Ppt on pricing policy in business

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Understanding Business, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 2-1 NickelsMcHughMcHugh With help from Philip.

Capitalism 3.Socialism and Communism 4.Mixed Economies 5.The US Economy 6.Government Fiscal and Monetary Policy McGraw-Hill/Irwin Understanding Business, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 2-4 1/ Rate Price Indexes Price Indexes Consumer Price Index(CPI)Consumer Price Index(CPI) Producer Price Index(PPI)Producer Price Index(PPI) McGraw-Hill/Irwin Understanding Business, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. 2-27 U.S. Gross Domestic Product In Billions /


Urban goods transport policy making & experiences Bruxelles, 2 nd April 2014 Alberto Preti President Open ENLoCC The Open ENLoCC network and its Regional.

OF THE PHENOMENA, PERMANENT OBSERVATION OF UFT (OBSERVATORY – KPI), PERFORMANCE, IDENTIFICATION OF POLICY TARGETS  A KEY TO POLICY GUIDANCE Sources: ITL elaborations CONVERGE PUBLIC - PRIVATE GOALS «MOBILITY FOR GROWTH» DRIVING OPERATORS INVESTMENTS FOCUS & STRATEGY ASSESS IMPACTS OF PUBLIC REGULATORY & PRICING POLICIES (SHOPS, SMEs, LOGISTICS SUPPLY) UNDERSTAND CITY LOGISTICS DEMAND NEEDS BUSINESS MODELS, OPERATIONS & INVESTMENT DECISIONS GUIDANCE TRAINING AND INFORMATION TRAINING TO AUTHORITIES FOR BECT/


1 NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GST “PREPARING FOR MALAYSIA GST IMPLEMENTATION 2015” WHAT BUSINESS SHOULD DO TO PREPARE FOR GST Venue : MATRADE Convention & Exhibition.

BUSINESSES’ PREPARATION GST Implication on Prices  identify existing suppliers talk to small suppliers to get them registered review procurement policy to avoid tax cascading negotiate prices with suppliers to pass on savings  review sales price pass on savings absorption of GST Price/ margin scheme  21 days rule  self billed invoice BUSINESSES’ PREPARATION 9 GST Implication on Output Tax  gifts > RM500 subject to GST  commercial samples in a form not ordinarily available for sale to the public not/


DataFlex WebApp Server New Licensing Choosing the best license solution fo your application and business requirements.

the New License Policy Support a range of different business and deployment scenarios – Provide options and flexibility – Avoid constraining product use and opportunity with a license policy that is too restrictive, too complicated or too expensive Base pricing on “value metrics/will be issued to support applications for Web Clients – Additional server reg. codes will be issued without cost in reasonable proportion to user count – Estimate 100 users/server Servers running Web Clients can connect to an SPLF /


1 CHAPTERS 11 & 12 PRICING & PROMOTION. 2 Pricing Objectives 1. Obtaining a Target Return on Investment return on investment (ROI)- amount earned as a.

price allows customers to haggle over price One-Price Policy- all customers are charged the same price for the goods or services offered One-Price Policy- all customers are charged the same price for the goods or services offered treats everyone equally treats everyone equally 6 Pricing Techniques 1. Psychological pricing- based on the belief that customers’ perceptions of a product are strongly influenced by price Most often used by retail businesses/ 2. Publicity- placement in the media of newsworthy items/


Economics Learning Steps 9/9/14. Complete SSEMA1 Unemployment Post. Quiz & SSEMA2 Fiscal Policy Pre. Quiz.

regulate the banking system? 8. What role does the Federal Reserve play in regulating the nation’s money supply? 9. How does monetary policy work? Ch.16 Sec. 4 10. What problems exist involving monetary policy timing and lags? 11. How can predictions about the length of a business cycle affect monetary policy? 12. What are the expansionary and contractionary tools of fiscal and monetary/


Independent Guidance for SOAINT Services Architecture Series: Business Service Architecture Module 3: Identifying Core Business.

