Ppt on pulse code modulation system

Applied Telecommunications Systems and Technologies Professor Michael Khader Tel 973-596-6078 Office: ITC 2106 Office Hours:

all the information of the original signal (Proof - Stallings appendix 4A) Voice data limited to below 4000Hz Require 8000 sample per second Analog samples (Pulse Amplitude Modulation, PAM) Each sample assigned digital value Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) (2) 4 bit system gives 16 levels Quantized Quantizing error or noise Approximations mean it is impossible to recover original exactly 8 bit sample gives 256 levels Quality comparable/

ITGD3101Modern Telecommunications Lecture-1- Pulse Code Modulation week 1- S1/ 2009-2010 Dr. Anwar Mousa University of Palestine Faculty of Information.

-2010 Dr. Anwar Mousa University of Palestine Faculty of Information Technology 2 DATETOPICS Week 1  Course description-Sampling Theorem Week 2  Pulse Code Modulation Week 3  Pulse Code Modulation Week 4  Principles of Data transmission- Digital communications systems Week 5  Line coding Week 6  Line coding Week 7  Pulse shaping Week 8  Mid-Term Exam Week 9  Detection-Error Probability Week 10  M-ary communications Week 11  Optimum Threshold Detection/

Chapter 3: Delta Modulation Digital Communication Systems 2012 R.Sokullu1/45 CHAPTER 3 DELTA MODULATION.

made to vary with the input signal (3.16) Chapter 3: Delta Modulation Digital Communication Systems 2012 R.Sokullu17/45 Outline 3.12 Delta Modulation Delta Sigma Modulation 3.13 Linear Prediction 3.14 Differential Pulse Code Modulation 3.15 Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation Chapter 3: Delta Modulation Digital Communication Systems 2012 R.Sokullu18/45 Delta Sigma Modulation Conventional delta modulation - Quantizer input is an approximation of the derivative of the input message/

Doc.: IEEE 802.22-05/0107r3 Submission January 2006 Soo-Young Chang & Jianwei Zhang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 1 WAVEFORM MODULATED WRAN SYSTEM IEEE P802.22.

Huawei TechnologiesSlide 19 OVERVIW OF THE SYSTEM CONCEPTS doc.: IEEE 802.22-05/0107r3 Submission January 2006 Soo-Young Chang & Jianwei Zhang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 20 KEY COMPONENTS Modulation Source coding Channel coding/error control –FEC and ARQ / Soo-Young Chang & Jianwei Zhang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 82 WHY THIS PROPOSAL? Very simple concepts / architecture –Directly generated pulse waveforms using ROMs –Processing in digital methods No need to have analog devices (e.g., mixer, LO, integrator,/

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [ WAVEFORM MODULATED LOW RATE UWB SYSTEM - Proposal for.

-Young Chang, CSUSSlide 1Submission Jan. 2005 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0028-01-004a WAVEFORM MODULATED LOW RATE UWB SYSTEM - Proposal for 15.4a alt PHY- Soo-Young Chang California State University, Sacramento Jan. / TRANSMITTER STRUCTURE Simple structure with impulse radio concept –FEC encoder –Interleaver –Pulse generator –Modulator –Antenna Data manipulator modulator Pulse generator Data in antenna Source coding Channel coding interleaving This part can be realized using digital processing Jan. 2005 Soo-Young/

Doc.: IEEE 802.22-05/0107r2 Submission January 2006 Soo-Young Chang & Jianwei Zhang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 1 WAVEFORM MODULATED WRAN SYSTEM IEEE P802.22.

TechnologiesSlide 13 OVERVIW OF THE SYSTEM CONCEPTS doc.: IEEE 802.22-05/0107r2 Submission January 2006 Soo-Young Chang & Jianwei Zhang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 14 KEY COMPONENTS Modulation Source coding Channel coding/error control –FEC and ARQ/ Submission January 2006 Soo-Young Chang & Jianwei Zhang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 52 NTSC HORIZONTAL BLANKING SIGNAL AND SYNCHRONIZATION PULSE Conventional Analog Television - An Introduction doc.: IEEE 802.22-05/0107r2 Submission January 2006 Soo-Young Chang/

ULTRA WIDEBAND Soo-Young Chang. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Mathematical backgrounds Channel characteristics Optimal baseband waveforms Modulation.

