Ppt on principles of object-oriented programming

Semester 5 Class College of Engineering and Computer Science University of Somalia Mohamed Adam Isak M.Sc. And B.Sc. of Information Technology Engineering.

crisis’. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, a variety of new software engineering techniques and methods were developed, such as structured programming, information hiding and object- oriented development. Tools and standard notations were developed and are/ THE PRINCIPLES OF AGILE METHODS 94 PrincipleDescription Customer involvementCustomers should be closely involved throughout the development process. Their role is provide and prioritize new system requirements and to evaluate the iterations of the system/


11. Chapter 11: The Object-Oriented Approach to Design: Use Case Realization Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition.

) and final system (constructed in programming language) u Systems design is driven by use cases, design class diagrams, and sequence diagrams l Domain class diagrams are transformed into design class diagrams l Sequence diagrams are extensions of system sequence diagrams (SSDs) 11 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition 67 Summary ( continued ) u Object-oriented design principles must be applied l Encapsulation/


Object-Oriented Technology and Development Computer Science Department, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University.

state and serve as the primary mechanism for object-to-object communication. Hiding internal state and requiring all interaction to be performed through an objects methods is known as data encapsulation — a fundamental principle of object-oriented programming Benefits of Object Concepts  Modularity: The source code for an object can be written and maintained independently of the source code for other objects. Once created, an object can be easily passed around inside the system/


THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF IT Prof. Witold Chmielarz, PhD Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw.

to breaking down the tasks into smaller programming elements (i.e. the functional decomposition ), which can be expressed by means of simple algorithms, supplemented with the description of auxiliary operations Designing of software structure can be carried out by means of a structured or object-oriented approach In the structural approach we distinguish two methods:  bottom-up design - the realization of the principle of from specific to general’: at the/


Eiffel in Depth Bertrand Meyer With material by Emmanuel Stapf (Eiffel Software) & members of the ETH Chair of Software Engineering Chair of Software.

Eiffel: Method, Language, Environment Method : Applicable throughout the lifecycle Object-oriented to the core Seamless development Based on Design by Contract principles Language : Full power of object technology Simple yet powerful, numerous original features ISO standard (2006) /(as cited in Object-Oriented Software Construction, 2 nd edition): I say a big NO ! Leaving an unreferenced object around is BAD PROGRAMMING. Object pointers ARE like ordinary pointers if you allocate an object you should be /


L E A D E R S H I P.

with the principle of chain of command, bureaucracy, vertical control and coordination, levels differentiated by function & authority & downward communications - has authority for direct supervision of employees 2. Staff organization -assists the line in accomplishing the primary objectives of the unit - provides advice and counsel - includes clerical, personnel, budgeting & finance, staff development, research & specialized clinical consulting 3. Free –Form/ Matrix - super imposes a horizontal program over/


Draft Guiding Principles June 2012.

objectives. 18 City of Houston Guiding Principles - “Setting the Right Course” INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE/ COORDINATED PROGRAMS Parking Information Clearinghouse & Coordination of On-Street, Off-Street Programs The Master Parking Plan Program will take a lead role in parking and transportation program/ to give a true accounting of parking finances. Parking management strategies and programs should provide an integrated, action-oriented and accountable system of access that supports, facilitates and/


Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition

tasks required in a systems development effort Encourage adherence to SDLC Upper-CASE tools: CASE tools that focus on activities associated with the early stages of systems development Principles of Information Systems, Tenth Edition Object-Oriented Systems Development Combines logic of systems development life cycle with power of object-oriented modeling and programming OOSD tasks: Identifying potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO approach Defining what kind/


Business Ethics: A New Style of Management and Investment

of programs to meet objectives & targets, checking & corrective action, and management review. Why is the concern? May become a contractual requirement of customers in both the U.S. and the EC. It is a continuation of the ISO-9000, may eventually become a requirement for obtaining ISO-9001 recertification. It is a logical next step because it is very similar to ISO-9001 and the principles of/


AOT Lab Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione Università degli Studi di Parma From Distributed Objects to Multi-Agent Systems: Evolution of Middleware.

