Ppt on ram and rom material

Embedded Systems Design with Qsys and Altera Monitor Program Tutorial #2.

Embedded Systems Design with Qsys and Altera Monitor Program Tutorial #2 Embedded Systems Material for teaching embedded systems Tutorials on Altera’s embedded processors  Nios II  ARM Cortex A9 Lab exercises that use these processors 2 Cyclone/ Boot Region 0 GB 1 GB 2 GB 3 GB 4 GB Peripherals FPGA HPS There are Several Bridges Between the HPS and FPGA 16 Boot ROM Ports ARM On-Chip RAM GPIO FPGA Timers DDR3 Chips LEDG KEY USB Ethernet L2 Cache SDRAM Controller Bridges SDRAM Window Boot Region 0 GB 1 GB /


© 2005 Xilinx, Inc. All Rights Reserved This material exempt per Department of Commerce license exception TSU Synthesis Techniques.

© 2005 Xilinx, Inc. All Rights Reserved This material exempt per Department of Commerce license exception TSU Synthesis Techniques © 2005 Xilinx, Inc. All /Some resources must be instantiated or create an IP core (Architecture Wizard and CORE Generator™ software) – FIFO16, ISERDES, OSERDES, and clock resources Certain resources require specific coding – DSP48 registers have synchronous set/reset only – Distributed RAM/ROM and SRL do not have set or reset functionality after configuration Synchronous resets /


Arab Open University - AOU Prepared by: Eng. Ali H. Elaywe 1 T209 Information and Communication Technologies: People and Interactions Fourth Session.

Session), you will see that each has both ROM and RAM 2- In these PDAs, which do not have any secondary memory: The ROM is used to hold the programs and data supplied by the manufacturer While the RAM is used to hold the user’s own/perhaps – only the details of the operating system need to be changed. If each individual application program contained instructions for sending material to the printer then every application program would need to be updated when a new printer was installed – a very difficult task/


COMP 4—Power Tools for the Mind 1 What’s in the box? 1 Memory and Storage –Primary Organization Types Attributes –Auxiliary (Secondary) Types Technology.

Source of ERROR: dust Disk cost: depends on what’s on it! Read only; who writes? Good for? Games, Software, Reference materials, Library materials, for being AOLnoyed, … manufacturer COMP 4—Power Tools for the Mind 33 What’s in the box? 33 RECORDABLES: Recordable by: USER/to your TV…. –READ ONLY: –DVD-ROM : instead, holds computer data & is hooked to your computer.. –RECORDABLE VERSIONS: –DVD-R (write once) and….. COMP 4—Power Tools for the Mind 36 What’s in the box? 36 –DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, DVD+RW (write many)/


COMP3221 lec31-mem-bus-I.1 Saeid Nooshabadi COMP 3221 Microprocessors and Embedded Systems Lectures 31: Memory and Bus Organisation - I

m x 32 COMP3221 lec31-mem-bus-I.11 Saeid Nooshabadi Simple Memory Decoder Control °Controls the Activation of RAM and ROM °a[31]: 0  ROM a[31]: 1  RAM °It controls the byte write enables during write mas[1:0]: 00 Byte, 01 H-word, 10 / Access Timing Summary °Notice the pipelined memory access Address is presented 1/2 cycle earlier COMP3221 lec31-mem-bus-I.24 Saeid Nooshabadi Reading Material °Steve Furber: ARM System On-Chip; 2nd Ed, Addison-Wesley, 2000, ISBN: 0-201- 67519-6. Chapter 8. COMP3221 lec31/


January 24, 2011CS152 Spring 2011 CS 152 Computer Architecture and Engineering Lecture 2 - Simple Machine Implementations Krste Asanovic Electrical Engineering.

models could be achieved easily and cheaply Except for the cheapest and fastest machines, all computers were microprogrammed January 24, 2011CS152 Spring 2011 41 Writable Control Store (WCS) Implement control store in RAM not ROM –MOS SRAM memories now /Spring 2011 43 Acknowledgements These slides contain material developed and copyright by: –Arvind (MIT) –Krste Asanovic (MIT/UCB) –Joel Emer (Intel/MIT) –James Hoe (CMU) –John Kubiatowicz (UCB) –David Patterson (UCB) MIT material derived from course 6.823 UCB/