full exploitation of allowed power: Interference suppression Technique which adaptively suppress interference from other systems CHALLENGES IN TECHNICAL AREAS Susceptible to being unintentionally jammed by traditional narrowband transmitter Filter matching/ to multipath Scalability UWB PHY LAYER COMPONENTS Transmitter Source coding / channel coding Pulse generation Code sequence generation for multiple access Modulation Power control Antenna Receiver Low noise amplifier Synchronization detection Demodulation/

Principles of Electronic Communication Systems

Chapter 8 Digital Transmission of Data Data Conversion Parallel and Serial Transmission Pulse-Code Modulation Pulse Modulation Digital Signal Processing Digital Transmission of Data Data refers to information to /code word are transferred simultaneously Data transfers in communication systems are made serially; each bit of a word is transmitted one after another. Pulse-Code Modulation The most widely used technique for digitizing information signals for electronic data transmission is pulse-code modulation/

S Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr)

S-72.245 Transmission Methods in Telecommunication Systems (4 cr) Sampling and Pulse Coded Modulation Sampling and Pulse Coded Modulation History Encoding types Standards Modules in PCM-link Sampling and reconstruction Time and frequency domain Idea sampling Chopper sampling Aliasing Quantization PCM vrs analog modulation Repeaters and line coding PMC encoding and decoding circuits Digital hierarchies: PDH (plesiochronous digital hierarchy) T1/E1 TDM: Time Division Multiplexing FDM: Frequency Division /

Jan-01HERAB-FCS1 Hera-B Fast Control System G. Hochweller G. Delfs P. Gasiorek.

Master Fiber TX Fiber TX Fiber RX Fiber RX Daughter System Overview VME Crate Backplane Optical Fiber Links 8 10 8 Twisted Pair (2x30 ) Jan-01HERAB-FCS3 front panel signals Master Module VME interface, registers FLT interface FLT inhibit logic event reordering/input conn BXP offset strobe pattern 8 bits3 bits addr code conn (diff.) (23) BXP ERR data (20) CLU (6) DAU (6) test pulse delay test pulse trigger offset TEST-PULSE ERR_128 HIT Jan-01HERAB-FCS20 Daughter Module, address decoding OR B A A = B DAUGHTER /

EC 723 Satellite Communication Systems

Modulation Concept Analog Communication Digital Communication Digital Modulation Schemes EFFECT OF FILTERING - 1 Fig. 5.8 in text EFFECT OF FILTERING - 2 Rectangular pulses (i.e. infinite rise and fall times of the pulse edges) need an infinite bandwidth to retain the rectangular shape Communications systems/ QPSK The BER is still the probability of choosing the wrong signal state (symbol now) Because the signal is Gray coded (00 is next to 01 and 10 for instance but not 11) the BER for QPSK is that for BPSK/

Pulse Width Modulation A Student Presentation By: Wayne Maxwell Martin Cacan Christopher Haile.

region can excite the system! A PWM frequency is rejected by the system 30 Choosing a PWM frequency Response of 2nd order system Input PWM Signal Christopher Haile Presents Introduction and Background Applicable Definitions  Pulse Width Modulation  Duty Cycle Advantages// shutdown PWM5IN (Input Status): Reflects status of pin 5 PWM5INL: Determines active level of pin 5 Assembly Code PWME EQU$00E0 PWMPOLEQU$00E1 PWMCLKEQU$00E2 PWMPRCLKEQU$00E3 PWMCAE EQU$00E4 PWMCTL EQU $00E5 PWMPER1EQU $00F3 PWMDTY1EQU/

Chapter 7. Analog to Digital Conversion Essentials of Communication Systems Engineering John G. Proakis and Masoud Salehi.

, EE dept., Sejong Univ., Seoul, Korea: http://dasan.sejong.ac.kr/~ojkwon/19 7.4.1 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Pulse code modulation is the simplest and oldest waveform coding scheme. A pulse code modulator consists of three basic sections: a sampler, a quantizer and an encoder. A functional block diagram of a PCM system is shown in Figure 7.7. In PCM, we make the following assumptions: 1. The waveform/

CSE4214 Digital Communications Chapter 2 Formatting and Baseband Modulation.