by other services 17 … subject to architectural and design policy … www.swassociatesint.com Propose Core Business Services and Dependencies 18 Manuf- acturing Data «core» Product «classifying» Product Group Product Price Order Item «core» Order Address Line History «core» /in future 19 code description unit type retail price per unit cost price per unit Product name location description Building id name address start date birth date Employee code description unit type retail price per unit cost price/


Real-Time Business Assurance

request for goods or services Deliver the goods or services Request payment for the goods or services Receive cash in payment Payment Credit Granting Credit files, reports Customer payments (cash receipts) Customer order Purchase order, contracts Continuous/price higher that $1M, or delivery latency higher than 7 days, or involving returned goods, or involving discount higher than 5%, or sales commission higher than 3%. 2 Order System Credit Check (Master) Alert Pending Order (Master) Policy Engine Business/


19 - 1 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002 Classical Economics and Keynes Classical Theory Keynesian View Causes of Macro Instability Real Business Cycle.

Rationale for Monetary Rule Key Terms Previous Slide Next Slide End Show Real Business Cycle View Real-Business-Cycle Theory P1P1 Price Level Real Domestic Output AS LR1 AD 1 Q1Q1 19 - 11 Copyright McGraw/In Support of Policy Rules In Defense of Discretionary Stabilization Policy Discretionary Monetary Policy Discretionary Fiscal Policy Increased Macro Stability 19 - 20 Copyright McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2002 Classical Economics and Keynes Classical Theory Keynesian View Causes of Macro Instability Real Business/


‣Find vendors with best prices ‣Fill out Purchase Requisition

‣Find vendors with best prices ‣Fill out Purchase Requisition http://www.uwsuper.edu/business/forms/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&PageID=940641 ‣Submit Requisition to Old Main 206 ‣Contact /of SUFAC budget prior to event.*fundraised money is exception. ◦ Use pre-approved vendors. In YU, less than $100. http://www.uwsuper.edu/business/policies/food-refreshments.cfm http://www.uwsuper.edu/business/forms/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&PageID=940898  For Aviands: Fill out Catering Request form/


Section 9.2.

that unreasonably restrain trade contracts not to compete price fixing agreements agreements to defeat competitive bidding Violations of Public Policy More common agreements include: Agreements to obstruct justice Agreements inducing breach of duty or fraud Contracts interfering with marriage Agreements that Unreasonably Restrain Trade The law protects our rights to make a living and do business in a market economy. A restraint of trade/


Macroeconomics Macroeconomic theories try to explain the business cycle, economic policies try to control it. Business cycles are alternating periods of.

Macroeconomics Macroeconomic theories try to explain the business cycle, economic policies try to control it. Business cycles are alternating periods of economic growth and contraction. The Business Cycle 20 15 10 5 5 3 0 3 0 –5 / for government policy fiscal policy monetary policy Aggregate Demand Aggregate demand is the total quantity of output demanded at alternative price levels in a given time period, ceteris paribus. It is used to refer to the collective behavior of all buyers in the marketplace./


4.1 © 2002 by Prentice Hall c h a p t e r 4 4 THE DIGITAL FIRM: ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & ELECTRONIC BUSINESS.

prices, change in response to demandAUCTION: Electronic clearinghouse products, prices, change in response to demand* INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS 4.11 © 2002 by Prentice Hall REVERSE AUCTION: Buyer sets price, submits to multiple sellersREVERSE AUCTION: Buyer sets price/BUDGETINGBUDGETING* 4.24 © 2002 by Prentice Hall HUMAN RESOURCES: CORPORATE POLICIESCORPORATE POLICIES EMPLOYEE SAVINGS PLANSEMPLOYEE SAVINGS PLANS BENEFITS ENROLLMENTBENEFITS ENROLLMENT ON-LINE TRAININGON-LINE TRAINING JOB /


Corporate Financial Policy Introduction

proscribed factor and theories when determining capital structure » Are theories valid? Are CFOs ignorant? Are business schools better at teaching capital budgeting and the cost of capital than at teaching capital structure? Graham/prices – Digital options Corporate Financial Policy 1. Introduction State prices – Digital options Consider digital options with the following payoffs: Using the binomial option pricing equation: uS dS Up: vu 1 Down: vd Calculation of present values using state prices: In/


