Ppt on question tags in english grammar

Part-of-Speech Tagging & Parsing Chloé Kiddon (slides adapted and/or stolen outright from Andrew McCallum, Christopher Manning, and Julia Hockenmaier)

learning (“Brill learning”) ▫ Rule-based system  Calculate initial states: proper noun detection, tagged corpus  Acquire transformation rules  Change VB to NN when prev word was adjective  The/grammar of their native language Parsing extracts the syntax from a sentence Parsing applications High-precision Question-Answering systems Named Entity Recognition (NER) and information extraction Opinion extraction in product reviews Improved interaction during computer applications/games Basic English/

Sentence Correction: Concept: book titles Grammar Rules:

a run-on --use apostrophes in contractions Example: natalie and mark want to go to the musical ragtime and im sure theyll like it Sentence Correction: Wrap-Up: 38 Sentence Correction: Concept: tag questions Grammar Rules: Example: --long book/Example: the book the return of the native is frequently studied in english classes ms nash said this afternoon Sentence Correction: Wrap-Up: 41 Sentence Correction: Concept: let vs. leave Grammar Rules: --apostrophes for contractions and possession --let = allow, /

Artificial Intelligence in Medicine HCA 590 (Topics in Health Sciences) Rohit Kate 11. Biomedical Natural Language Processing.

like English, Chinese etc. by computers to: – Interact with people, e.g. Follow natural language commands Answer natural language questions Provide information in natural/linguistic analyses for general text can be done with good accuracy: POS tagging, syntactic parsing, dependency parsing, coreference resolution, semantic role labeling – Systems/ thecake A syntactic derivation or a parse tree Non-terminals Terminals Phrase Structure Grammars Some of the productions can be recursive (like NP -> NP PP) which/

Question about the reading What are clitics? They are not words. –Evidence: they can’t be stressed They are not prefixes or suffixes. –Evidence: they don’t.

In-class exercise Goals: –Interpret the results of distributional tests for parts of speech. –Discover that some words are problematic for the distributional theory of parts of speech. –Reminder: When you know a language, you know a complex body of unconscious knowledge. Words that evade classification More tests for prepositions and adjectives –Cambridge Grammar of the English/is right worth $100K. Comes with a question word? –She thought the land was /Particle Part of speech tags used in the Penn Treebank /

English Conversation City Planning Group. Day One Learn Today: Learn Today: Introductions Introductions Ice Breakers Ice Breakers Small Talk Small Talk.

It is hot today, isn’t it? (tag question) It is hot today, isn’t it? (tag question) Are you tired? Are you tired? Small /in English! Partner B - Describe each company… in English! Partner A – Guess the company Partner A – Guess the company Jobs (occupations) Page 14 Page 14 Answer the questions in the purple box Answer the questions in/Leadership Leadership Communication Communication Communicative Communicative Lesson 9 Urban Planning! Quick Grammar 5 Adjectives have the verb ‘to be’ Adjectives have the /

BİL711 Natural Language Processing1 What is Natural Language Processing (NLP) The process of computer analysis of input provided in a human language (natural.

Machines -- FSAs, FSTs, HMMs, ATNs, RTNs Formal Rule Systems -- Context Free Grammars, Unification Grammars, Probabilistic CFGs. Logic-based Formalisms -- first order predicate logic, some higher order /can fool the judge Judgment of intelligence is linked to appropriate answers to questions from the system. BİL711 Natural Language Processing15 NLP - an inter/ solely on the word itself. –bank in English –yüz in Turkish Solution -- resolve the ambiguity on the spot by POS tagging (if possible) or pass-on the /

History. Descartes (1629) If a large dictionary is printed in all the languages in which one wants to be understood, where common characters are put for.