Sample and Hold Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) In pulse modulation, some parameter of a pulse train is varied in accordance with the sample values of a message signal. Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) Amplitudes of regularly spaced pulses are varied. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) Widths of the individual pulses are varied. Pulse-position modulation (PPM) Position of a pulse relative to its original of occurrence is varied. Pulse modulation techniques are still analog modulation. For digital communications/

KyungHee University Chapter 2 Digital Communication 1 Chapter 2: Formatting and Baseband Modulation.

x[n] Quantization : Continuous amplitude  Discrete amplitude Pulse coding : Map the quantized signal to binary digits When data compression is employed in addition to formatting, the process is termed as a source coding. Baseband Signaling: Pulse modulation Convert binary digits to pulse waveforms These waveforms can be transmitted over cable. KyungHee University Chapter 2 Digital Communication 1 Baseband Systems KyungHee University Chapter 2 Digital Communication 1 Formatting/

Chapter Seven: Digital Communication. Introduction Many signals in modern communication systems are digital Additionally, analog signals are transmitted.

Another analog pulse-forming technique is known as pulse-duration modulation (PDM). This is also known as pulse-width modulation (PWM) Pulse-position modulation is closely related to PDM Analog Pulse-Modulation Techniques Pulse-Code Modulation Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM) is the most commonly used digital modulation scheme In /they were obtained to be reconstructed The overall bit rate is 1.544 Mb/s The whole system is known as a T1 Carrier Digital Signal Hierarchy Coax, fiber-optic 274.1764032DS-4T4 Fiber /

Aegis School of Telecommunication www.aegisedu.org/telecomsystemsI.htm Telecom Systems I by Dr. M. G. Sharma, Phd. IIT Kharagpur Microwaves and Antennas.

the original signal —(Proof - Stallings appendix 4A) Voice data limited to below 4000Hz Require 8000 sample per second Analog samples (Pulse Amplitude Modulation, PAM) Each sample assigned digital value Aegis School of Telecommunication www.aegisedu.org/telecomsystemsI.htm Pulse Code Modulation(PCM) (2) 4 bit system gives 16 levels Quantized —Quantizing error or noise —Approximations mean it is impossible to recover original exactly 8 bit sample/

Pulses, Receiver Responses and Ambiguity Functions: How the observing technique affects the data Ian McCrea.

addition to providing the run-time user interface, EROS handles all ”slow” (> seconds) timing in the system: –loads and configures microscale-timing HW, –schedules, starts, stops and changes experiments, –controls antenna pointing/pulse codes, the modulation bandwidth is much wider than the ion line spectrum. Pulse Length (μs)Modulation BW (kHz)Potential Use 2.0250.0Alt. Code (D/E region) 4.0125.0Alt Code (D/E region) 10.0 50.0Alternating or Barker Code 100.0 5.0Long Pulse (low F region) 300.0 1.7Long Pulse/

Physical Layer Overview of physical layer Channel limitation Modulation/demodulation.

pulse 4 bits / pulse 4W bits per second AkAk BkBk 4 “levels”/ pulse 2 bits / pulse 2W bits per second 2-D signal Figure 3.33 QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Analog Modulation Analog to Digital Sampling Theorem Quantization Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM) Differentially coded Modulation (e.g., Delta Modulation/CATV Long distance telephone transmission: can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously Short distance computer systems links, LAN Higher BW and high date rate Heavy, not flexible, optical fibers /

Some charts from Stallings, modified and added to1 Communications Systems, Signals, and Modulation Session 3 Nilesh Jha.

Pulse Code Modulation Based on the sampling theorem Each analog sample is assigned a binary code Analog samples are referred to as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) samples The digital signal consists of block of n bits, where each n-bit number is the amplitude of a PCM pulse Pulse Code Modulation By quantizing the PAM pulse/division duplex If two frequencies, or frequency bands, are separate enough, no cross interference Cellular systems are all FDD It’s clean and easy to do, good performance, but it limits /

DIGITAL MODULATIONS. ©2000 Bijan Mobasseri2 Why digital modulation? l If our goal was to design a digital baseband communication system. We have done.

system. We have done that l Problem is baseband communication won’t takes us far, literally and figuratively l Digital modulation to a square pulse is what analog modulation was to messages ©2000 Bijan Mobasseri3 A block diagram Messsage source Source coder Line coder Pulse shaping demodulatordetector channel modulator/ logic l Detecting a differentially encoded signal is based on the comparison of two adjacent bits l If two coded bits are the same, that means data bit must have been a 1, otherwise 0 ? ? ? /