closed for use but open for extension.  Single Choice Principle (SCP).  Whenever there is a list of alternatives, at most one module can access it.  The two principles above require Object-Orientation.  OCP requires (implementation) inheritance.  SCP requires (inclusion) polymorphism. DS Seminar – Cesena, March 5 th, 200317 of 127 OOP Concept (1) The fundamental concept of object-oriented programming is: The Object The Class DS Seminar – Cesena, March 5 th, 200318/


TRAIN THE SAFETY TRAINER

programs, or experience related to their subject matter expertise & delivery skills. The trainer shall apply adult learning principles appropriate to the target audience and the learning objectives. ______________________________________________________________________ OSHA Guidelines for Instructor Competency Instructors should be deemed competent on the basis of previous documented experience in their area of/_________ Trainer certification. I have conducted orientation/on-the-job training to the employees/


Modern Philosophy since the Pre-Enlightenment

of experience (in anticipation of Kant’s postulation of space & time as apriori organizing principles of experience intrinsic to the mind but the result of experience acquired by succeeding generations of humans over biological history). Berkeley’s fallacy of “necessity” of sensibility ("x)((Ox & Sx)  Sx) or [Ox: “x is an object/ philosophy in pursuit of Hilbert’s 19th century Erlangen Program to apply the methods & tools of axiomatic mathematics to the construction of philosophical, including metaphysical/


Information Technology Education Standards Jaime D.L. Caro, Ph.D. President, PSITE Project Leader, VCTI-IT Associate Professor of Computer Science, UP.

; hashing; binary search trees Digital logic and digital systems: Logic gates; logic expressions 69 Other Topics in Introductory Courses Object-oriented programming: Object-oriented design; encapsulation and information-hiding; separation of behavior and implementation; classes, subclasses, and inheritance; polymorphism; class hierarchies Software design: Fundamental design concepts and principles; object-oriented analysis and design; design for reuse 70 Other Topics in Introductory Courses Using APIs: API/


Architecting and Designing Software

of Design Definition: Design is a problem-solving process whose objective is to find and describe a way: To implement the system’s functional requirements... While respecting the constraints imposed by the quality, platform and process requirements... including the budget And while adhering to general principles of/are performed during the same phase of the execution of the program are kept together, and everything else/ one routine (or method in an object oriented system) calls another The routines are /


Svet Brainov University at Buffalo 210 Bell Hall Buffalo, NY 14260 SAC 2002 Tutorial Henry Hexmoor Henry Hexmoor University of Arkansas Engineering Hall,

. Multiagents: Formal and Economic 3/13/02 SAC 2002 Tutorial Hexmoor&Braynov Agent Oriented Programming, Yoav Shoham AOP principles: 1.The state of an object in OO programming has no generic structure. The state of an agent has a “mentalistic” structure: it consists of mental components such as beliefs and commitments. 2. Messages in object-oriented programming are coded in an application-specific ad-hoc manner. A message in AOP is/


Object Oriented Analysis and Design 1 Chapter 6 Design Patterns  Creational Design Patterns  Structural Design Patterns  Behavioral Design Patterns.

(array[size -1]); }  consider a DataPoint object  Suppose you need to create a million of these objects  This program may result in excessive slowness or running out of memory. Object Oriented Analysis and Design 76 Flyweight Pattern – Example class /Object Oriented Analysis and Design 153 Memento Intent: Save an object’s state without violating the principle of encapsulation. Applicability: The state of an object must be saved (by a client) so that it can be restored later. The Memento object/


II. Middleware for Distributed Systems

demultiplexing Framing and error-handling Parameter marshalling and un-marshalling Operation dispatching Principles of Object-Oriented Middleware CORBA CORBA ORB Message-passing Object-oriented programming Automate network functions Sit on the host between the data and the application layer Handles request messages from clients to servers in transparent manner Principles of Object-Oriented Middleware CORBA Objects A CORBA Object has an interface and an implementation Interface is not bound to a specific/


Object Oriented Programming Chapter 7 Programming Languages by Ravi Sethi.