Digital Electronics and File Management

than 100 components per chip ULSI (Ultra large-scale) over 1 million Semi conducting materials used to make chips Silicon and germanium Integrated Circuit Uses processors Memory Support circuitry Chip Package Info web: processor update /benchmark Lab: benchmarking Memory Types Random Access Memory (RAM) Virtual Memory Read-Only Memory (ROM) CMOS RAM Random Access Memory Temporary (volatile) holding area for data, application software and operating system Expensive chip set Circuitry Less storage than /


January 24, 2012CS152 Spring 2012 CS 152 Computer Architecture and Engineering Lecture 2 - Simple Machine Implementations Krste Asanovic Electrical Engineering.

models could be achieved easily and cheaply Except for the cheapest and fastest machines, all computers were microprogrammed January 24, 2012CS152 Spring 2012 49 Writable Control Store (WCS) Implement control store in RAM not ROM –MOS SRAM memories now /Spring 2012 51 Acknowledgements These slides contain material developed and copyright by: –Arvind (MIT) –Krste Asanovic (MIT/UCB) –Joel Emer (Intel/MIT) –James Hoe (CMU) –John Kubiatowicz (UCB) –David Patterson (UCB) MIT material derived from course 6.823 UCB/


COMPONENTS OF A PERSONAL COMPUTER.

small symbol on the screen called the pointer and make selections from the screen. INPUT DEVICES A microphone allows you to speak into the computer. A scanner converts printed material such as text and pictures into a form the computer can use/ the computer. Nonvolatile memory is permanent. Examples are ROM, flash memory and CMOS. RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY) Random-access, commonly known as RAM or main memory, consists of memory RAM is volatile; data stored in RAM stays there only as long as the computer is /


CSC 370 (Blum)1 More on CDs and DVDs. CSC 370 (Blum)2 Extended Architecture While the original Mode 2 standard was not used, a variation on it allowed.

a number of different application formats and the accompanying compatibility issues. –DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-ROM DVD drives are usually “backward /material. –The phase change material in DVD RW means that they do not reflect as strongly as DVD-ROM or DVD- R. This makes them harder to read. –Sometime drives have trouble distinguishing between double layered DVDs and DVD-RW. CSC 370 (Blum)52 The Competition There are three competing technologies for rewritable DVDs –DVD-R –DVD+R –DVD-RAM/


S&IP Consortium Course Material SoC Overview and ARM Integrator Prof. An-Yeu (Andy) Wu 吳安宇教授 Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan.

OSCs Trace Push B LA C CM AP LM 58 S&IP Consortium Course Material System Memory Map ROM / RAM and peripherals PCI CM alias memory 1GB 2GB 3GB 4GB LM 0xC000_0000 0xD000_0000 0xE000_0000 0xF000_0000 256MB/RAM, and ROM. (1) Speed, (2) Capacity, and (3) Internal/External  Draw the interconnect among the functional units and explain the relationships of those interconnect and functional units in AHB sub-system  Compare the differences of polling and interrupt mechanism 69 S&IP Consortium Course Material/


GCSE Information Technology Computers, data and information 1 A computer is an information processing machine. Computers process data to produce information.

of backing storage devices. The Main Memory contains two types of memory chip called ROM and RAM which hold program instructions and data. GCSE Information Technology BITS and BYTES Computers store and process data using binary numbers. A single unit in binary is called a bit /magnetic disk can be used it must be formatted. A floppy disk a circular piece of plastic coated with a magnetic material and protected by a hard plastic cover. The size of a floppy disk is measured in inches. Modern floppy disks are /


Chapter 3 Computer Hardware Well, Sort-of. Chapter 3 Computer Hardware  All computers are systems of input, processing, output, storage, and control.

IBM PC Released in 1981 Intel 8080 CPU operating at 4.77 mHz Bill Gates? 64K Ram 1 5¼” Floppy Drive (No Hard Drive) B/W (Green, really) Monitor Approximate cost/ROM disks Burn DVD-RW or DVD-R, CD, read DVD and CDs Archive up to 4.6GB of data (7 times the capacity of a standard 650MB CD) Chapter 3 Computer Hardware Hardware organized by function  Business applications of optical disks: Long-term archival storage of historical files of document images Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials/


Chapter 3 Computer Hardware Well, Sort-of. Chapter 3 Computer Hardware  All computers are systems of input, processing, output, storage, and control.