Fundamental Analysis Chapter 7

by policy makers Industry Analysis Classifying industries Cyclical industry - performance is positively related to economic activity Defensive industry - performance is insensitive to economic activity Growth industry - characterized by rapid growth in sales, independent of the business cycle Industry/Ratio 2 = TATO Ratio 3 = Equity Kicker The DuPont System suggests that ROE (which drives stock price) is a function of cost control, asset management, and debt management. Estimating Earnings and Fair Market /


© 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Economics R. Glenn Hubbard, Anthony Patrick O’Brien—1 st ed. c h a p t e r fourteen Prepared by: Fernando & Yvonn.

. 3. Monopoly causes a deadweight loss, which represents a reduction in economic efficiency. © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Economics R. Glenn Hubbard, Anthony Patrick O’Brien—1 st ed. CHAPTER 14: Monopoly and Antitrust Policy 13 of 30 Government Policy toward Monopoly LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5 Collusion An agreement among firms to charge the same price, or to otherwise not compete. Antitrust Laws and Antitrust Enforcement/


© 2008 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Economics R. Glenn Hubbard, Anthony Patrick O’Brien, 2e. Fernando & Yvonn Quijano Prepared by: Chapter 14 Monopoly.

.3Explain how a monopoly chooses price and output. 14.4Use a graph to illustrate how a monopoly affects economic efficiency. 14.5Discuss government policies toward monopoly. Learning Objectives In this chapter, we will develop an economic model of monopoly that can help us analyze how such firms affect the economy. Chapter 14: Monopoly and Antitrust Policy © 2008 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Economics R. Glenn Hubbard/


Chapter 8. Monopoly How? Firm behavior Monopoly vs. Competition Price Discrimination Policy How? Firm behavior Monopoly vs. Competition Price Discrimination.

price separate business, tourist travelers  businesses have less elastic demand, will pay more last minute, refundable tickets have higher price get consumer surplus from business travelers still have low fairs for tourism get consumer surplus from business travelers still have low fairs for tourism Example: textbooks NYT 10/21/2003 Textbooks in/ pizza to same house small Monopoly & policy some monopolies are regulated  Niagara Mohawk some are illegal  AT&T (split in 1982)  Microsoft? some are created /


The U.S. Food & Fiber Industry Linkages to the Farm Business Sector Spring 2010.

Price setters to consumers Just in time inventories Changing structure over time. Food safety Packaging trends Unique Policy Influences Farm Business Sector Farm Business Sector Unique Policy Influences Farm Business Sector Farm Business Sector Impacts of Farm Policy Commodity policy sets rules for farm subsidies Price and income important historically Storage of surplus production Unique Policy Influences Farm Business Sector Farm Business Sector Unique Policy Influences Farm Business Sector Farm Business/


Seminar: Timely Topics for Today’s Business World Mr. Bernstein Risk Management and Insurance Companies January 21, 2015.

price But because personal insurance policies generally cannot be bought or sold to third parties, (i.e. you cannot buy and sell contracts that would pay off if your neighbor’s house burned down) volatility is not a factor 3 Seminar: Timely Topics for Today’s Business/ possible losses for each category of risk Example: Homeowner’s Insurance Estimated cost: $1,500/year Cost of rebuilding home in case of fire: $500,000 Cost of replacing contents of home: $50,000 Living expenses during rebuilding: $20,000/


MARKETING MARKETING © South-Western Thomson CHAPTER 14 Determining the Best Price 14.1 14.1 The Economics of Price Decisions 14.2 14.2 Developing Pricing.

set prices. Describe the various criteria businesses use in establishing the final price a customer pays. Explain why extending and managing credit is important to marketing. MARKETING MARKETING © South-Western Thomson 18 Competitive Environment Product life cycle Consumer purchase classifications Non-price competition MARKETING MARKETING © South-Western Thomson 19 Pricing Policies Price flexibility One-price policy Flexible pricing policy Price lines Geographic pricing FOB pricing Zone pricing Discounts/


© 2010 Pearson Education CanadaChapter 5 - 1 Chapter 5 What Gives When Prices Don’t? © 2010 Pearson Education Canada.

checking the facts For any policy, always weigh benefits against opportunity costs © 2010 Pearson Education CanadaChapter 5 - 22 Chapter 5 Refresh Slides © 2010 Pearson Education CanadaChapter 5 - 23 DO PRICES OR QUANTITIES ADJUST? 1.If government makes it illegal for businesses to lower their prices, and there is a surplus of products/services in the market, explain how consumers and businesses will react. 2.Tim Hortons/


Liability in Securities Offerings Underwriter and accountant due diligence Last updated 06 Feb 12.