7.1 What Is An Object Object-oriented program - Description or simulation of application Object-oriented programming is done by adopting or extending an existing program. Object - Entities in simulation –An object can represent any entity in solution of problem –An object interacts by sending messages –A computation is characterized in terms of observable behavior of objects 7.2 Object Oriented Thinking Vocabulary of object-oriented programmingObject : Collection of data and operations –Class: Description/


Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition

(in analysis models) and final system (constructed in programming language) Systems design is driven by use cases, design class diagrams, and sequence diagrams Domain class diagrams are transformed into design class diagrams Sequence diagrams are extensions of system sequence diagrams (SSDs) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition Summary (continued) Object-oriented design principles must be applied Encapsulation – data fields are placed/


James Tam Data structures in Java Data Structures In Java In this section of notes you will learn about two common types of data structures: Queues Stacks.

(s1.empty() == false) { rapper = (IntegerWrapper) s1.pop(); System.out.println(" Value of popped element: " + rapper.getNum()); } System.out.println(); break; James Tam Object-Oriented Principles in Java: Part II Driver Class (6) case 5: quitMenu = true; break; } // End of switch } // End of while System.out.println("Exiting program."); } // End of main } // End of class Driver James Tam Object-Oriented Principles in Java: Part II The IntegerWrapper Class class IntegerWrapper { private int num/


Type Systems and Object- Oriented Programming (II) John C. Mitchell Stanford University.

-theoretic framework l Principles of object-oriented programming l Decomposition of OOP into parts l Formal models of objects Goals l Understand constituents of object- oriented programming l Insight may be useful in software design l Trade-offs in program structure l Possible research opportunities »language design »formal methods »system development, reliability, security Object-Oriented Programming l An object consists of »hidden data »public operations l Program sends messages to objects Hidden data msg/


Practical Object-Oriented Design with UML 2e Slide 1/1 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2004 PRACTICAL OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN WITH UML 2e Chapter 14: Principles.

OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN WITH UML 2e Chapter 14: Principles and Patterns Practical Object-Oriented Design with UML 2e Slide 1/2 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2004 Principles and Patterns ●The activity of design can be informed by –principles: general statements of what properties a design ought to have –patterns: concrete examples of successful designs for particular purposes Practical Object-Oriented/ ●This is enabled by features of the object- oriented programming paradigm –polymorphism: a reference to/


OOPSLA 05 Amiram Yehudai A subjective report. 2 Program Invited speakers Invited speakers Technical papers Technical papers Practitioner reports Practitioner.

method, teachlets can also be used as a design object in seminar-like workshop events. In the course on advanced concepts of object- oriented programming described here, the participants themselves developed and used /of a method to be declared relative to that of others. We present the formal semantics of anchored exception declarations, along with the necessary rules for ensuring compile-time safety, and give a proof of soundness. We show that anchored exception declarations do not violate the principle of/


CSE333 URBSOO-1 User Role Based Security for Object-Oriented Systems/Applications M.-Y. Hu, S. Demurjian, T.C. Ting Computer Science & Engineering Department.

URBSOO-79 Security Issues and Approaches  Security Defn./Enforcement Consistent with OO Precepts and Principles  Support for Wide-Variety of User-Roles  User Roles - Extensibility/Evolution Critical  Target Emerging Systems:  Focused on OO Systems Supporting C++/Java  Programming, SW Engineering, Databases, Security  URBS within Joint Object-Oriented Framework  Framework Facilitates Development of Application Code Against Persistent Class Library (and its Underlying DB)  Role-Based Enforcement/


Effective systems development requires a team effort from stakeholders, users, managers, systems development specialists, and various support personnel,

in a systems development effort and enforce adherence to the SDLC Object-oriented systems development Approach to systems development that combines the logic of the systems development life cycle with the power of object-oriented modeling and programming Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition Figure 12.9: The degree of change can greatly affect the probability of a project’s success Principles of Information Systems, Seventh Edition Figure 12.10: Systems Development Maturity/


Lecture 3 Object Concepts II

Responsibility Implies Non-interference The difference between conventional programming and object-oriented programming is in many ways the difference between actively supervising a child while she performs a task, and delegating to the child responsibility for that performance. 3.1 Responsibility Implies Non-interference Responsibility-driven design elevates information hiding from a technique to an art. This principle of information hiding becomes vitally important when one/


Communication Chapter 2. Communication Due to the absence of shared memory, all communication in distributed systems in based on exchanging messages over.