IBM PC Released in 1981 Intel 8080 CPU operating at 4.77 mHz Bill Gates? 64K Ram 1 5¼” Floppy Drive (No Hard Drive) B/W (Green, really) Monitor Approximate cost/ROM disks Burn DVD-RW or DVD-R, CD, read DVD and CDs Archive up to 4.6GB of data (7 times the capacity of a standard 650MB CD) Chapter 3 Computer Hardware Hardware organized by function  Business applications of optical disks: Long-term archival storage of historical files of document images Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials/


Chapter 5: Computing Components Chapter 5 Computing Components Page 37 In the 1940s and 1950s, John von Neumann helped develop the architecture that continues.

Interface Unit Information from the RAM enters the CPU here, and then it is sent to /and-lands approach as CD- ROMs, but with finer gaps between tracks and pits, resulting in over four times the storage capacity as CD-ROMs.Digital Versatile Disks (DVDs) use the same pits-and-lands approach as CD- ROMs, but with finer gaps between tracks and/and a controller measures the ratio of the four currents to determine the touch location. Resistive The glass layer has an outer coating of conductive material, and/


… refers to the tangible parts of a computer or digital device, and typically includes support for processing, storage, input, and output. Hardware In.

unit Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) Registers Cache Clock speed Multicore Processor Moore’s Law High-k materials Optical computing Optical processors Three-dimensional processing Quantum computing Qubit DNA computing Multiprocessing Parallel processing Massive /Memory (RAM)Magnetic Storage Video MemoryOptical Storage Read Only Memory (ROM)Solid-State Storage Concepts > Hardware > Storage Random Access Memory (RAM) Random access memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program/


1 LECTURE 4 Technological Aspects Of Multimedia. 2 Basic Concepts MPC Standards Hardware Storage Devices CD-ROM Other Types of CD-ROM Digital Versatile.

Hard Disk : 160 MB RAM : 4 MB CD-ROM Sound Card (16 bit), MIDI Playback MPC 3 The MPC 3 Specification: Pentium, 75 MHz Hard Disk : 540 MB RAM : 8 MB CD-ROM Quad Speed MPEQ & Sound Card MPC 2 and MPC 3 6 Fixed Hard /This system is called Compact Disc Interactive. CD-I is both a media standard and complete specification.. Among the applications of CD-I are: Audio recording Games Entertainment and Educational materials 20 What are proprietary Systems? Proprietary systems are developed to capture a specific /


SCSC 311 Information Systems hardware and software.

signal Early computers use rings of ferrous material as primary memory (core memory)  Storing data via the polarity of the magnetic field they contain. Modern computers use memory implemented with semiconductors (RAM and ROM) Random Access Memory (RAM) Primary storage must closely match CPU speed and word size to avoid wait states Characteristics of RAM  Microchip implementation using semiconductors  To read and write with equal speed  Random access/


Data Storage Technology By Maika. Introduction A storage device consists of a read/write mechanism and a storage medium. A storage device consists of.

small circuit board that can be installed or removed easily from a computer system. Early RAM and ROM circuits were packaged in dual in-line packaged (DIPs) Early RAM and ROM circuits were packaged in dual in-line packaged (DIPs) Later, single in-line memory module/ of platters, platter size, and recording density. Multiple hard drives often are enclosed in a single storage cabinet and referred to as a drive array. Floppy disk (diskette): Uses a base of flexible or rigid plastic material. Rang from 2.5 to/


CSC 1051 – Data Structures and Algorithms I Dr. Mary-Angela Papalaskari Department of Computing Sciences Mendel 162C Course website: www.csc.villanova.edu/~map/1051/

R and DVD-RW discs CSC 1051 M.A. Papalaskari, Villanova University RAM vs. ROM RAM - Random Access Memory – synonymous with main memory: fast read/write volatile random access ROM - Read-Only Memory –ROM typically holds the firmware, eg BIOS fast (except in CD-ROM) / A little bit of history Programming and programming languages An introduction to Java CSC 1051 M.A. Papalaskari, Villanova University Homework Review Chapter 1 –Always do all self-review exercises when you review material Do Exercises EX 1.15- 1/


