity of computational algorithms (general purpose vs. Specialized) - Desired level of flexibility - Performance - Development cost - System /11-2004 Instruction Set Comparison DSP Processor Specialized, complex instructions (e.g. MAC) Multiple operations per instruction Zero or reduced overhead loops. General-Purpose Processor General-purpose instructions Typically only one operation per instruction mac x0,/


EECC551 - Shaaban #1 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-3-2001 The Von Neumann Computer Model Partitioning of the computing engine into components: –Central Processing.

address displacement and immediate data. EECC551 - Shaaban #86 Lec # 1 Winter 2001 12-3-2001 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. –Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed/


EECC550 - Shaaban #1 Lec # 1 Winter 2005 11-29-2005 Computer Organization EECC 550 Introduction: Modern Computer Design Levels, Components, Technology.

Hardware Description: Register Transfer Notation (RTN) Computer Architecture Vs. Computer Organization Instruction Set Architecture (ISA): –Definition and purpose –ISA Specification Requirements –Main General Types of Instructions –ISA Types and characteristics –Typical ISA Addressing Modes –Instruction Set Encoding –Instruction Set Architecture Tradeoffs –Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) –Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) –Evolution of Instruction Set Architectures (Chapters 1, 2) EECC550/


OMSE 510: Computing Foundations 3: Caches, Assembly, CPU Overview

-exit, 2-fork, 3-read, 4-write) ebx – argument #1 ecx – argument #2 edx – argument #3 CISC vs RISC RISC = Reduced Instruction Set Computer (DLX) CISC = Complex Instruction Set Computer (x86) Both have their advantages. Will go into more detail next lecture RISC Not very many instructions All instructions all the same length in both execution time, and bit length Results in simpler CPU’s (Easier to optimize) Usually/


Parallel Computation/Program Issues

Hardware/Architecture Resource Dependence * Down to task = instruction 1 * Task Grain Size: Amount of computation in a task 2 A task only executes on /areas, communication links etc. Bernstein’s Conditions of Parallelism: Two processes P1 , P2 with input sets I1, I2 and output sets O1, O2 can execute in parallel (denoted by P1 || P2) if: I1 Ç O2/ be parallelized without any parallelization overheads to run on p processors and thus reduced by a factor of p. The resulting speedup for p processors: Sequential /


Introduction to CPU Design

existing machines. Ease of prototyping: Microprogramming can be used for rapid prototyping of new designs or emulating several instruction sets. Hardwired vs. Microprogrammed Control Unit Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC), e.g. Intel family of processors (i.e. 8086, Pentium, etc.), use microprogrammed control unit design approach. Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC), e.g. SUN SPARC processors, use hardwired control unit design approach. Improving Performance of Microprogrammed Control Unit/


Computing Element Choices: Computing Element Programmability

specifiers, and register fields. The remainder bytes are for address displacement and immediate data. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) ~1984 Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed/


EECC722 - Shaaban #1 lec # 8 Fall 2005 10-12-2005 Computing Engine Choices General Purpose Processors (GPPs): Intended for general purpose computing (desktops,

met and and make compromises on other less important features. To counter the problem of computationally intense problems for which general purpose machines cannot achieve the necessary performance/other requirements: –/ Fall 2005 10-12-2005 Instruction Set Comparison DSP Processor Specialized, complex instructions (e.g. MAC) Multiple operations per instruction Zero or reduced overhead loops. General-Purpose Processor General-purpose instructions Typically only one operation per instruction mac x0,y0,a x:/


John Kubiatowicz Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences

, March 2003 3/11/2009 cs252-S09, Lecture 14 Intel/HP IA-64 “Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computer (EPIC)” IA-64: instruction set architecture 128 64-bit integer regs + 128 82-bit floating point regs Not separate register files/val[SIZE]; int key[SIZE]; /* After: 1 array of stuctures */ struct merge { int val; int key; }; struct merge merged_array[SIZE]; Reducing conflicts between val & key; improve spatial locality 3/11/2009 cs252-S09, Lecture 14 Loop Interchange Example /* Before */ for (k = 0;/


CSCE 930 Advanced Computer Architecture Introductions

4/17/2017 CSCE930-Advanced Computer Architecture, Introduction CSCE930-Advanced Computer Architecture, Introduction Today Extension of “computer architecture” to support communication and cooperation OLD: Instruction Set Architecture NEW: Communication Architecture / condition Could implement locks and barriers with messages Can use REDUCE and BROADCAST library calls to simplify code 4/17/2017 CSCE930-Advanced Computer Architecture, Introduction Send and Receive Alternatives Can extend functionality: stride/


EECC551 - Shaaban #1 Lec # 1 Fall 2005 9-6-2005 The Von Neumann Computer Model Partitioning of the computing engine into components: –Central Processing.