. The server stub acts as a correspondent to the client stub. Client and Server Stubs Principle of RPC between a client and server program. Steps of a Remote Procedure Call 1.Client procedure calls client stub in normal way 2.Client stub /Machine Client Java Virtual Machine Stub Remote Object Skeleton Java Virtual Machine “Bob” Server Server creates and registers remote object Client obtains a remote reference from the registry, and a stub is created Message-Oriented Communication Background: RPC and RMI are/


Harvey SiyPrinciples of Object-Oriented Software Development by Eliens Slide 1 Behavioral Refinement Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development.

of Object-Oriented Software Development by Eliens Slide 1 Behavioral Refinement Principles of Object-Oriented Software Development (Chapter 10) Harvey SiyPrinciples of Object-Oriented Software Development by Eliens Slide 2 Outline l Types as behavior l Verifying behavioral properties l Specifying the behavior of a program l Verifying behavioral consistency l Specifying behavioral compositions Harvey SiyPrinciples of Object-Oriented Software Development by Eliens Slide 3 Objectives l Present notion of/


Communication Chapter 2. Communication Due to the absence of shared memory, all communication in distributed systems in based on exchanging messages over.

The server stub acts as a correspondent to the client stub. Client and Server Stubs Principle of RPC between a client and server program. Steps of a Remote Procedure Call 1.Client procedure calls client stub in normal way 2.Client/server machine. Registry RMI Registry Architecture Java Virtual Machine Client Java Virtual Machine Stub Remote Object Skeleton Java Virtual Machine “Bob” Server Message-Oriented Communication Background: RPC and RMI are synchronous communications by which a client is blocked until/


State of Kuwait Ministry of Education E.L.T General Supervision

aims and objectives of a given teaching program.” (McDonough and Shaw 1993: 64). Unique in their coverage of criteria, their/principles of behavior psychology. It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach. New material is presented in the form of a dialogue. Based on the principle/ the presentation part of a lesson, an instructor combines content-oriented and form-oriented input. The amount of input that is/


Baruch College Computer Information Systems Undergraduate Programs

(12 credits): CIS 3367 Spreadsheet Applications in Business CIS 3444 e-Business Technologies CIS 3500 Networks and Telecommunications I CIS 3630 Principles of Web Design CIS 3700 Green IT CIS 3750 Social Media Technologies in Organizations CIS 4100 Object Oriented Programming II CIS 4110 Object-Oriented Programming II With Java CIS 4160 Web Applications Development CIS 4350 Computer Control and Audit CIS 4400 Database Management Systems II CIS/


Mary Kay Solon, PT, MS Faculty Development Workshop University of Indianapolis May 18, 2013.

Objectives Goals Mission Program Mission  Global descriptions of the program  Developed by representatives of all stakeholders  Consistent with the institution’s mission  Should stand the test of time  Example: “ … the mission of the PTA Program is to graduate well-educated, competent, caring, quality-oriented PTAs…” Program Goals  Broad Educational Objectives/course beyond the usual mid-term or final? In the Classroom: Principles of Learning and Motivation  Students are more likely to: be motivated /


1 INTRODUCTION TO OOP Objective: Know the difference between functional programming and OOP Know basic terminology in OOP Know the importance of OOP Know.

methodology on software design maintenance extensibility reusability 22 23 Design Principles of OOP Four main design principles of Object-Oriented Programming(OOP): Encapsulation Abstraction Polymorphism Inheritance 24 Encapsulation Also known as data hiding Only object’s methods can modify information in the object. Analogy: ATM machine can only update accounts of one person or object only. 25 Abstraction Focus only on the important facts about the problem at hand to design/


CSCI-383 Object-Oriented Programming & Design Lecture 15.