-clause grammars (Pereira&Warren) Ad-hoc – SHRDLU robot in blocks world (Winograd) – knowledge-representation systems (Shank) SHRDLU (Winograd, 1970) Answers questions, executes commands, and accepts information in an interactive English dialog... The system contains a parser, a recognition grammar of English, programs/ made her V made det N duck her duck Syntactic Disambiguation Structural ambiguity: Part of Speech Tagging and Word Sense Disambiguation [verb Duck ] ! [noun Duck] is delicious for dinner I /

Unit2 Read the following sentences aloud, paying special attention to strong and weak forms. Strong forms are in boldfaces, while weak forms in italics.

tag: if you tag something, you attach something to it or mark it so that it can be identified later e.g. Lets tag/the letter and put it away. Grammar Consolidation Activities- Word / Phrase comparison3/ Translation5 Practice : Translate the following sentence into English. 去适应一个腐朽的社会也是心理健康的表现么? VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingListeningGrammar Is becoming well-adjusted/ Text IIMemorable quotes Lead-in questions Text Questions for discussion Lead-in questions 1. What kind of/

November 2009HLT - Sentence Grammar1 Human Language Technology Sentence Grammar.

Part 1 Grammar of English November 2009HLT - Sentence Grammar4 Different Kinds of Rule Morphological rules.. govern how words may be composed: re+invest+ing = reinvesting. Syntactic rules.. govern how words and constituents combine to form grammatical sentences. Semantic rules.. govern how meanings may be combined. November 2009HLT - Sentence Grammar5 Syntax: Why? You need knowledge of syntax in many applications: –Parsing –Grammar checkers –Question answering/database/

ExC-ELL 1 SUPPORTING LONG-TERM ENGLISH LEARNERS Margarita Calderón, Ph.D. Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University Margarita Calderón & Associates,

provide a psychological safety net, and scaffold in a way that makes ELs feel comfortable expressing their “English in progress” (Calderón 2011) Create a /grammar 6.Class discussions 7.Cooperative learning activities 8.Formulating questions and Numbered Heads 9.Round Table Reviews 10.Pre-writing & drafting 11.Revising/editing 12.Sharing 7.Cooperative learning activities 8.Formulating questions/in my luggage. I am taking my luggage to...” 4.The teacher gives the student a sticker or teacher- made luggage tag/

Question tags Prepared by the teacher of English Vovkotrub Larysa Valeriivna Katerinopol secondary school №2 Katerinopil district rada Cherkassy region.

, does not he? They came by car, did not they? Ann will be here soon, won’t she? Auxiliary verb we put in tag depends on grammar tenseof the sentence Normally we use positive question tag with a negative sentence negative sentence + positive tag Tom won’t be late, will he? They don’t like us, do they? That isn’t John over there, is he/

Grammar: The Basics. This or That ? A vase or two faces? Which image do you see? A young girl’s face or an old woman’s face?

food + eat Gamer Grammar Objective Identify the commonly made mistakes while speaking in English To increase fluency in English Building Blocks Parts of/English for over two hours by the time you arrive. Tense Tenses Fun Time Group B write a story in the Past Group C write a story in the Future Group A write a story in the Present Question Tags Objective To aid formulating appropriate questions. To learn to convert ideas or sentences into questions. Question Tags Question tags are a grammatical structure in/

Criterial Features in the Learning of English John A. Hawkins University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations and Research Centre for English and Applied Linguistics.

grammar and lexicon of English do learners actually know and/or produce at each of these CEFR levels? 2) what patterns and principles are there in these developing second language acquisition stages of English? and 3)what are the practical benefits, for learning, teaching, assessment and publishing, of gathering this information? If we can answer these questions/ (Robust Accurate Statistical Parser) tagging identifies parts of speech (PoS) probabilistically tagging parse generates a parse forest /

Dan2eng: Wide-Coverage Danish-English Machine Translation Eckhard Bick University of Southern Denmark.

subclauses, negation, questions etc. (75 rules) Core lexicon 100.000 Valency potential Semantic prototypes Names Composita Grammatical Translation lexicon 81.000 Fixed expressions 7.000 Word- Analyzer PoS- disambiguator syntactic function tags Dependency trees Contextual/insert words – Danish s-passive -> English analytical passive ● rearrange the order of constituents (defined as mother-daughter-chunks in dependency grammar) – Front field does not trigger S-V inversion in English I dag drikker vi vin. = /

ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepared by: R.Rajendran.M.A.,M.Sc.,M.Ed.,

ENGLISH GRAMMAR Prepared by: R.Rajendran.M.A.,M.Sc.,M.Ed., Headmaster (IC) K.C.Sankaralinga nadar hr.sec.school, Chennai-21. Question tag Question tag Question tags do n’t I I like to read novels,……………….? does n’t he He goes to exhibition,……………….? does n’t she She speaks English/ can you ? can you ? will you ? are n’t I ? shall we ? shall we ? Fill in the blanks with suitable question tags We should be punctual,……………….? No one has seen the future,…………….? You are a scout,……………………? He did not return the book/

Sophomore English 實用英文 育達商業技術學院應用英語系 劉碧芬副教授. Phone: Ext. 6035 Office Hours: Monday mornings and Friday afternoons

test Individual work: Show and tell (1 minute) Pair work: a) Tag questions (2 minutes) b) Conversation (2 minutes): cultural literacy for visitors to Taiwan Written test Listening Vocabulary Grammar: tag questions, the past perfect Lesson 3: Be Culturally Literate (p.8) Vocabulary. /F2: I actually am an English teacher. I learned my English in the United States, at the University of Wisconsin. F3: And my last question: I’m an amateur photographer. Will I be able to take pictures in Dubai? F2: Well, yes/

The quest for robustness, scalability, and portability in (spoken) language applications Linguistics Methodology meets Language Reality: Bob Carpenter.

9 The $64,000 Question How do humans handle unrestricted language so effortlessly in real time? Unfortunately, the/ to do anything wrong: “right” answer hardcoded Typical in Computational NL Grammars –lexicon limited to demo –rules limited to common ones/ in top 5, 99% Average 17 pronunciations/word to get 95% Robust: handles multiple pronunciations Scalable: to whole of English pronunciation/emerge from these generalizations Using acoustic / word / tag / syntax graphs allows the propogation of uncertainty –/

The fundamentals of English grammar

of English grammar Types of questions 5 types of questions Общий вопрос (general question) Альтернативный вопрос (alternative question) Специальный вопрос (special question) Вопрос к подлежащему (question to the subject) Разделительный вопрос (tag-question) ? General question To be Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple Can Вспомогательный (модальный) глагол подлежащее сказуемое … To be Am I at work? Is she a nurse? Are you at home? Present Simple Do you discuss difficult grammar rules at/

Natural Language Processing. 2 Why “natural language”?  Natural vs. artificial  Language vs. English.

 Not precise, ambiguous, wide range of expression  Language vs. EnglishEnglish, French, Japanese, Spanish  Natural language processing = programs, theories towards understanding a problem or question in natural language and answering it 5 Approaches  System building  Interactive / machines?  Which larger machines damaged parts?  Approaches:  Statistical part of speech tagging  Parsing using a grammar  Shallow parsing: identify meaningful chunks 11 Which parts were damaged by larger machines? S/

1 Revision Altogether twenty-two lectures are discussed in this course. Now let’s roughly review what we have learned this term: Introduction Grammatical.

Tag question) Usages of tag question are discussed in this lecture. It is pointed that in addition to the normal tag questions, we should pay much attention to some exceptions in dealing with this kind of question, which were talked about in/ B ( 19 ) A ( 20 ) D Part Ⅳ Answer the following question briefly: 1. Please explain grammatical hierarchy. Grammar hierarchy is the structural system of a language.The grammar.of the English language is organized into five ranks:the sentence, the clause, the phrase, the/

Information and Communication Technologies 1 Evaluation in natural language processing Diana Santos Linguateca - www.linguateca.pt European Summer School.

in terms of “educated intuition” Information and Communication Technologies 20 Modelling probability in grammar (Halliday) The grammar /in English) (or number or temporal expressions), mark their occurrence in text correct or incorrect HAREM: Given all proper names (in Portuguese) (or numerical expressions), assign their correct semantic interpretation in/ tagger that assigns every word the tag N WSD system that assigns every / a quantitative score number magic? questions of scales Aggregation of that score/