. GPR ISA (Register-Memory) EECC551 - Shaaban #65 Lec # 1 Fall 2005 9-6-2005 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. –Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed. Delayed/


The Von Neumann Computer Model

mode specifiers, and register fields. The remainder bytes are for address displacement and immediate data. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed/


Computer Systems & Networks

Computer Arithmetic – part 1 Computer Arithmetic – part 2 Instruction Sets: Characteristics & Function Instruction Sets: Addressing Modes & Formats CPU Structure & Function – part 1 CPU Structure & Function – part 2 Control Unit Operation Computer Organisation & Architecture – William Stallings Introduction History of Computing: Computer:- a person who performs computations Early Computing/ performance Smaller size gives increased flexibility Reduced power and cooling requirements Fewer interconnections /


Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Computer Architecture – Part 8 – page 1 of 75 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, Prof. Dr. Klaus Waldschmidt Part 8 Instruction.

Wissen Wirklichkeit Computer Architecture – Part 8 – page 73 of 75 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, Prof. Dr. Klaus Waldschmidt Predication Predication means, the execution of an instruction is dependend on a predicate Only if the predicate is true the instruction is executed If all instructions of an instructions set supports predication, this is called a fully predicated instruction set Examples for fully predicated instruction sets: IA64 Itanium, ARM, Fully predicated instruction sets can/


The Von Neumann Computer Model

mode specifiers, and register fields. The remainder bytes are for address displacement and immediate data. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed/


EECC551 - Shaaban #1 Lec # 1 Spring 2004 3-8-2004 The Von Neumann Computer Model Partitioning of the computing engine into components: –Central Processing.

address displacement and immediate data. EECC551 - Shaaban #81 Lec # 1 Spring 2004 3-8-2004 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. –Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed/


EECC551 - Shaaban #1 Lec # 1 Fall 2002 9-5-2002 The Von Neumann Computer Model Partitioning of the computing engine into components: –Central Processing.

address displacement and immediate data. EECC551 - Shaaban #85 Lec # 1 Fall 2002 9-5-2002 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Focuses on reducing the number and complexity of instructions of the machine. Reduced CPI. Goal: At least one instruction per clock cycle. Designed with pipelining in mind. Fixed-length instruction encoding. Only load and store instructions access memory. Simplified addressing modes. –Usually limited to immediate, register indirect, register displacement, indexed/


Structure of Computer Systems Course 12 RISC architecture.

’s do things simpler and faster let’s do things simpler and faster RISC  RISC = Reduced Instruction Set Computer  Principle: sacrifice everything for speed reduce the number of instructions – make CPU simpler reduce the number of instructions – make CPU simpler get rid of complex instructions, which may slow down the CPU get rid of complex instructions, which may slow down the CPU use simple addressing modes – less time spent to/


CIS 501: Comp. Arch. | Prof. Joe Devietti | Instruction Sets1 CIS 501: Computer Architecture Unit 2: Instruction Set Architectures Slides developed by.

RISC vs CISC Performance Argument Performance equation: (instructions/program) * (cycles/instruction) * (seconds/cycle) CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) Reduceinstructions/program” with “complex” instructions But tends to increase “cycles/instruction” or clock period Easy for assembly-level programmers, good code density RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) Improve “cycles/instruction” with many single-cycle instructions Increases “instruction/program”, but hopefully not as much Help from/


C HAPTER 13 Computer Organization and Architecture © 2014 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 1 Computer Organization and Architecture:

argument is that f ’ s < f s ; that is, scaling up reduces the fraction of serial time and makes it possible to use more processors to reduce the total time. This is an appealing argument. For example, if you were / bytecode. This allows ARM processors to have three states, each executing a different native instruction set architecture. © 2014 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 75 Computer Organization and Architecture: Themes and Variations, 1 st Edition Clements Figure 13.28 describes the/


1 Central Processing Unit Computer Organization Prof. H. Yoon CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT Introduction General Register Organization Stack Organization Instruction.

the application 38 Central Processing Unit Computer Organization Prof. H. Yoon REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTERS In the late ‘70s and early ‘80s there was a reaction to the shortcomings of the CISC style of processors Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) were proposed as an alternative The underlying idea behind RISC processors is to simplify the instruction set and reduce instruction execution time RISC processors often feature: –Few instructions –Few addressing modes –Only load and/


CS1Q Computer Systems Lecture 1 Prof. Chris Johnson S141 Lilybank Gardens, Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Scotland.

that most programs made little use of the more complex instructions, basically because it’s hard for compilers to take advantage of special-purpose instructions. This led to the development of RISC (reduced instruction set computer) CPUs, aiming to implement a small and simple instruction set very efficiently. The traditional designs were characterized as CISCs (complex instruction set computers). Lecture 4 CS1Q Computer Systems 103 The IT Machine vs. Real CPUs The/


1 Structure of Computer Systems (Advanced Computer Architectures) Course: Gheorghe Sebestyen Lab. works : Anca Hangan Madalin Neagu Ioana Dobos.