1 □Basic scheme of PCM system □Quantization □Quantization Error □Companding □Block diagram & function of TDM-PCM communication system.

step size.  The quantization error = the quantization noise = ½ quantum = (orig. sample voltage – quantize level)  PCM code = (sample voltage/resolution) Cont’d… 11 □A difference between the exact value of the analog signal & the nearest quantization /sources to provide general purpose communication system) 45 Digital Modulation □Using Digital Signals to Transmit Digital Data □Bits must be changed to digital signal for transmission □Unipolar encoding □Positive or negative pulse used for zero or one □Polar/

ECE 4710: Lecture #8 1 Pulse Code ModulationPulse Code Modulation (PCM) : method for conversion from analog to digital waveform  Instantaneous samples.

introduces error  Discrete value is closest value to actual amplitude  “Quantizing” or “Roundoff” error ECE 4710: Lecture #8 2 Pulse Code Modulation  Widely used for digital landline telephony  Advantages  Simple and inexpensive digital circuits can be used  Multiple types of data (/value  Error will be one-half of quantization step size »Quantization error  Even if 1)No channel noise 2)No system noise 3)Sampling at f s  2 B  Quantization error cannot be fixed ECE 4710: Lecture #8 7 Quantization /

A Capacity-Based Approach for Designing Bit-Interleaved Coded GFSK with Noncoherent Detection Rohit Iyer Seshadri and Matthew C. Valenti Lane Dept. of.

following modulation parameters –Modulation order M –Type and width of the pulse shape –Modulation index h Different combination of these parameters result in different spectral characteristics and signal bandwidths 7/12/2006 4/24 Challenges CPM includes an almost infinite variations on the modulated signal –Full response, partial response, GFSK, REC, RC etc.. CPM is nonlinear –Problem of finding realistic performance bounds for coded CPM systems is/

4.6 Correlative-Level Coding By adding ISI to the transmitted signal in a controlled manner, it is possible to achieve a signaling rate equal to the Nyquist.

realizable and perturbation- tolerant filters. DUOBINARY SIGNALING Duobinary signaling implies doubling the transmission capacity in a straight binary system. This particular form of correlative-level coding is also called class I partial response. Consider a binary input sequence {b k } applied to a pulse-amplitude modulator toproduce a two-level sequence {a k } : +1 if symbol b k is 1 a k = { (4.65/

SERIAL PERIPHERAL INTERFACE Razvan Bogdan Embedded Systems.

Systems Content  What is Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)?  The HCS12 SPI Modules  SPI Related Registers  The I 2 C Protocol  An Overview of the HCS12 I2C Module/,SPTEF,*; wait until write operation is permissible staaSPI0DR; trigger eight clock pulses for SPI transfer brclrSPI0SR,SPIF,*; wait until a byte has been shifted/#$92 jsrsendSlaveID brclrIBSR,RXAK,openOK0 ; did DS1631A acknowledge? ldab#$FF; return error code -1 rts openOK0movb#$AC,IBDR; send the "Access Config" command brclrIBSR,IBIF/

Doc.: IEEE 802.22-05/0107r0 Submission Nov. 2005 Soo-Young Chang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 1 WAVEFORM MODULATED WRAN SYSTEM IEEE P802.22 Wireless RANs.

Chang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 2 Abstract In this proposal, a set of waveforms are suggested for WRAN systems. In this system, one TV channel frequency band is divided into subbands and each subband has its own waveform. /05/0107r0 Submission Nov. 2005 Soo-Young Chang, Huawei TechnologiesSlide 5 KEY CONSIDERATIONS Modulation Source coding Channel coding/error control –FEC and ARQ Interleaving Pulse generation Antenna Multiple access Synchronization LNA Message relaying: repeaters Sensing of incumbent user /


movement of the buggy as shown by the flowchart opposite. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 For...Next Loops A for...next loop is used when you wish to repeat a section of code a number of times. The number of times the program runs for/two main methods by which a microcontroller can control the speed of a DC motor: Digital to Analogue Conversion (DAC) Pulse Width Modulation Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Digital to Analogue Conversion The simplest way to control the speed of a DC motor is to vary the voltage/

EACO News Magazine 2010 September. 2010-09: Topics DVM Plus III up compatibility New control devices –MIM-B16 –MIM-B17 –MIM-B18 How to change option code.