hold a value generated from the child class Adapted From: An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming, 3 rd Edition, by Timothy Budd Principle of Substitution If we have two classes, A and B, such that class B is a subclass of class A, it should be possible to substitute instances of class B for instances of class A in any situation and with no observable effect Note: The/


1 INTRODUCTION TO OOP Objective: Know the difference between functional programming and OOP Know basic terminology in OOP Know the importance of OOP Know.

other applications Easier debugging classes can be tested independently reused objects have already been tested 9 Design Principles of OOP Four main design principles of Object-Oriented Programming(OOP): Encapsulation Abstraction Polymorphism Inheritance 10 Encapsulation Also known as data hiding Only object’s methods can modify information in the object. Analogy: ATM machine can only update accounts of one person or object only. 11 Abstraction Focus only on the important facts about/


314450: PROGRAMMING PARADIGMS Teaching scheme: Examination Scheme: Lectures: 3 Hours/Week Theory: 100 Marks OBJECTIVE: To understand the basic building.

, Storage management, Exceptions and exception handling. Desirable and undesirable characteristics of procedural programming. Case study of Pascal. 314450: PROGRAMMING PARADIGMS UNIT - III Object Oriented Programming: General characteristics for object based programming, Design Principles for object oriented programming, Implementing object oriented programming, desirable characteristics of object oriented programming. Object Oriented Programming in Java : Abstraction, Inheritance, Polymorphism, I/O, access/


Thinking about Requirements Engineering: some basic principles Karl Cox Empirical Software Engineering National ICT Australia and Computer Science and.

Real World phenomena Specification phenomena Solution phenomena Object-Oriented Analysis Seamless Development –Object-oriented programming promised the idea of encapsulation and this presented a way to represent things in the real world. –A software object could be represented as a design object which was a representation of an analysis object. –The assumption was that to represent the real world as an object was simple. Object-Oriented Analysis 2 Data-driven and process-focussed/


Principles of Information Systems Eighth Edition Chapter 5 Organizing Data and Information.

execute or run a method Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition56 Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database Management Systems (continued) Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS): group of programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and provide a user interface and connections to other application programs Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS): DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition57/


1 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process Deployment  Activities to make a new system operational  Involve many conflicting constraints.

-2 Agile Modeling principles 26 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process Extreme Programming  An adaptive, agile development methodology created in the mid-1990s  Extreme programming  Takes proven industry best practices and focuses on them intensely  Combines those best practices (in their intense form) in a new way to produce a result that is greater than the sum of the parts 27 Object-Oriented Analysis and/


COPYRIGHT © 2015 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Dennis Mancl Alcatel-Lucent March 2015 OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN HEURISTICS.

specialization hierarchy. H5.1 is a restatement of the Liskov Substitution Principle ­ Liskov Substitution Principle: Whenever you define a subtype, you should be able to safely substitute an object of the supertype with an object of the subtype. ­ In other words, although/software? ­ C++ and Java programming guidelines are OK, but they are not enough to assure software quality ­ it is easy to write superficially object oriented software ­ but we need to apply some of the design heuristics The main pitfalls/


Lecturer: Dr. AJ Bieszczad Chapter 1 COMP 150: Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming 1-1 l Background information »important regardless of programming.

already been tested Lecturer: Dr. AJ Bieszczad Chapter 1 COMP 150: Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming 1-23 Design Principles of OOP Three main design principles of Object- Oriented Programming(OOP): l Encapsulation l Polymorphism l Inheritance Lecturer: Dr. AJ Bieszczad Chapter 1 COMP 150: Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming 1-24 Encapsulation l Encapsulation means to design, produce, and describe software so that it can be easily used without knowing the details/


Object Oriented Programming Object Persistence. Object Oriented Programming Introduction One of the most critical tasks that applications have to perform.

-term or short-term data principle of data type orthogonality –all data objects are allowed to be persistent irrespective of their type principle of persistence identification –the mechanism for identifying persistent objects is not related to the type system Object Oriented Programming Object Database Standards The Object Oriented Database Manifesto (1989) Mandatory features: Complex objects (OO feature) –objects can contain attributes which are themselves objects. Object identity (OO) Encapsulation (OO/


PMUni Workshop 2/13 Corporate Governance of the Process & Project-oriented Company Roland Gareis Veszprem, University of Pannonia October 5 th, 2013.