ALUsdata level – multiple ALUs instruction level – pipeline architectures, super-pipeline and superscalar, wide instruction set computersinstruction level – pipeline architectures, super-pipeline and superscalar, wide instruction set computers thread level – multi-cores/ Solutions (cont.): reduce CPI CPI – cycles per instruction – number of clock periods needed to execute an instruction CPI – cycles per instruction – number of clock periods needed to execute an instruction instructions have variable CPIs; /


Outcome 1 - Contents 1 Data RepresentationData Representation 2 Computer StructureComputer Structure 3 Computer PerformanceComputer Performance 4 PeripheralsPeripherals.

execute cycle in detail This is how the: Address bus Data bus Control Bus Registers All take part in reading an instruction from memory and executing it. 2 Computer Structure 2.2.4.3 The fetch phase. 1. The contents of the PC are copied into the MAR; 2./the space on the disk is used to keep the index file, reducing the amount of space available for user files. 7 – Computer Software 7.2.3 File Management Index on a disk –File Allocation Table (FAT). Set aside a fixed amount of space on the disk for the index,/


Computer Systems computer systems. Computer Systems 1- Data Representation2 – Computer Structure3 - Peripherals 4 - Networking5 – Computer Software.

to the appropriate port only. This allows simultaneous communication across the switch, improving bandwidth. Switches reduce the amount of unnecessary network traffic. Switches and hubs can be used on the same network./know that the authorities are taking active steps to catch them. Computer Systems 5 – Computer Software Computer Systems Computer Software – Systems Software Computer hardware can do nothing without sets of instructions and their associated data – called software! Software can be divided/


© V. De Florio KULeuven 2002 Basic Concepts Computer Design Computer Architectures for AI Computer Architectures In Practice 2.3/1 Course contents Basic.

|| ADD || ADD || ADD © V. De Florio KULeuven 2002 Basic Concepts Computer Design Computer Architectures for AI Computer Architectures In Practice 2.3/35 Low power DSP Properties  Power consumption in program memory is reduced by specializing the instructions for the application  Not all combinations of all instructions for the EUs are possible, but only a limited set, i.e. those combinations that lead to a substantial speed/


CSE3601 CSE 360: Introduction to Computer Systems Course Notes Bettina Bair

MAR->bus instead of IR->bus? CSE360138 Instruction Set Architectures 1 u RISC vs. CISC –Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC): t Many, powerful instructions. t High code density to address the Von Neumann Bottleneck. t Instructions have varying lengths, number of operands, formats, and clock cycles in execution. –Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC): t Fewer, less powerful, optimized instructions. t Requires simpler, faster hardware. t Instructions have fixed length, number of operands, formats/


Chapter 2: Memory Hierarchy Design David Patterson Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley

used with write through Compiler techniques to reduce cache misses + 0 Software is a challenge; some computers have compiler option Hardware prefetching of instructions and data ++ 2 instr., 3 data Many prefetch instructions; AMD Opteron prefetches data Compiler-controlled /Not in Xen Future Xen may address 2. and 3., but 1. inherent? 64 Protection and Instruction Set Architecture Example Problem: 80x86 POPF instruction loads flag registers from top of stack in memory – One such flag is Interrupt Enable (IE/


1 Central Processing Unit Computer Organization Computer Architectures Lab CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT Introduction General Register Organization Stack Organization.

to the application 33 Central Processing Unit Computer Organization Computer Architectures Lab REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTERS In the late ‘70s and early ‘80s there was a reaction to the shortcomings of the CISC style of processors Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) were proposed as an alternative The underlying idea behind RISC processors is to simplify the instruction set and reduce instruction execution time RISC processors often feature: –Few instructions –Few addressing modes –Only load and/


Adapting Compilation Techniques to Enhance the Packing of Instructions into Registers Stephen Hines, David Whalley and Gary Tyson Computer Science Dept.

