Ppt on ram and rom differences

Chapter 2 Hardware Systems. 2 Hardware Systems Reading Sequence: 2.1 Processor and Memory 2.2 Peripherals 2.3 Storage Devices 2.4 Putting Together the.

that transfers data between storage devices and the chipset. 44 RDRAM bus and DRAM bus are examples of memory buses. Because the CPU fetches instructions and data from RAM, the smaller the difference between bus speeds of CPU and RAM, the more efficient the processing. There/ a computer. The controller for the IDE is usually integrated into the disk or CD-ROM drive, and the controller directs how the hard drive stores and accesses data. 50 51 EIDE Master/Slave EIDE is Enhanced IDE, a newer version of/


Computer Hardware and Architecture 1. Objectives: By the end of this session, the student will be able to:  Name and define 5 categories of Computer.

not Primary Storage. Primary Storage, Continued Types of memory The types of memory are listed below:  RAM (Primary Storage)  DRAM  SRAM  External cache  ROM (not Primary Storage)  PROM  EPROM  EEPROM 45 Primary Storage, Continued Measuring memory The smallest /Machine cycle A machine cycle is the combination of I-Time and E-Time. The I-Time and E-Time differs from instruction to instruction, therefore the machine cycle will also be different. Diagram of a machine cycle This a diagram of the steps/


Part 1 Major Concepts Hardware inside the PC 5 Elements of a computer POST Disk boot Interrupts Plug and Play.

in a contiguous manner Part 4 Major Concepts Chapters 13-14 –CD-ROM technology –CD-R discs –DVDs –CD-RW and DVD RAM Optical Storage Optical Storage Media –CDROM –CDR –CDRW –DVD –DVD-RAM All use a similar technology, just slightly different variations CD-ROM Drive The beam penetrates the protective layer of plastic and strikes a reflective payer that looks like aluminum The surface of the/


1 Lecture 32 Datapath Analysis. 2 Overview °Datapaths must deal with input and output data values Implement with tri-state buffers °Necessary to control.

are met °Check handout for more details and examples. 36 37 RAM °Memory is a collection of storage cells with associated input and output circuitry Possible to read and write cells °Random access memory (RAM) contains words of information °Data accessed/different functions Add, subtract, OR, AND… °Example: ALU chip (74LS382) Has data and control inputs °Individual chips can be chained together to make larger ALUs °ALUs are important parts of datapaths ROMs often are used in the control path °Build a data and/


1 COMP541 Memories - I Montek Singh Oct 7, 2015. Topics  Overview of Memory Types Read-Only Memory (ROM): PROMs, FLASH, etc. Read-Only Memory (ROM):

-erasable programmable read-only memory electrically-erasable programmable read-only memory  today called FLASH!  used everywhere! 4 Details of ROM  Memory that is permanent k address lines k address lines 2 k items 2 k items n bits n bits 5 Notional/ up  Not visible from outside on SRAMs 36 Not the same as 8 X 2 RAM!  Minor change in logic and pins Spot the difference! Spot the difference! Spot the difference! 37 Realistic Sizes  Example: 256Kb memory organized 32K X 8 Single-column layout would /


ELEC516/10 Lecture 7 1 ELEC 516 VLSI System Design and Design Automation Spring 2010 Lecture 7 - Memory sub- system Design Reading Assignment: Chapter.

WL1 WL2 WL3 GND BL0BL1 BL2BL3 Selectively adding transistors when needed Connection to BL ELEC516/10 Lecture 7 17 MOS NOR ROM Layout Polysilicon Metal1 Diffusion Metal1 on Diffusion Cell (11 x 7 ) Programmming using the Contact Layer Only WL0 WL WL3/technology). Careful simulations are required using different corners are a must. ELEC516/10 Lecture 7 50 SRAM - read operation (cont.) As an n-channel transistor is poor at passing a one and the p-channel transistors in the RAM cell are generally small, the /


George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL ECE 448 Lecture 10 Memories: RAM, ROM.

[8:0] Dual-Port Bus Flexibility Each port can be configured with a different data bus width Provides easy data width conversion without any additional logic 17ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL 0, ADDR[12:0] 1, ADDR[12:0]/ to part: xc3s50vq100-5 Cell usage: MUXF5 8 uses RAM64X1S 32 uses LUT3 20 uses RAM/ROM usage summary Single Port Rams (RAM64X1S): 32 Mapping Summary: Total LUTs: 148 (9%) 25ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL Report from Implementation (1) Target Device : xc3s50 Target Package :/


George Mason University ECE 448 – FPGA and ASIC Design with VHDL FPGA Devices & FPGA Design Flow ECE 448 Lecture 7.