P. 5.1 Digital Technology and Computer Fundamentals Chapter 5 Computer Organization.

5.37 Static RAM n Made of flip-flops and logic gates. n The two stable states in flip-flops represent binary values. n Do not require refreshing. n Low capacity, high power consumption and relatively high cost per unit storage. P. 5.38 Read Only Memory (ROM) n Read /P. 5.68 Hard disks (Cont’d) n Consist of one or more rigid platters coated with magnetic material on the surface. n The platters, read/write heads, and access arms are all enclosed in an airtight sealed case. P. 5.69 Accessing Hard disks n Much /


CSIT 301 (Blum)1 More on CDs and DVDs. CSIT 301 (Blum)2 CD-DA Recap The CD-DA standard as set out in the “Red Book,” defines a sector or block of 3234.

a number of different application formats and the accompanying compatibility issues. –DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-ROM DVD drives are usually “backward /material. –The phase change material in DVD RW means that they do not reflect as strongly as DVD-ROM or DVD- R. This makes them harder to read. –Sometime drives have trouble distinguishing between double layered DVDs and DVD-RW. CSIT 301 (Blum)67 The Competition There are three competing technologies for rewritable DVDs –DVD-R –DVD+R –DVD-RAM/


CSIT 301 (Blum)1 CD’s. CSIT 301 (Blum)2 The medium has changed, but the geometry is the same (almost) CD-ROMs are random access devices. CD, compact discs,

a number of different application formats and the accompanying compatibility issues. –DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-ROM DVD drives are usually “backward /material. –The phase change material in DVD RW means that they do not reflect as strongly as DVD-ROM or DVD- R. This makes them harder to read. –Sometime drives have trouble distinguishing between double layered DVDs and DVD-RW. CSIT 301 (Blum)101 The Competition There are three competing technologies for rewritable DVDs –DVD-R –DVD+R –DVD-RAM/


Hardware Components 1 Modified and presented by : Mohamed Zaki.

program that will load the necessary OS programs in RAM. The information remains in the ROM when the computer turned off. ( Nonvolatile Memory) 12 The Differences between ROM and RAM: 13 ROM (Read Only Memory)RAM (Random Access Memory) 1.Used to store part/CPU, RAM, and Cache Diagram 15 CPU Cache RAM Write through cache. Write back cache. Hard Disk 16 Hard Disk is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating discs (platters) coated with magnetic material. /


1/24/2013 CS152, Spring 2013 CS 152 Computer Architecture and Engineering Lecture 2 - Simple Machine Implementations Krste Asanovic Electrical Engineering.

models could be achieved easily and cheaply 47 Except for the cheapest and fastest machines, all computers were microprogrammed 1/24/2013 CS152, Spring 2013 Writable Control Store (WCS)  Implement control store in RAM not ROM –MOS SRAM memories now/ These slides contain material developed and copyright by: –Arvind (MIT) –Krste Asanovic (MIT/UCB) –Joel Emer (Intel/MIT) –James Hoe (CMU) –John Kubiatowicz (UCB) –David Patterson (UCB)  MIT material derived from course 6.823  UCB material derived from course /


Computers, data and information 1 A computer is an information processing machine. Computers process data to produce information. The sets of instructions.

all examples of backing storage devices. The Main Memory contains two types of memory chip called ROM and RAM which hold program instructions and data. BITS and BYTES Computers store and process data using binary numbers. A single unit in binary is called a bit which stands/of magnetic disk can be used it must be formatted. A floppy disk a circular piece of plastic coated with a magnetic material and protected by a hard plastic cover. The size of a floppy disk is measured in inches. Modern floppy disks are 3/


Oct. 2007, Wu Jinyuan, FermilabIEEE NSS Refresher Course1 Digital Design with FPGAs: Examples and Resource Saving Tips Screen B Wu, Jinyuan Fermilab IEEE.