Language technology in Africa: Prospects Arvi Hurskainen University of Helsinki.

multi-word expressions –Tones Lexical Grammatical Feasibility of LT in Africa Question: If African languages have several special features regarded as /tags) 4.Morphological disambiguation Determining correct interpretation Phases of speech-to-speech MT 5. Syntactic mapping Providing words with syntactic tags/English and –English – Swahili dictionaries –Can be edited and used in developing language tools Grammars Electronic grammars missing SALAMA (Swahili Language Manager) contains a comprehensive grammar/

What does ‘Miscellany’ mean? Unit 15 – Presentation 1 “a mixture of different things” And what does it involve in this grammar book? More subtle details.

in this grammar book? More subtle details of the English Grammar, like: 1. questions & their types, 2. the formation of verbs with ‘be’ & ‘get’ & 3. the typical subjects and object. Very, for they generate information & make up a large amount of our daily discourse. Are questions/going, does she? – No, she doesn’t. (agreeing)/ Of course, she does! (contradicting) E) Answers to Question Tags E) Exceptional Question Tags I Imperativewill you/ won’t you?e.g. Get me a new copy, will you/ won’t you? Negative /

Grammar 2 The Second Semester 2015-2016 Question 1 & 2 pp.106-110 Presented by Dr. Mohamed Sha’at.

Session Students are expected to: -Form different types of questions. -Complete sentences with correct tag questions. -Write correct indirect questions. Types of Questions There are two main types of questions: 1- Yes/No questions: This type is formed with an auxiliary verb + a subject + a main verb. |{do / be / have} 1- Do you live in Gaza? 2- Does she speak English? 3- Did they clean the room? 4- Are/

What’s in a Corpus? School of Computing

tags) in Penn Treebank ◮ CLAWS c5 tag set (62 tags) in BNC (British National Corpus) ◮ Tagging is usually done automatically (then proofread and corrected) http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/eric/atwell00icamej.pdf http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/eric/atwell08clih.pdf What’s a word? How many words do you find in the following short text? What is the biggest/smallest plausible answer to this question/ unit of meaning or grammar, e.g. data, base, s ◮ For languages other than English, morphological analysis can be/

Statistical NLP Lecture 18: Bayesian grammar induction & machine translation Roger Levy Department of Linguistics, UCSD Thanks to Percy Liang, Noah Smith,

Plan 1.Recent developments in Bayesian unsupervised grammar induction Nonparametric grammars Non-conjugate priors 2.A bit about machine translation Nonparametric grammars Motivation: How many symbols should a grammar have? Really an open question Let the data have a/in spirit) The Coding View One naturally wonders if the problem of translation could conceivably be treated as a problem in cryptography. When I look at an article in Russian, I say: This is really written in English, but it has been coded in/

Grammar- Unit 52 Question tags

Set C for usage of appropriate tone of voice Example Set D for usage of question tags at the end of the sentence Question tags Continue… Have you? and wasn’t it? are question tags (=mini-questions that we often put on the end of a sentence in spoken English). In question tags, we use an auxiliary verb (have/was/will etc). We use do/does/did for the present and past/

Unsupervised Dependency Parsing David Mareček Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics Charles University in Prague Doctoral thesis defense September.

in the corpus.  If it occurs at least once elsewhere in the corpus, the occurence is proclaimed as reducible. Reducibility of PoS n-gram = relative number of reducible occurences Examples of reducibility scores Reducibility scores of the English PoS tags  induced from the English/ Answers to A. Soegaard’s questions The aim of the parsing may be:  To be able to parse any language using all the data resources available (McDonald, Petrov,...)  To induce a grammar without using any manually annotated data/

1 LING 180 Autumn 2007 LINGUIST 180: Introduction to Computational Linguistics Dan Jurafsky, Marie-Catherine de Marneffe Lecture 9: Grammar and Parsing.