) Use multiple blocks for larger memories Builds both single and true dual-port RAMs Synchronous write and read (different from distributed RAM) 58 RAM Blocks and Multipliers in Xilinx FPGAs The Design Warrior’s Guide to FPGAs Devices, Tools, and Flows. ISBN 0750676043 Copyright © 2004 Mentor Graphics Corp/ OBUF 32 uses BUFGP 1 use I/O Register bits: 0 Register bits not including I/Os: 0 (0%) RAM/ROM usage summary Block Rams : 1 of 4 (25%) Global Clock Buffers: 1 of 8 (12%) Mapping Summary: Total LUTs: 0 (0/


Computer Literacy BASICS: A Comprehensive Guide to IC 3, 5 th Edition Lesson 2 Software and Hardware Interaction 1 Morrison / Wells / Ruffolo.

using the most memory. 7. Click the Performance tab. Display and review a chart of CPU performance for about a minute. Next, display and review a chart of memory performance. Describe the differences. 22 Lesson 2 CLB: MS Office 2007 Companion Campbell 23/two major types of memory: volatile memory such as RAM, and nonvolatile memory such as ROM. Volatile memory loses its contents when you turn off the power to the computer, while nonvolatile memory is permanent and does not lose its contents when you turn off/


1 Chap 6. Memory and Programmable Devices. 2 6.1 Memory & Programmable Logic Device Definitions Memory –a collection of cells capable of storing binary.

ex) RAM (static or dynamic) (cf) non-volatile (ex) magnetic disk, ROM, Flash Memory etc. 11 6.3 RAM Integrated Circuits Internal Structure –a RAM chip of m words & n bits per word consists of m x n binary storage cells, and decoders static RAM cell –/logic 2. Pre-implemented flip-flops 3. Programmable interconnections between the combinational logic, flip-flops, and the chip input/outputs – the devices differ significantly from vender to vender 48 6.9 VLSI Programmable Logic Devices Altera MAX 7000 CPLDs –16/


Chapter 3 Hardware, Input, Processing, and Output Devices.

devices, such as printers. There are two basic types of RAM: dynamic RAM (DRAM) static RAM (SRAM) RAM ‘Discussion’ (2) Two types: dynamic RAM and static RAM. The two types differ in the technology they use to hold data, dynamic RAM being the more common type. Dynamic RAM needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second. Static RAM does not need to be refreshed, which makes it faster; but it/


Components of Computer. Memory Unit Most important part of the computer Used to store data and instructions that are currently in use Main memory consists.

provides more usability as instructions are written many times Difference between RAM and ROM RAMROM Temporary MemoryPermanent Memory Enables data to be both read and written to memory and data can be changed or deleted Instructions written in ROM can be only read but cannot be changed or deleted Instructions in RAM change continuously as new programs are executed and new data is processed It is not possible to/


Lab 11 : Memory System Fundamentals :

application will also introduce the concept of a Memory Map Diagram. A 16X8 ROM can store 16 different 8 bit data codes. To store 16 codes the ROM requires 4 address inputs (24=16). The data stored in the ROM will be read (transferred) to 8 LED’s. Note: Logic 1 =/ 1 0 0 1 WE no longer controls the “Output Buffers” Lab 11 : 4X4 Bidirectional I/O RAM: Most digital systems use separate operations to read and write RAM. The RAM never needs to be “read from” or “written to” at the same time. For this reason there/


Semiconductor, Magnetic and Optical Memory

Continued) Design circuitry to facilitate memory expansion. Explain the refresh procedure for dynamic RAMs. Explain the differences between the various types of magnetic and optical storage. 3 Memory Concepts Memory locations have memory addresses Data are the /ROMs are (1) the mask ROM, which is programmed once by a masking process by the manufacturer; (2) the fusible-link programmable ROM (PROM), which is programmed once by the user; and (3) the erasable-programmable ROM (EPROM), which is programmable and/


3rd Module 8051 - Microcontroller.

COM Port I/O Port Timer Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expansive versatility general-purpose Microcontroller CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports Highly bit addressable for applications in which cost, power/


Chapter 1 Introduction to Embedded Systems

important issues are the difference of the characteristics and the features among these different type systems so that you can take that into account in the embedded systems design and implementation.   Contd… The embedded system can also be classified into scale categories. For example, small scaled embedded system supported by single 8-16 bit microprocessor or microcontroller with on-chip RAM and ROM is designed to perform/


LOGO. www.themegallery.com  Concept:  Is read-only memory.  Do not lose data when power is lost.  ROM memory is used to produce chips with integrated.