Course 15 The Counter With Inc, Dec and Count Enable Controls, a Special Case /RAM Size. 256 Words 256 Words 256 Words 256 Words 256 Words 8 address lines 9 address lines 8+8 address lines Oct. 2007, Wu Jinyuan, Fermilab IEEE NSS Refresher Course 29 High Precision 2^N LUT 2 (A+B+C) = 2 (A) * 2 (B) *(1+(ln2)*C) X AB ROM LUT 2 8 =256 w ROM/Tricks of Using RAMRAM based histograms  Topics on Multipliers  Curved Track Fitter Advanced Topics on FPGA Applications (Included as Supplemental Materials)  Doublet /


GCSE Information Technology Computers, data and information 1 A computer is an information processing machine. Computers process data to produce information.

of backing storage devices. The Main Memory contains two types of memory chip called ROM and RAM which hold program instructions and data. GCSE Information Technology BITS and BYTES Computers store and process data using binary numbers. A single unit in binary is called a bit /magnetic disk can be used it must be formatted. A floppy disk a circular piece of plastic coated with a magnetic material and protected by a hard plastic cover. The size of a floppy disk is measured in inches. Modern floppy disks are /


Computer Hardware The insides and outsides of my computer.

instructions and data are stored in memory chips for quick access by the CPU. Read-Only Memory (ROM) Flash Memory Blue Ray and commercial music CD ROMRAM How ROM and RAM work… CPU Random Access Memory (RAM) ü Random Access Memory (RAM)/ an alloy material which read/writes record information on magnetically Secondary Storage  Hard Drive (external/internal)  Writable CD-ROMs and DVDs  Flash memory Need for Secondary Storage Devices  Primary memory is volatile memory – lose electrical power and this memory /


Components of Hardware 1. Processor Memory Input and output devices Storage 2.

on silicon chips or other materials attached with many tiny electronic circuits. To process data or complete an instruction, the computer passes electricity through the circuit. 3 Circuit board is used to passes the electricity through the circuit. Circuit board and microprocessor are attached on motherboard. Motherboard called the master circuit board in the computer. All components RAM, ROM, MICROPRCESSOR, CIRCUIT BOARD, SOUND CARD/


PLC programming Part 1: Structure and operation. Topics  Evolution of logic controller devices  Leading PLC manufacturers around the world  PLC architecture.

ROM)  Program/Data memory  RAM (Random Access Memory) System memory  System memory includes an area called the EXECUTIVE, composed of permanently-stored programs that direct all system activities, such as execution of the users control program, communication with peripheral devices, and/ quartz window over a silicon material that contains the electronic integrated circuits. This window normally is covered by an opaque material, but when the opaque material is removed and the circuitry exposed to ultra /


T215A Communication and information technologies (I) Block 1 Storing and sharing Session 2 Arab Open University - Fall 2012 1.

be very much less, sometimes as little as just a few kilobytes in simple systems. In the case of desktop and notebook computers, RAM and ROM together comprise what is known as the computer’s main memory. Arab Open University - Fall 2012 46 Data Storage Devices/Some of characteristics of secondary memory devices that would be desirable for the reliable long-term storage of data: 1- The material from which the devices are made should not degrade with time 2- The data should not leak away slowly with time /


Chapter 13 Flash Programming

Materials Chapter 13 Flash Programming Texas Instruments Incorporated University of Beira Interior (PT) Pedro Dinis Gaspar, António Espírito Santo, Bruno Ribeiro, Humberto Santos University of Beira Interior, Electromechanical Engineering Department www.msp430.ubi.pt Copyright 2009 Texas Instruments All Rights Reserved www.msp430.ubi.pt Copyright 2009 Texas Instruments Contents Introduction Flash memory operation and/ memory (ROM) or random-access memory (RAM); Flash memory is a hybrid of ROM and RAM; Flash /


Primary System Component Powered by DeSiaMore1.  Electrostatic Discharge  Motherboard  Bus Slots and I/O Cards  Microprocessor Type and Specifications.