Module System DVM Plus III + DVM Plus III up NO! Opto-isolated Interface with pulse-type watt hour meters for electricity billing system Max. 8 watt hour meters per interface module Total 8 WHM interface module per DMS1/DMS2 Pulse coefficient setting: 1Wh/pulse ~ 1000Wh/pulse Pulse / 4.Press the On/Off power button to change the option code. 11 Initial display 24-bit option code setting How to change option code with MR-CH01 (2) 12 24-bit option code setting Example : 027402 – 14221A – 200001 - 300000 4./

Planned GPS Civil Signals and Their Benefits to the Civil Community Dr

, future P(Y) 10.23 L1 and L2 Repeats once/week L5 10.23 1176.45 (L5) 2 codes per SV, future M 5.115 L1 and L2 code modulated by 10.23 MHz square wave, future Signal Power Spectra -6 x 10 1 0.8 C/A or /and at low altitudes, no modifications to existing systems appear necessary At high altitudes, many emitters are visible Some changes to existing environment deemed necessary in a few regions of the world DME/TACAN and JTIDS/MIDS are primary contributors to pulse environment U.S. intends to solve high altitude/

Feasibility of Increasing Loran Data Capacity using a Modulated Tenth Pulse Benjamin Peterson Peterson Integrated Geopositioning International Loran Association.

Meeting, Anaheim, CA, January 2000. Confidence in CCIR noise predictions 32 dB If a modulated pulses are added, should there be two parallel 24 GRI/epoch channels or one 12 GRI/epoch/–12 bits, update probably ~ 60 sec Long Term Corrections –Velocity code = 0, 51-54 bits per satellite, update 120 sec –Velocity code = 1, 103-105 bits per satellite, update 120 sec Degradation /910 to 511s C er 60.50 to 31.5m RSS UDRE 1-0 to 1discrete System Latency (t lat ) 410 to 15s Degrad factor indicator (ai i ) 410 to/

Carriers and Modulation

Continuous, Infinite Frequency Rep: s(t)=1 from –X/2 to X/2 Data Rate and Bandwidth Any transmission system has a limited band of frequencies This limits the data rate that can be carried Spectrum range of frequencies contained in/ error and improve the quality of the PAM signal. Increase the number of amplitude levels Sample more frequently (oversampling). Pulse Code Modulation Pulse Code Modulation is the most commonly used technique in the PAM family and uses a sampling rate of 8000 samples per second. /

Simplified Radar Block Diagram

4. Coherence is required from pulse to pulse for second-time-around clutter cancellation, etc. 5. Coded or shaped pulses are required 5. Coded or shaped pulses are required. A range of only a few decibels of pulse shaping is feasible with a magnetron,/ with changes in anode current is called its pushing figure and the resulting pulse-to-pulse and intra-pulse frequency changes must be kept within system requirements by proper modulator design. 8. Pulling: The amount by which a magnetrons frequency varies as/

12.540 Principles of the Global Positioning System Lecture 06 Prof. Thomas Herring Room 54-820A; 253-5941

overall sign of the code can be changed to allow data to transmitted on the signal as well In the next class we look at these details 02/25/1312.540 Lec 0629 Summary of Lecture 6 Examine the methods used to measure range with propagating EM waves Pulsed systems and phase systems GPS is a merger of the two methods Modulation theorem and phasor/

Modulation Techniques 1. Introduction A digital signal is superior to an analog signal because it is more robust to noise and can easily be recovered,

signal to digital data. In this section we describe two techniques, pulse code modulation and delta modulation… 2 Topics discussed in this section:  Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)  Delta Modulation (DM) 3 4 Pcm INTRODUCTION TO PCM PCM consists of three /called time-division multiplexing (TDM) and is widely used, notably in the modern public telephone system.sine wavex-axisbinary numbersnibblesdigital signal processormultiplexeddata streamtime-division multiplexing The PCM process is commonly implemented on a/

4.2 Digital Transmission Outlines □ Pulse Modulation (Part 2.1) □ Pulse Code Modulation (Part 2.2) □ Delta Modulation (Part 2.3) □ Line Codes (Part 2.4)