instruction sets and instruction fetch mechanisms Adapting Compilation Techniques to Enhance the Packing of Instructions into Registers 60/17 Previous Publications 1. Hines, S., Green, J., Tyson, G., and Whalley, D. Improving program efficiency by packing instructions into registers. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Computer Architecture (June 2005), IEEE Computer Society, pp. 260–271. 2. Hines, S., Tyson, G., and Whalley, D. Reducing instruction/


1 Chapter 5 Memory Hierarchy Design 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Review of the ABCs of Caches 5.3 Cache Performance 5.4 Reducing Cache Miss Penalty 5.5 Reducing.

regular hit time, pseudohit, and miss penalty 67 Fifth miss rate reduction technique:Compiler optimizations Reordering the instruction-reduce the miss rates by 50%? Long cache block Improve the spatial and temporal locality:Loop Interchange, Blocking/for instruction-level parallelism and clock rate, increasingly the instruction cache and first part of instruction execution are merging. Embedded computers have bigger instruction cache Embedded computers often are placed in real-time environments where a set /


Lec 5 Introduction to CPU Design. Introduction to CPU Design Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 2 Outline  Introduction  Data.

: Microprogramming can be used for rapid prototyping of new designs or emulating several instruction sets. Introduction to CPU Design Computer Organization & Assembly Language Programming slide 56 Hardwired vs. Microprogrammed Control Unit  Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC), e.g. Intel family of processors (i.e. 8086, Pentium, etc.), use microprogrammed control unit design approach.  Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC), e.g. SUN SPARC processors, use hardwired control unit design approach/


Computer Architecture II CS 6143 Versions 0 & 1 MIPS CPU Haldun Hadimioglu Computer Science & Engineering.

: Version 0  By using the MIPS CPU Handout The most interesting component of a computer is the CPU  We know that the CPU has registers, buses, ALUs and a/ period We will add new hardware to eliminate other delays  We will reduce the amount of delay due to control hazards By assuming a certain compiler / of untaken branches depends on the application, programmer, the compiler and the instruction set ! We decide not to fetch the next instruction  We do not fetch DADD ! Pipelined MIPS CPU Design : Version 1/


High Performance Computing – CISC 811 Dr Rob Thacker Dept of Physics (308A)

code optimization, hardware counters Part 3: Compilers and code optimization, hardware counters High Performance Serial Computing Lot of ground to cover here, may run over into next week Part 1: Scalar /instruction set makes design easy Pro: Many powerful instructions, easy to write assembly language* Pro: decreased CPI, but also get faster CPU through easier design (t c reduced) Pro: Reduced memory requirement for instructions, reduced number of total instructions (N i )* Con: complicated instructions/


Class News Joe’s office hours: Tuesdays 1-2pm, Levine 572 TA office hours: poll on Piazza CIS 501: Comp. Arch. | Prof. Joe Devietti | Instruction Sets1.

RISC vs CISC Performance Argument Performance equation: (instructions/program) * (cycles/instruction) * (seconds/cycle) CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) Reduceinstructions/program” with “complex” instructions But tends to increase “cycles/instruction” or clock period Easy for assembly-level programmers, good code density RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) Improve “cycles/instruction” with many single-cycle instructions Increases “instruction/program”, but hopefully not as much Help from/


Computer Architecture and Organization © by DR. M. Amer.

larger  It is much easier to implement efficient pipelining in processor with simple instruction sets Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC) Compiler A compiler translates a high-level language program into a sequence of machine instructions. To reduce N, we need a suitable machine instruction set and a compiler that makes good use of it. Goal – reduce N×S A compiler may not be designed for a specific processor; however/


CS311-Computer OrganizationRISCLecture 8 - 1 Lecture 8 Reduced Instruction Set Computer.

OrganizationRISCLecture 8 - 1 Lecture 8 Reduced Instruction Set Computer CS311-Computer OrganizationRISCLecture 8 - 2 Lecture 8: RISC In this lecture, we will study Program execution characteristics RISC Philosophy –Make the most frequently executed statement fast »Functional, Transfer instructions »Simple, small number of fixed format instructions »Large register file –Make the most time consuming statements fast »Procedure Call and Return instructions »Large register file Large Register File Overlapping/


1 Central Processing Unit Computer Organization Computer Architectures Lab CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT Introduction General Register Organization Stack Organization.

Interrupt Procedure and Subroutine Call 24 Central Processing Unit Computer Organization Computer Architectures Lab RISC: REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTERS Historical Background IBM System/360, 1964 - The real beginning of modern computer architecture - Distinction between Architecture and Implementation - Architecture: The abstract structure of a computer seen by an assembly-language programmer High-Level Language Instruction Set Hardware Compiler  -program ArchitectureImplementation Continuing growth in/


Computer Architecture and Organization CS 2214 Haldun Hadimioglu Computer Science & Engineering Pipelined EMY CPU Version 1 Spring 2014.