PMO and the Project Portfolio Group  its specific roles, namely process managers, project/program sponsors, project/program managers, and project/program teams 19 Hypotheses: Objectives of CG of the Process & Project- oriented Company  CG improves the management quality of the process & project-oriented company, including the management quality of its projects and programs.  Sustainable development principles are implemented by CG. 20 Hypotheses: Implementing, further Developing, and Controlling CG  The/


OOAD Unit-2 Object Model. Foundations of the Object Model Structured Design Methods evolved – For Developer (who build complex systems) – Using Procedural.

basic building blocks (Data Abstraction) Object Model Object Model is applicable – not just to the programming languages – but also – to the design of User Interfaces, Databases, and even Computer Architectures. The reason for this widespread application is that – an object orientation helps to cope with the complexity (inherent in many different kinds of systems). Object Model Unfortunately, most programmers are trained only in the principles of Structured Design (SD) – Many/


CSCI-383 Object-Oriented Programming & Design Lecture 2.

larger unit Adapted From: An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming, 3 rd Edition, by Timothy Budd Kays Description of Object-Oriented ProgrammingObject-oriented programming is based on the principle of recursive design Everything is an object Objects perform computation by making requests of each other through the passing of messages Every object has its own memory, which consists of other objects Every object is an instance of a class. A class groups similar objects The class is the repository for/


1 Objectives Why OO? What is OOAD? How to do OOAD?

-id In State Student state payTuition Out-of-State Student payTuition 16 What is Object-Orientation - Interfaces Information hiding - all data should be hidden within a class, at least in principle. make all data attributes private provide public/Example… 57 Liskov’s Substitution Principle Principle: Program using object o1 of base class C should remain unchanged if o1 is replaced by an object of a subclass of C If hierarchies follow this principle, the open-closed principle gets supported 58 Introduction to/


1 Software Design (Lecture 4) Prof. R. Mall Dept. of CSE, IIT, Kharagpur.

, get_location, ● reset-alarm ● In the object oriented program, – appropriate number of instances of the class detector and alarm should be created. 93 Object-Oriented versus Function- Oriented Design ● I n the function-oriented program : – The system state is centralized – Several functions accessing these data are defined. ● In the object oriented program, – The state information is distributed among various sensor and alarm objects. 94 Object-Oriented versus Function- Oriented Design ● Use OOD to design/


Object Model OOAD. Foundations of the Object Model Structured Design Methods evolved – For Developer (who build complex systems) – Using Procedural PL.

object-oriented PL – using the class and object as basic building blocks. Object Model Object Model is applicable – not just to the programming languages – but also – to the design of User Interfaces, Databases, and even Computer Architectures. The reason for this widespread application is that – an object orientation helps to cope with the complexity (inherent in many different kinds of systems). Object Model Unfortunately, most programmers are trained only in the principles of/


Object-Oriented Software Engineering Practical Software Development using UML and Java Chapter 9: Architecting and Designing Software.

defined at the programming language level For example, methods, classes and packages are modules in Java. 8 System A logical entity, having a set of definable responsibilities or objectives, and consisting of hardware, software or/ interested software components can subscribe (subscribers) 94 Example of a Message-oriented application 95 The Message-oriented architecture and design principles 1. Divide and conquer: The application is made of isolated software components. 3. Reduce coupling: The components/


Gaming for Computer Science Instruction[part 2] Andrew Phelps Director, Game Design & Development College of Computing & Information Sciences Rochester.

and Technology in Computer Science Education. Aarhus, Denmark, 2002, pp. 70- 74. [51] C. Alphonce and P. Ventura, "Using Graphics to Support the Teaching of Fundamental Object-Oriented Principles in CS1," in Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA). Anaheim, CA, 2003, pp. 156-161. [52] K. B. Bruce, A. Danyluk, and T. Murtagh, "A Library to Support/


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