Liability in Securities /Rule 10b-5 No “actual knowledge” AND No “recklessness (extreme departure ordinary care)” Businessprice reductions “Nintendo not subject to price reductions” “customers do not have return rights” Recognition of OEM revenue Korean manufacturer backdates/ under “extraordinary pressure” Deloitte only got oral assurances on some contracts No information on return policies SEC letters SEC told that June data not available Sample OEM contract differed from actual contracts Auditor/


PURCHASING & SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT, 4e CENGAGE LEARNING Monczka – Handfield – Giunipero – Patterson Purchasing Policy and Procedures Chapter 3.

supplier meet or exceed performance requirements?  Is the supplier price competitive?  How much business can we award given its capacity? Purchasing & Supply Chain/Longer-term purchase agreements  Reliance on non-purchasing personnel to aid in evaluating technical and/or financial data Purchasing & Supply Chain Management,/an item from existing suppliers Purchasing & Supply Chain Management, 4e 33 Other Operating Policies  Compliance with laws and regulations  Restrictions on “maverick spending”  Proper/


4.1 Prof Jess UEAB 2012 4 4 THE DIGITAL FIRM: ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & ELECTRONIC BUSINESS.

prices, change in response to demandAUCTION: Electronic clearinghouse products, prices, change in response to demand* INTERNET BUSINESS MODELS 4.14 Prof Jess Role @ UEAB 2012 REVERSE AUCTION: Buyer sets price, submits to multiple sellersREVERSE AUCTION: Buyer sets price/* 4.34 Prof Jess Role @ UEAB 2012 HUMAN RESOURCES: CORPORATE POLICIESCORPORATE POLICIES EMPLOYEE SAVINGS PLANSEMPLOYEE SAVINGS PLANS BENEFITS ENROLLMENTBENEFITS ENROLLMENT ON-LINE TRAININGON-LINE TRAINING JOB POSTINGJOB /


Natural Labour Party policy “Taxes are the price we pay for a civilized society” Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1904)

Natural Labour Party policy “Taxes are the price we pay for a civilized society” Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1904)  Fair (progressive)  Easy and cheap to collect / Tax - Planning Charges - Inheritance Tax - Section 106 Agreements (a Development Land Tax in Private-Public Partnerships) - All of them? Owner-occupiers: 0.85% of capital value Commercial properties*: 3% of capital value *including business premises, rental properties, second homes, agricultural land, brownfield sites, land banks, hunting and/


RECAP LAST CLASS. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FOR BUSINESS Maximisation of Shareholders wealth ID FD DD NEW PROJECTS RAISING CAPITAL PAY OR INVEST ACQUISITION.

of Shareholders Wealth INVESTMENT DECISION NEW PROJECTS ACQUISITION WORKING CAPITAL IMPACT OF GOVT ECONOMIC POLICY ON INVESTMENT DECISIONS TO ACHIEVE ECONOMIC GROWTH, LOW INFLATION, OR BALANCE OF PAYMENTS STABILITY ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FOR BUSINESS WHAT IS INFLATION INFLATION? THE OVERALL GENERALL UPWARD PRICE MOVEMENT OF GOODS AND SERVICES IN AN ECONOMY IS CALLED INFLATION. OVERTIME AS THE COST OF GOODS AND SERVICES INCREASES BECAUSE A/


The Business Cycle Chapter 8 Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Peak Trough 8-4 The Business Cycle Recession: A decline in total output (real GDP) for two or more consecutive quarters Growth recession: A period during which real GDP grows, but at a rate below the long-term trend of 3 percent 8-5 The Macro Economy MACRO ECONOMY Internal market forces External shocks Policy levers DETERMINANTS Output Jobs Prices Growth International balances OUTCOMES/