EPROM.  EEPROM ( Electronic Erasable Programmable ROM ):  It form enhence of EPROM, a difference compared to the EPROM is able to write and remove the information again and again by software rather than hardware.  Example: "CD-Rewritable".  Application specific EEPROM is "flash BIOS". ROM is the type of information can install or upgrade software. www.themegallery.com RAM – Random Access Memory  Concept:  RAM (Random Access Memory) to store/


Memories and Microprocessors. Introduction torage and recall of information fundamental to sequential circuits We have already looked at basic circuits.

the potential of large memory systems Objectives To study how simple memory devices can be constructed into large memory systems To understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of memory: specifically Static RAM, Dynamic RAM, Programmable ROM Erasable PROM and Mask-programmed ROM To illustrate the range of activities a simple microprocessor can carry out To illustrate the benefits of a software solution to circuit design/


Giving Linux the Boot This session covers all facets of the Linux boot process from power up to running a user application beginning with ROM boot loader.

. Linux Boot Process Components Components of the Linux Boot Process (Stages) RBL – ROM Boot Loader, Contained in the ROM of the Part, minimal capability to initialize the processor and read in from off chip into internal RAM the SPL. SPL – Secondary Program Loader, called many different names depending on processor (UBL,Xloader) but is code of a minimal configuration specific to the target board that/


Introduction to Chapter 12

Moss Digital Systems: Principles and Applications, 10e Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Columbus, OH 43235 All rights reserved.. 12-7 Types of ROMs Erasable programmable ROM (EPROM) Can be erased and reprogrammed by user UV light/ Digital Systems: Principles and Applications, 10e Copyright ©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Columbus, OH 43235 All rights reserved.. 12-14 Dynamic RAM Structure and Operation Address multiplexing – each address pin can accommodate two different address bits Operation of/


What is memory? Memory is used to store information within a computer, either programs or data. Programs and data cannot be used directly from a disk or.

(KB) or megabytes (MB)). The two main types of memory (RAM and ROM) act as if they were two parts of a continuous list of memory addresses. 0 1600 ROM RAM Read only Memory (ROM) This is memory whose contents are not lost if the machine is/maintained until either altered to a new value or the power is turned off. – More complex and expensive than dynamic RAM. Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM): – A variety of different technologies are used to implement NVRAM. Summary There is hierarchy of memory. The higher level in /


Deadlocks Computer systems are full of resources that can only be used by one process at a time. Common examples include printers, tape drives, and slots.

sometimes present, and could be added if necessary. Separate CD-ROM drivers are now obsolete. They used to be necessary to support the proprietary interfaces of different drive manufacturers, but modern CD-ROM drives are usually connected to the IDE controller, although on notebook computers some CD-ROMs are USB. Each block device driver has to do some initialization, of course. The RAM disk driver has/


Ki-Hyung Kim Division of Information and Computer Eng. Ajou University

4 KB Second-level descriptor Translating large page references Access permissions System (S) and ROM (R) in CP15 register 1 TLB functions Invalidate instruction TLB Invalidate instruction single /with an MPU Used for smart card applications Memory Management of ARM Three different types of memory management hardware of ARM Non-protected memory MPU: Memory /bit accumulator Power Mgnt Ctrl Write Buffer 8 entries Full coalescing JTAG Data Ram Max 28 Kbytes Re-map of data cache Branch Target Buffer 128 /


1 EECS 150 - Components and Design Techniques for Digital Systems Lec 15 – Storage: Regs, SRAM, ROM David Culler Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences.

Summary 38 PLA Example 39 PAL Example 40 Summary Basic RAM structure –Address decoder to select row of cell array –bit, ~bit lines to read & write –Sense difference in each bit –Column mux Read/write protocols –Synchronous (reg files, fpga block ram) –Asynchronous read, synchronous writes –Asynchronous Multiported RAMs –reg files and fifos Non-volatile memory –ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, FLASH Memory as combinational logic Relationship to/


TK 2123 COMPUTER ORGANISATION & ARCHITECTURE

chips. Both dynamic and static RAM are volatile. Currently, the DRAM is the most popular. Prepared by: Dr Masri Ayob - TK2123 Memory Implementations ROM (read-only memory) is used for situations where the software is built permanently into the computer. Early ROM memory was made up of integrated circuits with fuses in them that could be blown. Modern ROM memories use a different technology, which can/