9.Power supply connections Powered by DeSiaMore16  Only five components can be replaced or upgraded: CPU, ROM BIOS chip, CMOS battery, RAM, and RAM cache (old computers).  Because you can exchange these items without returning the systemboard to the manufacturer/ the computer.  CPUs are manufactured out of semiconductor material, which allows varying voltages to be carried along the same pathways, allowing this material to transmit streams of bits and bytes that are the heart of basic computer processing./


1 The Attack and Defense of Computers Dr. 許 富 皓. 2 Virus [Internet Security Professional Reference ]Internet Security Professional Reference.

and, if it desires, infect the floppy disk being accessed. After the virus performs its mischief, it can then redirect the request to the original ROM BIOS driver so that it can be properly serviced. 34 The Fully-installed Boot Virus Top of RAM / Source Code Database Virus source code The Virus Source Code Database 29A Labs source codes and articles 29A Labs Virus Database List of all computer virus. Virus Database 112 Complementary Material 113 Areas of a Disk [1][2]12 Under DOS, A disk is divided into/


Chapter 7 Storage.

a. Indexing c. Recording b. Formatting d. Elongating A(n) ____ is made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is coated with an alloy material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its surface. a. sector c. vector b. read/write head d. platter/ optical disc on which users can read but not write or erase Requires a DVD-ROM drive A Blu-ray Disc-ROM (BD-ROM) has a storage capacity of 100 GB DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD+RAM are high-capacity rewritable DVD formats -- Hybrid (DVD±RW) drives How should you care/


An Overview of the PC PC and DOS Essentials. The Components of a PC 1981 - The Key Year –The IBM PC –The Intel 8086 –DOS All versions of these items have.

Excellent for back-ups CD-ROMs –Excellent for storing data as reference material –A convenient method for installing programs, such as Microsoft Office The Serial and Parallel Ports Parallel communication –/and DOS Essentials Type of Memory Chips - RAM and ROM RAM –Random Access Memory –Read/write memory –DOS and application programs are loaded into RAM ROM –Read Only Memory –Contains hard coded information that is used by the operating system –ROM-BIOS –Video ROM –Hard disk ROM The IBM PC, the 8086 CPU and/


CSC103: Introduction to Computer and Programming

data including numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics and sound. Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. RAM on motherboard Image 1 Image 2 Read only memory (ROM) Read Only Memory or ROM is memory that is attached on a chip that /plastic shell. Plastic disk Plastic disk Hard disk It consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of plates. The hard disk plate spin at a high rate of speed/


Computers Merit Badge Brazos Valley Merit Badge College January 11 and 25, 2014.

Kilby created the first “integrated circuit” at Texas Instruments to prove that resistors and capacitors could exist on the same piece of semiconductor material. His circuit consisted of a sliver of poisonous germanium with five components linked / CPU, such as math co- processor, graphics controller, disk controller. Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read-Only Memory (ROM) ROM is permanent, often re-writable (CMOS) RAM is transient unless permanently powered (Palm) Ports – Enable you to connect devices to the /


4 TYPES OF MEMORY RAM RAM stands for Random Access Memory and is a type of chip used in in primary storage memory.It is also temporary storage, holding.

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.It is more permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM. Requires no power to hold data.Hold their startup instructions because it allows the computer easily update its contents. CMOS CMOS is an acronym for complementary metal oxide semiconductor. In short, CMOS defines the type of material from which the chip is made. CMOS runs on about/


Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons BY-SA 3.0 License.

of-use. http://open.umich.edu/education/about/terms-of-use Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis /16 Hardware II: [active] Memory RAM vs ROM Loading to RAM vs. reading from ROM (PCs vs. game consoles) Earlier types of memory: ferrite donuts Memory costs Memory (and bus) speed as a constraint Virtual memory RAM vs ROM Loading to RAM vs. reading from ROM (PCs vs. game consoles) /


Click the graphic for assessment. Chapter1 Learn about the various parts inside a computer case and how they connect together and are compatible Learn.

computer in a cold and dry atmosphere Rule 5: Remove packing tape and cellophane from around work area (materials that attract ESD) Rule 6: Keep components away from hair and clothing Chapter131 Essential tools /and instructions stored on ROM chips  ROM BIOS chips: type of firmware Three purposes served by motherboard ROM BIOS  System BIOS: manages simple devices  Startup BIOS: starts the computer  BIOS setup: changes motherboard settings CMOS RAM: includes date, time, port configurations Flash ROMROM/


McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Business Plug-In B3 Hardware and Software.