© 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing The Economic Way of Thinking, 11/e Heyne/Boettke/Prychitko “The Economic Way of Thinking” 11 th Edition Chapter.

members Stop new competitors from entering the market Price Searchers and Takers seek to restrict entry –But open entry and exit = entrepreneurship © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing The Economic Way of Thinking, 11/e Heyne/Boettke/Prychitko 12 of 38 The Ambivalence of Government Policies Question –Should the government be relied on to preserve competition in the economy? Answer –Concern for competition is not/


Eurostat – Unit D5 Key indicators for European policies Third International Seminar on Early Warning and Business Cycle Indicators Annotated outline of.

for European policies Chapter 3: Data availability, frequency and adjustment techniques Eurostat – Unit D5 Key indicators for European policies Chapter 3: Points of discussion Discontinuities in time series: back casting exercises Unavailability of appropriate price indexes /common set of basic statistics Other issues Eurostat – Unit D5 Key indicators for European policies Chapter 8: Validation of Business Cycle Composite Indicators Real time out-of-sample forecasting simulation Use of lagging indicators /


EXAMINING NEW BUSINESS MODELS WITH LOCAL NETWORK CHARGES AND VIRTUAL NET METERING Ed Langham, Research Principal 15 th September 2015.

of one way flows changing Renewable energy & energy efficiency support policies Falling cost of distributed energy Rising electricity prices Have we seen “peak grid energy”? Source: 2014 National/Byron Shire Council Willoughby Council Wannon Water City of Sydney Network Businesses Ergon Energy Powercor Ausgrid / Essential Energy Retailers AGL Energy / THANK YOU Contact me to keep up with project developments and participate in consultation Ed Langham Research Principal Edward.Langham@uts.edu.au (02) 9514/


20-0 Credit Policy Effects 20.3 Revenue Effects Delay in receiving cash from sale May be able to increase price May increase total sales Cost Effects –

20-0 Credit Policy Effects 20.3 Revenue Effects Delay in receiving cash from sale May be able to increase price May increase total sales Cost Effects – cost of sale is still incurred even though/ of operating cash flows Capital – financial reserves Collateral – assets pledged as security Conditions – general economic conditions related to customer’s business LO3 20-7 Credit Information Financial statements Credit reports with customer’s payment history to other firms Banks Payment history with the company /


Economics Analysis of the choices people and governments make in allocating scarce resources Microeconomics Study of small economic units, such as individual.

Product (GDP) Tracked by the Bureau of Economic Analysis Price-Level Changes Inflation Devalues money Steady prices benefit the overall economy Businesses can make long-range plans and investments. Consumers can purchase more products, particularly major purchases. Deflation Measuring Price Level Changes Consumer Price Index Employment Levels MANAGING THE ECONOMY’S PERFORMANCE Government uses monetary and fiscal policy to fight unemployment, increase spending, and reduce the/


June 2005 IBEC Climate Change Working Group Climate Change - A Business Perspective Presentation to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Communications, Marine.

and Natural Resources www.ibec.ie Overview Significant issue for business and society Climate change policy and energy policy directly linked Will impact prices and therefore economic growth Difficult background of fuel prices, energy demand and competitiveness www.ibec.ie International level/ to 80,000 €52 billion on NDP Population over 4 million www.ibec.ie Business Business has positively and proactively engaged 14% reduction in 2002 and 2003, 3.82 million tonnes EU ETS primary mechanism Only covers some /


© Ryanair 2014 Michael Hickey Chief Operations Officer Ryanair Lower Fuel Prices and Operating Costs.

(e.g. CI policy) Continued operation of less fuel efficient a/c Cost saving business models need pricing model adjustment Weight saving (Carbon Brakes) Aerodynamics (scimitar winglets) © Ryanair 2014 Impact on industry partners OEMs - pricing models need adjustment on //deferral in high cost fuel saving modifications © Ryanair 2014  Oil is a major driver on airline operational decisions  Lower prices changes airline outlook on high fuel saving investment  OEMs will need to respond to new business models/


Internet for all, dream or reality? Jean-Marie Blanchard Business Development Director ITU High Level Dialogue WSIS 2003, Geneva December 9 th. Opportunities.