Pulse Modulation (Part 2.1) □ Pulse Code Modulation (Part 2.2) □ Delta Modulation (Part 2.3) □ Line Codes (Part 2.4) □Sampling analog information signal □Converting samples into discrete pulses □Transport the pulses from source to destination over physical transmission medium. Cont’d... □Four (4) Methods 1. PAM 2.PWM 3.PPM 4.PCM Analog Pulse Modulation Digital Pulse Modulation Cont’d... □Analog Pulse Modulation □Carrier signal is pulse waveform and the modulated/rate in the pulse modulation system equal to /

Inductive Logic Baseband Signaling and Modulation Eric L. Michelsen Part 1 of a 2-part presentation Part 1: Baseband Signaling.

distance Inductive Logic 1/8/200319 A Modern Line Code ABCDEFGHIJKLMABCDEFGHIJKLM Interesting history of pen and paper NOPQRSTUVWXYZNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Binary signaling (on and off, not dits and dahs) Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Return to zero coded (RTZ, vs. NRZ or NRZI) Variable rate / f A Inductive Logic 1/8/200331 Why Cosine Waves? Cosines are the only basis functions (aka eigenfunctions) of Time Invariant Linear SystemsSystem: produces output from input  Linear: if I a  O a, then kI a  kO a and if I b /

ITGD3101Modern Telecommunications Lecture-5- Pulse Code Modulation week 5- q-2/ 2008 Dr. Anwar Mousa University of Palestine Faculty of Information Technology.

Contents Sampling theorem Quantization Pulse Code Modulation 02-02-2008UP-Copyrights reserved3 Aperiodic signal representation by Fourier Transform 02-02-2008UP-Copyrights reserved4 02-02-2008UP-Copyrights reserved5 6 Today, we are going to talk about: The first important step in any DCS: Transforming the information source to a form compatible with a digital system UP-Copyrights reserved7 Encode Transmit Pulse modulate SampleQuantize Demodulate/ Detect Channel/

Fundamentals of Digital Communication 2 Digital communication system Low Pass Filter SamplerQuantizer Channel Encoder Line Encoder Pulse Shaping Filters.

To convert analog data into a digital signal, there are two basic techniques: Pulse code modulation (used by telephone systems) Delta modulation 14 Pulse Code Modulation Analog waveform is sampled at specific intervals “Snapshots” are converted to binary values 15 Pulse Code Modulation (continued) Binary values are later converted to an analog signal Waveform similar to original results 16 Pulse Code Modulation (continued) The more snapshots taken in the same amount of time, or/

20/4/00 p. 1 Postacademic Course on Telecommunications Module-3 Transmission Marc Moonen Lecture-1 Introduction K.U.Leuven/ESAT-SISTA Module-3 : Transmission.

. Nyquist criterion), - each sample converted into 8 bits number-> 64kbits/sec =PCM (pulse code modulation) Postacademic Course on Telecommunications 20/4/00 p. 17 Module-3 Transmission Marc Moonen Lecture-1 Introduction K.U.Leuven-ESAT/SISTA Analog vs. Digital Communication (III) Digital Communication What? A principle feature of a digital communication system is that during a finite interval of time, it sends a waveform/

Slide 1 Digital Communications Aspects of Physical Layer Radio Systems Michael Fitz

systems use the idea of time orthogonality and stream bits in time Slide 65 Where Are We With Respect to Shannon? With linear complexity we can now achieve Slide 66 Can we get closer to Shannon? Orthogonal modulations Orthogonal modulations with memory Slide 67 Example Modulations with Memory Error control codes Line codes (spectral shaping) Convolutional codes Trellis coded modulation Turbo codes Low density parity check codes Continuous phase modulation//frequency/code index –Noise is white if pulse shape /

Modulation and Multiplexing How to send data fast and far? 2-Values & Multi-Values Encoding, and Baud Rate & Bit Rate Nyquist Theorem – Relationship between.

Theorem – Relationship between Speed & Noise Digital Encoding Carrier, Modulation, Demodulation and Modem - Digital Modulations: FSK, ASK, PSK, QAM Multiplexing and Demultiplexing - FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) - TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) - WDM (Wave Division Multiplexing) - CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) Lecture 2 Increase Digital Signal Transmission Speed Encoder Sender t Transmission System/Channel Decoder Receiver 2T0 5T 4T3TT6T Pulse (2-values) M=2, interval=T 0 1/

12004 MAPLDVHDL Synthesis Introduction VHDL Synthesis for High-Reliability Systems (Vol. 2 of 2) 2004 MAPLD International Conference Washington, D.C. September.