Context-Free Grammars and Constituency Some common CFG phenomena for English Sentence-level constructions NP, PP, VP Coordination Subcategorization Top-down and Bottom-up Parsing Dynamic Programming Parsing Quick sketch of probabilistic parsing 3 LING 180 Autumn 2007 Review Parts of Speech Basic syntactic/morphological categories that words belong to Part of Speech tagging Assigning parts of speech to all the words in a/

Synchronous Grammars and Tree Automata David Chiang and Kevin Knight USC/Information Sciences Institute Viterbi School of Engineering University of Southern.

grammar and automata theory are the daughters of natural language processing – let’s keep in touch [Chomsky 57] Distinguish grammatical English from ungrammatical English/in tree-based probabilistic models –Machine translation [Wu 97, Yamada & Knight 02, Melamed 03, Chiang 05, …] –Summarization [Knight & Marcu 00, …] –Paraphrasing [Pang et al 03, …] –Question/[Rounds 70]Math. Syst. Theory 4 [Shieber & Schabes 90]COLING [Shieber 04, 06]TAG+, EACL [Thatcher 67]J. Computer & Sys. Sci. 1 [Thatcher 70]J. Computer /

ENGLISH GRAMMAR قواعد اللغــــــــــة الإنجليزية

ENGLISH GRAMMAR قواعد اللغــــــــــة الإنجليزية بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ENGLISH GRAMMAR قواعد اللغــــــــــة الإنجليزية Prepared by: Dr. Mohamed Salem Ahmedou, Department of European Languages King AbdulAziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia mahmedou@yahoo.com Main Menu القائمة الرئيسية English/Question-Tags الأسئلة المذيلة Conditional “if” ”لو“ الشرطية Reported Speech الكلام المنقول Countries and Nationalities البلدان و الجنسيات English/ حروف الجر Example مثال in في The medicine is in the bottle. onعلى /

Ambiguity Management in Deep Grammar Engineering Tracy Holloway King.

packing to parse and manipulate the ambiguities efficiently Talk Outline Sources of ambiguity Grammar engineering approaches –Shallow markup –(Dis)preference marks Stochastic disambiguation Efficiency in ambiguity management Shallow markup Part of speech marking as filter I saw her duck/VB. –accuracy of tagger (v. good for English) –can use partial tagging (verbs and nouns) Named entities – Goldman, Sachs & Co. bought IBM. –good for proper/

University of AlbertaNov 30, 2006 Inversion Transduction Grammar with Linguistic Constraints Colin Cherry University of Alberta.

with virtually no loss in expressiveness (French-English) –Dependency cohesion constraints provide greater guidance, at the cost of some expressiveness University of AlbertaNov 30, 2006 47 Outline Bitext and Bitext Parsing Inversion Transduction Grammar (ITG) ITG with /weighting features on links (MacDonald 2005), but generalize without Part of Speech tags –Learn a weight for every word-pair seen in training thetaxcausesunrest University of AlbertaNov 30, 2006 64 Parsing Innovations To promote generalization/

GRS LX 700 Language Acquisition and Linguistic Theory

grammar by then… What is simpler about a “simple template”? Wh-subjects and wh-objects Is there a difference in the timing of emergence between subject wh-questions and object wh-questions? In English, there is an apparent difference in complexity (“distance” of movement, SAI). Early, early, early wh-questions/e.g., Polish) allow vowels, sonorants, but only voiceless obstruents. English allows all four types. Eckman (1981) Spanish L1 Mandarin L1 Gloss IL form Bob [b p] Tag [tæg ] Bobby [b bi] And [ænd ] Red /

English Grammar Module

English Grammar Module For English Camp (modest user group) Article 2 categories of article Indefinite article; a, an Definite article; the Indefinite Article - a, an For a /modal verb and a pronoun as the subject. Usually contract or shorten the negative form of the verb in a question tag. When you say something positive, use a negative question tag in order to get a yes answer. Positive statement Negative tag Expected response They like teddy bears, Don’t they? Yes When you say something positive, use /