Internet for all, dream or reality? Jean-Marie Blanchard Business Development Director ITU High Level Dialogue WSIS 2003, Geneva December 9 th. Opportunities for All: Bridging the Digital Gap All rights reserved © 2003, Alcatel ITU High Level Dialogue ICT Diffusion Critical Success Factors Affordability & Accessibility Initiatives & Policy Adequacy & Relevancy Awareness & Expertise Services Cost Governments Populations All rights reserved © 2003, Alcatel ITU High Level/


1 Price Monitoring - Practical Approaches CAS 2007 Ratemaking Seminar, session COM-5 Brian A. Hughes SVP & Chief Actuary Arch Insurance Group.

$448,000$60,000,000$7,467-5.4%$473,705 ExpiringPolicy #1$67,000$15,000,000$4,467 Policy #2$185,000$20,000,000$9,250 Policy #3$193,000$22,000,000$8,773 $445,000$57,000,000$7,807 11 Method #1 - /risk loaded ILF’s be used? Is a renewal a renewal? 32 Practical Issues Each line of business may have different price monitor components that are important – requiring different database structures Garbage in, garbage out The results need to feed back to Underwriting, Reserving, and Senior Management 33 More Practical/


Pricing Policy 1.  Understand the relationship between pricing, customer value, competitiveness & profitability; particularly the need for a market-led.

(all others are costs) 2. Pricing policy must be tied to business and marketing plans (not delegated to sales force, accounting department etc) 3. Policy needs to be implemented in flexible & adaptive ways (the environment is always changing) 4. Pricing policy requires a sound management accounting system! Vitally important!!! 5. Pricing policy enormously helped by sound target market and positioning 3  Pricing policy flows onto pricing tactics.  Pricing policy includes:  Decision making guidelines/


FISCAL POLICY uGuGOVERNMENT POLICY ON TAXATION AND SPENDING uCuChanges AD (G and C) uUuUsing government spending and taxes as tools to cause business.

the Tax Multiplier, this does have an expansionary effect. Discretionary Fiscal Policy u Fiscal Policy action enacted by deliberate action of the governmental unit Automatic Fiscal Policy (automatic stabilizers) u Fiscal Policy actions that change automatically with changes in real output u Examples Limitations of Expansionary Fiscal Policy u The multiplier is limited by price level changes u Government borrowing may offset the impact of expansionary fiscal/


© 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Economics R. Glenn Hubbard, Anthony Patrick O’Brien—1 st ed. c h a p t e r fourteen Prepared by: Fernando & Yvonn.

collusion and promoting competition among firms. © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Economics R. Glenn Hubbard, Anthony Patrick O’Brien—1 st ed. CHAPTER 14: Monopoly and Antitrust Policy 21 of 30 Government Policy toward Monopoly LAWDATEPURPOSE Sherman Act1890Prohibited “restraint of trade,” including price fixing and collusion. Also outlawed monopolization. Clayton Act1914Prohibited firms from buying stock in competitors and from having directors serve on the boards/


Principles Of Economics

business on newly-produced capital goods, increases in business inventories of finished products, and spending by households on new houses (Households spend on this. It is an exception.) 3. Government spending (G): spending by governments. Graph of Aggregate Demand Curve Why Aggregate Spending Might Be Higher At Lower Price/ and when they will occur. Problems in a Democracy Fiscal policy requires legislation which, in a democracy, may take a long time to pass. Monetary policy is easier to put into effect. /


Massive Macro Cram Kit!.

, these changes are implemented automatically to help the economy. FISCAL POLICY CHANGES AD …. EXCEPT when the question specifically states there is a change in business taxes. Types of Fiscal Policy Expansionary Contractionary Used to Fight a Recession LOWER TAXES INCREASE GOVERNMENT SPENDING Contractionary Used to fight Inflation RAISE TAXES DECREASE GOVERNMENT SPENDING Expansionary Fiscal Policy AS1 Price Level P2 P1 AD2 AD1 ( C + I + G + X/


Internet Business Models and Setting Up a Website.