Chap3. Secondary Storage and System Software

data is accompanied by one or more subblocks containing extra information about the data block Note: the “block” has a different meaning in the context of the UNIX I/O system File Structure SNU-OOPSLA Lab Sector organization vs. Block organization 3/sequential processing Decrease in cost of disk and RAM More RAM space is available in I/O buffers, so disk I/O decreases Tertiary storage for backup: CD-ROM, tape ... File Structure SNU-OOPSLA Lab Introduction to CD-ROM CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read-Only Memory Can /


Common memory types DRAM (Dynamic RAM) RAM (Random Access Memory) NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM) SRAM (Static RAM ) Flash memory EEPROM(Electrically- Erasable-and-

in computers, but in most other electronic items as well. In this section, you will learn about the different types of ROM and how each works. 10.1.1 Introduction 固件 10.1 Read-Only Memory(2) 10.1.2 ROM Types NextBackReturn There are five basic ROM types: ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash memory. Each type has unique characteristics, but they are all types of memory/


Microcontroller 8051.

. A designer should know what types of components he needs, ways to reduce production costs and product reliable. Different aspects of a microprocessor/controller Hardware :Interface to the real world Software :order how to /RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. expansive versatility general-purpose Microcontroller CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports for applications in which cost, power and/


TEE COURSE GRADE 10 MODULE 7 - PC HARDWARE Memory and Storage Devices

80 PRIMARY MEMORY: RAM AND ROM RAM (Random Access Memory) is volatile (temporary). Programs and data can be written to and erased from RAM as needed. This means that RAM does not retain its bit configuration when the power is turned off, but ROM does ROM ( Read Only Memory/read data. To store data, the disks metal surface is covered with tiny dents (pits) and flat spots (lands), which cause light to be reflected differently. When an optical drive shines light into a pit, the light cannot be reflected back. /


Virtualization and Optimization Learning objectives: explain the differences between RAM and ROM memory explain the purpose of virtual memory and cache.

Learning objectives: explain the differences between RAM and ROM memory explain the purpose of virtual memory and cache memory Repeat  What is “virtualization”? Repeat  What is “virtualization”?  What is “virtualization machine”? Repeat  What is “virtualization”?  What is “virtualization machine”?  What are some of the stages of development /


Classification of Optical Discs Compact Disc Physical Medium Data Organization and Encoding CD-ROM Drive Compact Disc Types DVD Blu-ray Discs 01/15/20151Input/Output.

methods 01/15/201511Input/Output Systems and Peripheral Devices (07-2) DVD Overview DVD-ROM DVD-Video DVD-Audio DVD-R DVD+R DVD-RAM DVD-RW DVD+RW 01/15/201512Input/Output Systems and Peripheral Devices (07-2) Contains /ROM DVD-Video DVD-Audio DVD-R DVD+R DVD-RAM DVD-RW DVD+RW 01/15/201525Input/Output Systems and Peripheral Devices (07-2) Developed by Pioneer The format is approved by the DVD Forum Uses a technology similar to that of the CD-R discs The organic dyes are different Two variants: DVD-R(A) and/


CS 2 Main Memory and Backing Store. 2 0100 1000 Memory address (1) Memory is “place’ to store digital signals (0 1)

RAM and Hard disk –Done by the computer automatically –Transparent to user 17 RAM Too much Swapping –Reduce performance of computer, or –Lead to system crash To reduce Swapping –Increase the size of RAM 18 Read-Only Memory (ROM) - stores the essential software of the computer system. ‘Read-only’ means ROM can be read but not changed. ROM 19 ROM The contents of ROM are preset by the ROM manufacturer, and/


Contents  Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller,  Block Diagram and Pin Description of the 8051.

ROM, RAM and I/O ports. Program memory and data memory are same. Suited to processing information in computer systems. Powerful addressing mode. Data bus: 32,64,128 bits wide. Clock rate > 1GHz. general-purpose. Expensive. Microcontroller Single chip computer which has everything in-built. CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip. fix amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports. Uses different/


Basic Computer Hardware. A computer is:  An electronic machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), and process it into useful information.