Using corpora in contrastive studies Hilde Hasselgård University of Oslo.

patterns of word order etc. Faulty and less successful translations Tagging errors 27 > How can we retrieve the relevant constructions from the corpus? The answer depends on the research question and on the corpus, i.e. whether the corpus /21 éventuellement per millon words, a Norwegian corpus had c.154 eventuelt pmw.) 41 > Case study 2: grammar Presentative constructions in English and Norwegian (Ebeling 1999), see also Ebeling (1998). 1. Common basic formula: Dummy subjectPresentative verb’existent’Place /

Linguistics Essentials Instructor: Paul Tarau based on Rada Mihalcea’s original slides Note: most of the material in this slide set was adapted from an.

Grammar (CFG, Dependency Grammars, Link Grammars,...) formal description can be programmed & tested on data (texts) Slide 3 Levels of (Formal) Description 6 basic levels (more or less explicitly present in/ 30 The Categories: Negation, Degree of Comparison Negation: even in English: impossible (~ not possible) Cz: every verb, adjective, /. plural): -i- Slide 32 Categories & Tags Tagset: list of all possible combinations of category/In written text, starts with a capital letter Ends by period/question mark//

Linguistics Essentials Instructor: Rada Mihalcea Note: most of the material in this slide set was adapted from an NLP course taught by J. Hajic at Johns.

Grammar (CFG, Dependency Grammars, Link Grammars,...) formal description can be programmed & tested on data (texts) Slide 2 Levels of (Formal) Description 6 basic levels (more or less explicitly present in/ 28 The Categories: Negation, Degree of Comparison Negation: even in English: impossible (~ not possible) Cz: every verb, adjective, adverb/Fin. plural): -i- Slide 30 Categories & Tags Tagset: list of all possible combinations of category /In written text, starts with a capital letter Ends by period/question/

Unit 6.  Please take out your notes for your studies in GrammarGRAMMAR.

sentence? What are the three punctuation marks that are used to end sentences? Grammar Matters ------  Please take out your notes for your studies in GrammarGRAMMAR Critical Question The comma—the most versatile (and therefore confusing) punctuation mark in the English language.  The serial comma comes before the final conjunction in a list.  Whether to use a serial comma is a style decision.  Though not always necessary, it/

Warm-up Language in use Project Learning to learn Reading Culture tips homework致用英语综合教程 致用英语 综合教程 外语教学与研究出版社 1 Unit 3 Food Second edition.

! Where would I be without you? What’s the meaning of Jessie’s question tags? Task 1 Grammar Development : Tag questions haven’t I isn’t it am I didn’t I aren’t I Warm-up Language in use Project Learning to learn Reading Culture tips homework Grammar tips 反意疑问句的意思与说话人使用的语调有很大 关系。若降调,并不表示提问,而是一种会话策略, 使听话人认同自己的观点。若升调,表示对所说的 不太肯定,征求对方的意见。 Warm-up Language in use Project Learning to learn Reading Culture tips homework Task 2 Vocabulary Building: Suffixes/

1 Basic Parsing with Context- Free Grammars Slides adapted from Julia Hirschberg and Dan Jurafsky.

Key Constituents (English) Sentences Noun phrases Verb phrases Prepositional phrases 16 Sentence-Types Declaratives: I do not. S -> NP VP Imperatives: Go around again! S -> VP Yes-No Questions: Do you like my hat? S -> Aux NP VP WH Questions: What are they/ Parsing Algorithm – Bottom-up – Grammar must be in Normal Form – The parse tree might not be consistent with linguistic theory Early Parsing Algorithm – Top-down – Expectations about constituents are confirmed by input – A POS tag for a word that is not/


Apps that is created to make someone get the ease in learning English especially to master Grammar subject. It is also considered by its name that emphasizes the word grammar as we see prevhomenext advantagesdisadvantagesHow to useDefinition of app Computer operator (English grammar ultimate) Definition of application English Grammar Ultimate provides : Spoken English Tenses Question Tags Reported Speech Trial Questions Use of Let Use Of Little, A Little, Few, A Few Use/