Storage Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU B3-17 Primary Memory & Semiconductors Primary Memory comprised of/Medium storage Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials –Magnetic tape - an older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin /


Computers and Digital Basics Chapter 1. 1 Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 2 Chapter Contents  Section A: All Things Digital  Section B: Digital.

software. 1 Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 35 Network Computing  The third phase of the digital revolution materialized as computers became networked and when the Internet was opened to the public and the Web was invented. E-mail/ memory, random access memory (RAM), and read-only memory (ROM). Secondary storage includes magnetic media (tapes; hard drives; and thumb, or flash, drives) and optical media (CD- ROM, DVD, and Blu-ray disks). 1 Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 88 Hardware Review /


IKI10201 05c-Decoders, Selectors, etc. Bobby Nazief Semester-I 2005 - 2006 The materials on these slides are adopted from: CS231’s Lecture Notes at UIUC,

to an address, which is “read” to produce a 3-bit data output. V2V1V0V2V1V0 A2A1A0A2A1A0 32 ROMs vs. RAMs There are some important differences between ROM and RAM. – ROMs are “non-volatile”—data is preserved even without power. On the other hand, RAM contents disappear once power is lost. – ROMs require special (and slower) techniques for writing, so they’re considered to be “read-only” devices. Some newer types/


PowerPoint. Computers, Data and Information 1 A computer is an information processing machine. Computers process data to produce information. The sets.

examples of backing storage devices. The Main Memory contains two types of memory chip called ROM and RAM which hold program instructions and data. BITS and BYTES Computers store and process data using binary numbers. A single unit in binary is called a bit which /turned off is called non-volatile memory. Hard disk drives A hard disk is a circular metal disk coated with magnetic material and usually sealed in a hard disk drive inside the computer. Some hard disk drives are not permanently fixed inside the /


1 HW3 Name some of the third-party CMOS save-and-restore utility programs ?

, and thus/(ECC) RAM cont. Parity /even and odd/numbering and installation direction. Specifying SIPPs and SIMMs/ RAM on a single module and /and applications ( designated as conventional memory). The remaining 384 KB of RAM (designated as upper memory) used for BIOS, video and ROM. Memory Allocation Types of Memory Access Extended memory specification (XMS): RAM/or swapped to and from the CPU/ROM (nonvolatile) and RAM (volatile). RAM is packaged in a variety of designs. Installing SIMMs requires ESD protection and/


CS 152 Computer Architecture and Engineering Lecture 3 - From CISC to RISC Krste Asanovic Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California.

5 5-stage pipeline 1/31/2008CS152-Spring’08 47 Summary Microcoding became less attractive as gap between RAM and ROM speeds reduced Complex instruction sets difficult to pipeline, so difficult to increase performance as gate count grew Iron-law explains/ by earlier Cray machines MIPS ISA will be used in class and problems, SPARC in lab (two very similar ISAs) 1/31/2008CS152-Spring’08 48 Acknowledgements These slides contain material developed and copyright by: –Arvind (MIT) –Krste Asanovic (MIT/UCB)/


Chapter 2.  The hardware and software is used as unit to process data is called computer system.  Hardware Input Devices CPU Output Devices Storage.

must be loaded into RAM before execution  RAM is Volatile  ROM(Read Only Memory)  Instructions in ROM prepare the computer for use.  Contents of ROM can only be read but cannot be changed or deleted.  It stores data and instructions permanently  ROM is NON-Volatile  /rotate the disk  Also contains an access arm and read/write head to read and write data  Platter is coated with magnetic material and is used to store data  Provides large storage capacity faster and safer than floppy  1.Zip Disk  /


Chapter 1 Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding CIS 82 Routing Protocols and Concepts Rick Graziani Cabrillo College Last.

February 11, 2008 My web site is www.cabrillo.edu/~rgraziani. For access to these PowerPoint presentations and other materials, please email me at graziani@cabrillo.edu. 4 For further information This presentation is an overview of what is/ Self Test) Executes diagnostics from ROM on several hardware components, including the CPU,RAM, NVRAM Step 2: Loading Bootstrap Program Copied from ROM into RAM Executed by CPU Main task is to locate the Cisco IOS and load it into RAM Step 3: Locating the IOS /


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