We will add new hardware to eliminate other RAW delays  We will reduce the amount of delay due to control hazards By assuming a certain compiler /of untaken branches depends on the application, programmer, the compiler and the instruction set ! We decide not to fetch the next instruction  We do not fetch the ADD ! Haldun Hadimioglu CSE – Spring/ for the sake of simplifying our discussion We will not use delayed branches in Computer Architecture II Haldun Hadimioglu CSE – Spring 2014 EMY CPU Version 1 213 CS/


Instruction Set ArchitectureCS510 Computer ArchitecturesLecture 4 - 1 Lecture 4 Instruction Set Architecture.

reserved-bit delimiter(field or word mark) reserved-bit configuration(record or group mark) Instruction Set ArchitectureCS510 Computer ArchitecturesLecture 4 - 25 Instruction Set ArchitectureCS510 Computer ArchitecturesLecture 4 - 26 Operation Specification –Encoded to reduce the instruction length reason Types –Minimal Instruction Set –Complex Instruction Set vs RISC Instruction Set ArchitectureCS510 Computer ArchitecturesLecture 4 - 27 Four Types of Operations Functional ADD, AND, CPA, CPC, ROL, CLA/


CS 346 – Chapter 1 Operating system – definition Responsibilities What we find in computer systems Review of –Instruction execution –Compile – link – load.

-process communication (the message-passing version) Systematic way to make procedure call between processes on the network –Reduce implementation details for user Client wants to call foreign function with some parameters –Tell kernel server’s IP /the OS –Communicates with controller –I/O instructions ultimately “control” the devices Devices can have memory addresses allocated to them Concepts Port – physical connection point between device and computer Bus – set of wires connecting 1+ devices –The bus /


#1 lec # 3 Fall 2014 9-9-2014 Parallel Computation/Program Issues Dependency Analysis:Dependency Analysis: –Types of dependency –Dependency Graphs –Bernstein’s.

A stored in shared memory begin 1. for j = 1 to l ( = n/p) do Set B(l(s - 1) + j): = A(l(s-1) + j) 2. for h/or co-routines Level 3 Non-recursive loops or unfolded iterations Level 2 Instructions or statements Level 1 Increasing communications demand and mapping/scheduling overheads Higher C/ with decomposition, also called partitioning. –Balance workload, reduce communication and management cost May involve duplicating computation to reduce communication cost. Partitioning problem: –To partition a program/


CMPE655 - Shaaban #1 lec # 3 Spring 2014 2-11-2014 Parallel Computation/Program Issues Dependency Analysis:Dependency Analysis: –Types of dependency –Dependency.

A stored in shared memory begin 1. for j = 1 to l ( = n/p) do Set B(l(s - 1) + j): = A(l(s-1) + j) 2. for h/ or co-routines Level 3 Non-recursive loops or unfolded iterations Level 2 Instructions or statements Level 1 Increasing communications demand and mapping/scheduling overheads Higher C-/ with decomposition, also called partitioning. –Balance workload, reduce communication and management cost May involve duplicating computation to reduce communication cost. Partitioning problem: –To partition a program/


Chapter 5: Memory Hierarchy Design David Patterson Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley

used with write through Compiler techniques to reduce cache misses + 0 Software is a challenge; some computers have compiler option Hardware prefetching of instructions and data ++ 2 instr., 3 data Many prefetch instructions; AMD Opteron prefetches data Compiler-controlled /Not in Xen Future Xen may address 2. and 3., but 1. inherent? 64 Protection and Instruction Set Architecture Example Problem: 80x86 POPF instruction loads flag registers from top of stack in memory – One such flag is Interrupt Enable (IE/


Outline  Cache Memory Introduction  Memory Hierarchy  Direct-Mapped Cache  Set-Associative Cache  Cache Sizes  Cache Performance 155:035 Computer.

= 1 word 32 words byte-address Must compare with all tags in the cache 55:035 Computer Architecture and Organization26 Eight-Way Set-Associative Cache byte offset b31 b30 b29 b28 b27 index b1 b0 Data1 = hit 0 = / within an instruction. 5955:035 Computer Architecture and Organization Improving Cache Performance Consider the cache performance equation: It obviously follows that there are three basic ways to improve cache performance:  A. Reducing miss rate  B. Reducing miss penalty  C. Reducing hit time /


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