, and advertising-delivery business Content creation, distribution, access, and advertising-delivery business Content creation, distribution, and access business Content creation, distribution, and retail business Newspapers Magazines Internet Business Models Ad supported –/ – Contact Us – Terms of Service – Privacy Policy – Registration, if needed – Subscribe (RSS), if needed – Video (expensive to serve) – Community (social networking) – Facebook, Google+ Sign In – FB, Twitter, Reddit, etc. links – HTML/


The economics of market power

Q1 Q Dynamic effects profits - investment in R&D (large sunk costs) large size - scale economies - lower costs - lower price Different MC curves Equilibrium of industry under perfect competition and monopoly: with different MC curves £ MCmonopoly P1 AR = D MR O Q1 Q 3. Competition policy Monopoly is not always bad! Government policy rules regarding the conduct of business assumes: competition maximises consumer welfare balance/


About this document All materials, content and forms contained in this handbook are the intellectual property of TPA, and may not be copied, reproduced,

perspective and make an assessment of whether the current transfer pricing model is fully aligned with the current business model (and the value drivers identified in Box 1). In addition, to provide a generic Transfer Pricing policy template, which is being used by many multinationals to communicate in a 1-4 page document their global transfer pricing policy. Type of analysis: Responsibility centres Minimise overall tax rate Risk management/


Business Location and Public Policy. Outline How much do factors such as wages, public services influence business location decisions? What are local.

at below market prices –Direct state loans Non-financial Incentives –Customized training –Expedited provision of infrastructure –Regulatory relief New Wave Development Policies (Bartik) Capital market programs Information/Education for Small Business Research and high tech/; homeowners; local businesses; landowners, local government –Multiplier large or small? Use of imported goods vs local goods; wages paid Sports Facilities Location Quotient Question for Discussion In a report issued in September 1989, a/


Section Objectives Identify factors that affect price strategy.

to pricing. Determine your pricing policy. Set a price based on the stage of the product life cycle. 18 competition-based pricing Setting a Basic Price There are three basic approaches to pricing: cost-based pricing demand-based pricing competition-based pricing 19 Pricing Policies Establishing a pricing policy frees you from making the same pricing decisions over and over again and lets employees and customers know what to expect.   Pricing Policies A flexible-price policy is one in which/


Costs & Expenses Supply and Demand Consumer Perceptions Competition Technological Trends Government Regulations Price gouging: price above mkt. when there.

Price gouging: price above mkt. when there is no alternative Price fixing: illegal; competing companies agree to restrict prices in a specified range Resale Price Maintenance: price fixing imposed by manufacturer Cost-based pricing: consider you business cost and profit objectives Demand-based pricing: find out what customers are willing to pay Competition-based pricing: find out what competitors charge Flexible-price policy: allow customers to bargain One-price policy: all customers are charged same price/


Price and Rate Monitoring CSAF Meeting, Des Moines, IA September 28, 2012 Presented by Anthony Hill, Swiss and Young Kim, Zurich General Insurance Underwriting.

plus credits/debits – Adds adjustments for New Busines Renewal Business New Business Direct Premium Written (DPW) on New Policies Number of New Policies Average Rate Modification due to Schedule Credits/Debits Average Rate Modification due to Other Pricing Adjustments New Policies Price Level Relative to Renewal Price Level Direct Premium Written (DPW) on Renewed Policies Number of Policies Renewed Average Change in DPW due to Filed Rate Changes Average Rate Modification/


© 2007 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics 8e by Case and Fair Prepared by: Fernando & Yvonn Quijano 13 Chapter Monopoly and Antitrust.

for its product. Imperfect competition does not mean that no competition exists in the market. In some imperfectly competitive markets competition occurs in more arenas than in perfectly competitive markets. Firms can differentiate their products, advertise, improve quality, market aggressively, cut prices, and so forth. CHAPTER 13: Monopoly and Antitrust Policy © 2007 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics 8e by Case and Fair 4 of 38/


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