Systems (Vol. 2 of 2) 2004 MAPLD International Conference Washington, D.C. September 7, 2004 22004 MAPLDVHDL Synthesis Introduction Synthesis Issues Demonstrated with a Simple Finite State Machine Using Gray Codes 32004 MAPLDVHDL Synthesis Introduction Gray Codes “This is rookie stuff, so I can duck out of this module/oscillator may be during the turn-on transient. Examples shows include runt pulses of various sizes and polarities. http://klabs.org/richcontent/General_Application_Notes/oscillator//

0 1 2 3 t x(t) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Consider the analog Signal x(t).

number of quantization levels is increased the quantization error is reduced and the quantized signal gets closer and closer to the original signal Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) PCM System Block Diagram Sample & HoldComparator Ramp Generator Binary Counter Parallel to Serial Converter All pulses have same height and width. f(t) PCM of Speech Signals (very-important) Most of the significant spectral components of speech signals/

Speech Coding Submitted To: Dr. Mohab Mangoud Submitted By: Nidal Ismail.

to good quality for medium bit- rate. 2. Different Coding Techniques Coding Standards Outline 1.Introduction  Overview of Speech Coding  Properties of a Speech Coder  Modeling the Speech Production System  Linear Prediction 2.Different Coding Techniques  Waveform Coders  Parametric Coders  Hybrid Coders  Coding Standards 3.PCM & DPCM 4.Linear Predictive Coding 5.Conclusion 6.References 3. PCM & DPCM Pulse Code Modulation  Invented 1926, deployed 1962.  Basic idea: assign smaller quantization/

Stephanie Allison LCLS Controls Software Meeting Dec 6, 2007 How To Set Up for the Event System on an IOC with an EVR(s) Assumes.

Add LCLS conditions such as BPM calibration on off-beam pulses, diagnostic pulse etc. Future – event codes also based on new MPS and user input Send out system timestamp with encoded pulse ID from PNET Send out PNET pattern to be used /also provide generalTime records. All apps (including EVG IOC) should load this one. Use evrPatternAll.db from the event module. Matching displays = tools/edm/display/event/evrPatternDiags.edl and tools/edm/display/event/generalTime.edl Stephanie Allison LCLS Controls /

DEPT OF MODERN PHYSICS, USTC Electronics System of MC 2002.6.5 IHEP, Beijing ___________________________________________ Muon Group, USTC, Hefei.

2 kHz (probability is 2x10 -5 ) Output pulse of “OR” gate is pulse of bank 1 or pulse of bank 2 Pulse of bank 1 will be saved into FIFO if trigger corresponding to it coming/pulse of bank 2 will be saved if trigger corresponding to/its original parallel codes in decoding chip Turn back to Elec. System DEPT OF MODERN PHYSICS, USTC Configure of MC Electronics system FEC in Detector Ex-Box off Detector VME Crate in Contr Room VME Readout module DEPT OF MODERN PHYSICS, USTC VME Readout Module Chain Event Buffer/


frequencies between 600 MHz and 5 GHz. The pulse-to-pulse intervals are between 25 and 1000 nanoseconds The system uses a modulation technique called pulse position modulation The TM–UWB transmitter emits ultra-short monocycle wavelets with tightly controlled pulse-to-pulse intervals, These are varied on a pulse-by-pulse basis in accordance with an information signal and a channel code. The modulation makes the signal less detectable, as the/

EE 551/451, Fall, 2006 Communication Systems Zhu Han Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Class 13 Oct. 3 rd, 2006.

not until about the middle of 1943 that the Bell Labs people became aware of the use of PCM binary coding as already proposed by Alec Reeves.Bell Labs EE 541/451 Fall 2006 Figure The basic elements of a PCM system. Pulse Code Modulation EE 541/451 Fall 2006 Encoding EE 541/451 Fall 2006 Advantages of PCM 1. Robustness to noise and interference/

Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 1.1 Engineering Systems  Introduction  Systems  Electrical and Electronic.

directly –some sensors give velocity directly  e.g. measuring frequency of pulses in the counting techniques described earlier gives speed rather than position –some /etc. Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 1.234 Numeric and Alphabetic Codes  Binary-coded decimal code –formed by converting each digit/Storey: Electrical & Electronic Systems © Pearson Education Limited 2004 OHT 1.543  Signal rectifier –used to demodulate full amplitude modulated signals (full-AM) –/

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