)  Combination drive >CD-RW/DVD-ROM, CD-RW/DVD-R  Many other forms  Memory Stick, MultiMediaCard, CompactFlash, and SmartMedia External Hard Drives  IEEE 1394, commonly called Fire Wire, is a very fast external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 400Mbps (in 1394a) and 800Mbps (in 1394b).  Products supporting the 1394 standard go under different names, depending on the company. Apple/


Khaled A. Al-Utaibi  Introduction  Memory Pin Connections  ROM Memory  RAM Memory  Memory Organization  Types of Memory Access.

data as long as DC power is applied.  Once the power is turned off all data stored in the RAM will be lost.  The main difference between ROM and RAM is that RAM is written under normal operation, whereas ROM is programmed outside the computer and normally is only read.  There are two main types of RAM: − (1) Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) − (2) Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM/


What is a computer? A computer is an electronic machine that accepts information (Data), processes it according to specific instructions, and provides.

Memory): The contents stored in this can be erased electrically. Later new information is stored in it.  It is also known as Flash Memory. DifferencesRAM holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with.  ROM contains software that is used in Input/Output operations. It also contains software that loads the Operating System in Primary Memory.  The CPU can read/


Day 1: 1. OVERVIEW OF ICT 1.1. Definition of ICT I.C.T. stands for Information and Communications Technology. It replaces the term I.T. (Information Technology)

of keeping pace with the CPU. This extra piece is called random access memory, usually referred to as RAM or simply memory for short. Physically, RAM consists of a set of separate integrated circuits (each of which looks something like a small CPU chip) /music. Much like music CD’s, CD ROMs cannot be written to, so you cannot save information to a CD ROM. CD’s make it possible to add sound and video to games and programs. The CD ROM drive comes in several different speeds. Speeds vary from double speed to /


Think Possibility 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.2 Storage Devices 2.3 Input and Output Devices 2.4 The Computing Industry Unit 2: Hardware Systems.

Rambus Memory Module Think Possibility Read-Only Memory Difference of RAM and ROM: ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine ROM is housed in a single integrated circuit and is usually a fair, large, caterpillar-like DIP package which is plugged into the motherboard RAM is temporary and volatile, while ROM is permanent and non-volatile ROM holds “hard-wired” instructions that remain in place/


Chap3. Secondary Storage and System Software. Chapter Objectives  Describe the organization of typical disk drives, including basic units of organization.

of data is accompanied by one or more subblocks containing extra information about the data block  Note: the “block” has a different meaning in the context of the UNIX I/O system Sector organization vs. Block organization 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 22/u No seek in sequential processing uDecrease in cost of disk and RAM uMore RAM space is available in I/O buffers, so disk I/O decreases uTertiary storage for backup: CD-ROM, tape... Introduction to CD-ROM  CD-ROM: Compact Disc Read-Only Memory Can hold over 600MB(200,/


Slides created by: Professor Ian G. Harris Test and Debugging  Controllability and observability are required Controllability Ability to control sources.

not work, need to simulate them 3.Interrupts probably implemented differently 4.Different data sizes and “endian”ness Slides created by: Professor Ian G. Harris /ROM Instructions  Common to read instructions from a separate ROM on the target  ROM emulator substitutes the ROM for a RAM with a controller Slides created by: Professor Ian G. Harris ROM Emulator Features  Remote debugger where ROM is replaced by RAM - Debug kernel is in the RAM  Solves the “non-writable ROM” problem of remote debugging  ROM/


Storage Main Memory Secondary Memory Different speeds Magnetic Media Optical Media Access Modes.

CPUs have around 2MB, because it’s very expensive. Diagram CPU Control Unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Cache Memory Main Memory RAM ROM Fast AccessFaster Access Magnetic Storage Magnetic storage uses magnetic charges to store data. The presence of a magnetic spot represents a 1/. This is achieved by reducing the size of the lands and pits. The different DVD types There are different types of DVDs, 1. DVD-ROM: DVD read only memory which has data stored on it and it cannot be modified or deleted. 2. DVD-R: DVD/


ACKNOWLEDG EMENT I AM VERY MUCH OBLIGED TOWARDS OUR COMPUTER TEACHER " Mr. LOKESH" WHO ENCOURAGED US TO DO THESE PRESENTATIONS. - by DEEPANITA and JYOTI.

to the computer are similar to the ones that are connected to a stereo.The only difference is that the computer systems speakers are usually smaller and they contain their own small amplifier. THE MEMORY DEVICES An essential component of every computer is/ read operations only; it does not have the write capability. It is a non- volatile memory. TYPES OF RAM AND ROM RAM 1.Dynamic RAM:- consists of a transistor and a capacitor that’s capable of storing an electric charge. Types of DRAM:- 1.EDO DRAM 2.SDRAM (/


Computer Basics Lesson 1: Outer Hardware. The Basics Lets start with the center of any computer system. It will have a power switch and a light or two.