Advance with English (module 1) Unit 3 Grammar & usage.

loss pills, which are often dangerous. 04 高考回放 The English play _______ my students acted at the New Year ’ s party was a great success. (2004, 全国卷 I) A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which There were dirty marks on her/ what D. that 5. Jim passed the driving test, _______ surprised everybody in the office. ( 2005 ,浙江卷) A. which B. that C. this D. it Homework Finish the given exercises on p48-49 U3 Grammar question tags (2nd period) question tags Do you say “ I love you ” to your parents, how do /

English Syntax Read J & M Chapter 9.. Two Kinds of Issues Linguistic – what are the facts about language? The rules of syntax (grammar) Algorithmic –

the furry tail purred. Why Do We Care about Syntax? Morphology POS Tagging Syntax Semantics Discourse Integration Generation goes backwards. For this reason, we generally / the Way Question answering: Lawyers whose clients committed fraud vs Lawyers who committed fraud vs Clients whose lawyers committed fraud Finding Constituents in Sentences A /from the infinite set of strings (  N)* 4.A designated start symbol S In our grammar of English:  is the set of POS, and N is the set of remaining constituent /

1 Copyright © 2013 Tata Consultancy Services Limited 9/30/2016 The Basics of Grammar.

verb + pronoun of subject 18 If the sentence does not have an auxiliary verb in it, then add “Do” to form the question tag. The school bus comes on time, doesn’t it? The boys like playing football, don’t they? Question Tags- Contd... 19 The Three Persons in English 20 The Three Persons- Possessive 21 Parts of Speech It refers to the classification of words according/

Constraint Grammar ESSLLI Tuesday: Lexicon, PoS, Morphology.

disadvantages: – depending on the language, bad coverage (heavily inflecting, agglutinating, compounding, polysynthetic languages... i.e. most languages but English and Chinese) – once made, it is difficult to adapt in systematic ways CG input ➢ (4) Statistical tagger: Brill-tagger, DTT,... cheap solution, IF the language in question has training data depends heavily on the training data – lexical gaps? – missing morphology? (i.e. just PoS) – black/

1 Developing a German grammar for analysis and generation using OpenCCG Ciprian Gerstenberger University of Saarland IGK Colloquium January 13th 2005.

for German, but grammars for English freely available documentation support 14 NLP environments: The Choice OpenCCG Java-based NLP library platform independent analysis and generation uniform grammar resources multi-lingual extendable used and in use in several other projects: / Chili Peppers! 26 Clause types (cont.) Verb-second clauses main declarative: Der Titel wurde hinzugefügt. wh-question: Welcher Künstler spielt Missunderstood? 27 Clause types (cont.) Verb-final clauses subordinate clause: Wenn Sie m/

On the Nature of Word Classes in Chinese K.K. Luke Nanyang Technological University.

(Confucian Analects) – Psychology of the linguist Fear: that Chinese might be regarded as an inferior language without grammar if it turns out that words cannot be assigned to fixed word classes. ( ) W. von Humboldt (1826/question whats its word class? is a misleading question. Unnecessary worries Scanty inflectional morphology – Syntactic position more important Flexibility – Languages probably all flexible each in its own ways No word classes does not make Chinese an inferior language Flexibility English/

1 Jason EisnerNoah A. Smith Johns HopkinsCarnegie Mellon TeachCL ACL – June 20, 2008 Competitive Grammar Writing VP.

grammar of English Here’s one to start with. S1 NPVP. DetN’ Noun everycastle drinks [[Arthur [across the [coconut in /grammar 14 questions, movement, (free) relatives, clefts, agreement, subcat frames, conjunctions, auxiliaries, gerunds, sentential subjects, appositives … Development set You might want your grammar/taggings  Evaluation (sort of) Annotation, precision, recall, cross-entropy, … Manual parameter tuning  Why learning would be valuable, alongside expert knowledge http://www.clsp.jhu.edu/grammar/

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