Have you ever heard the terms RAM and ROM? These two terms sound very similar and can easily be confused by beginners. ROM is like reading a library book - lots of information is there, but you cant change it. RAM, on the other hand, is more/ Many people store music files or family photos on CD. Computer Basics Lesson 5: Programs Programming Using bits and bytes in different combinations to represent a code is known as programming. These codes allow the computer to understand instructions. Computer /


Chapter 3 Memory Basics. Memory ??? A major component of a digital computer and many digital systems. Stores binary data, either permanently or temporarily.

also possible with special equipment. Still random access like RAM, but ROMs retain data even when power is turned off. Memory Basic Process Info/content from memory is sent to h/w (usually consists of registers & combinational logic) to be processed. The processed info is then returned to the same or different memory address. Input and Output devices may also interact with memory. Memory/


Www. Micro Digital Ed. com BIHE university AVR Microcontroller and Embedded System Using Assembly and C Mazidi, Naimi, and Naimi © 2011 Pearson Higher.

uses terms such as kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte, and corresponding symbols KB, MB, and GB, in two different ways. For example, in citations of main memory or RAM capacity, gigabyte customarily means 1073741824 bytes./ and Embedded System Using Assembly and C Mazidi, Naimi, and Naimi © 2011 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved. Semiconductor memories RAM –SRAM (Static RAM) –DRAM (Dynamic RAM) –NV-RAM (Nonvolatile RAM) ROM –Mask ROM –PROM ( Programmable ROM)/


File StructureSNU-OOPSLA Lab1 Chap3. Secondary Storage and System Software File Structures by Folk, Zoellick, and Ricarrdi.

is accompanied by one or more subblocks containing extra information about the data block u Note: the “block” has a different meaning in the context of the UNIX I/O system 3.1 Disks File StructureSNU-OOPSLA Lab21 Sector organization vs. Block organization/ of disk and RAM uMore RAM space is available in I/O buffers, so disk I/O decreases uTertiary storage for backup: CD-ROM, tape... 3.3 Disk versus Tape File StructureSNU-OOPSLA Lab36 Introduction to CD-ROM 3.4 Introduction to CD-ROM u CD-ROM: Compact Disc/


Computer Concepts 5th Edition Parsons/Oja Page 58 CHAPTER 2 Data Representation and Digital Electronics Section A PARSONS/OJA Computer Hardware.

the ALU  List factors that affect CPU performance  Explain RAM and ROM  Compare storage technologies  Describe computer’s expansion bus  Explain hardware compatibility considerations  Compare and contrast technologies for peripherals Computer Concepts 5th Edition Parsons/Oja Page/Devices What’s the difference between magnetic and optical storage technologies?  Data stored on magnetic media such as floppy disks can be altered by dust, smoke, heat, and mechanical problems.  And magnetic fields…  Some/


Microcontrollers. An embedded microcontroller is a chip which a computer processor with all it’s support functions (clocking and reset), memory, and i/O.

of the application that can be loaded into the microcontroller and that the application also includes all the low-level code and device interface necessary to execute an application. – nonvolatile – 8051 has 5 different types of control store : none, mask ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM/Flash variable area – 4 types variable data storage: bits, registers, variable RAM, PC stack. – in 8051 they are implemented as SRAM/


CCNA2-1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding.

ROM into RAM.The program is copied from ROM into RAM. Executed by CPU.Executed by CPU. Its main task is to locate the Cisco IOS and load it into RAM.Its main task is to locate the Cisco IOS and load it into RAM/to connect to multiple networks. Various types of networks.Various types of networks. Different types of media and connectors.Different types of media and connectors. Different types of interfaces.Different types of interfaces. Router Interfaces Ethernet Serial CCNA2-28 Chapter 1 Router Interfaces /


RAM The level of satisfaction you have with your PC depends on the amount of RAM it has. Even if the processor is the fastest or the hard drive the best.

mega bytes of memory, 640 KB is used for DOS operating system and applications, and the remaining 384 KB is reserved for addressing BIOS ROM of motherboard, video adapter board, NIC card, video RAM and etc. Upper Memory Area (UMA) The address space 384K above /, the CDRAM from Mitsubishi incorporates cache and DRAM on the same IC. This eliminates the need for an external (or L2) cache, and has the extra benefit of adding cache whenever RAM is added to the system. The difference is that CDRAM uses a “set-/


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