Ppt on preparation and properties of alcohols and phenols

Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols

molecules together These intermolecular attractions are present in solution but not in the gas phase, thus elevating the boiling point of the solution. Properties of Alcohols and Phenols: Acidity and Basicity Weakly basic and weakly acidic Alcohols are weak Brønsted bases Protonated by strong acids to yield oxonium ions, ROH2+ Alcohols and Phenols are Weak Brønsted Acids Can transfer a proton to water to a very small extent Produces H3O/


Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols, and Ethers Chapter 13.

CH 2 OH B. _____ Solution 1 Classify each as an alcohol (1), phenol (2), or an ether (3): A. ____ CH 3 CH 2 -O-CH 3 C. ____ CH 3 CH 2 OH B. _ __ Structure and Properties R-O-H portion of alcohol is similar to the structure of water. –The oxygen and two atoms bonded to it lie in the same plane. –The/


Shriner, Hermann, Morril, Curtin and Fuson The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds J. Wiley and sons, INC. 8 th Edn. 2004 03/09/20151.

/09/20154 Determination of Physical Properties Melting Points Boiling Points : 03/09/20155 Correlations of Boiling Point with Structure 1. Among isomeric alcohols, the straight-chain isomer has the highest boiling point. 2. If comparisons are made of alcohols of the same type, the greater the branching of the chain, the lower the boiling point. 3. A comparison of the boiling points of isomeric primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols shows that primary/


Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 20222 - 1 Chapter 22 Phenols.

) 0.058.20.2 Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 20222 - 12 Acidity of Phenols most characteristic property of phenols is their acidity Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 20222 - 13 CompareCompare O H/ reaction acidification converts the sodium salt shown above to salicylic acid Preparation of Salicylic Acid CO 2 125°C, 100 atm CONa OOH ONa/ 81 Spectroscopic Analysis of Phenols Dr. Wolfs CHM 201 & 20222 - 82 infrared spectra of phenols combine features of alcohols and aromatic compounds O—H stretch analogous to alcohols near 3600 cm /


John E. McMurry Paul D. Adams University of Arkansas Chapter 17 Alcohols and Phenols.

molecules together  These intermolecular attractions are present in solution but not in the gas phase, thus elevating the boiling point of the solution. 17.2 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols  Weakly basic and weakly acidic  Alcohols are weak Brønsted bases  Protonated by strong acids to yield oxonium ions, ROH 2 + Properties of Alcohols and Phenols: Acidity and Basicity  Can transfer a proton to water to a very small extent  Produces H 3 O/


Alkaloids phenolic compounds Terpenoids Lipids Amino acids Carbohydrates.

groups carry charges due to the gain or loss of protons. The properties of the amino acids makes separation easy using techniques such as electrophoresis or ion-exchange chromatography. extraction The sample of plant extract is evaporated under reduced pressure, and the amino acids recovered by extraction with 0.5% HCl in 95% alcohol. General formula 1. Ion-exchange Chromatography In acidic solution the carboxyl group/


Chapter 7: Alcohols, Phenols and Thiols. Nomenclature of Alcohols In the IUPAC system, the hydroxyl group in alcohols is indicated by the ending –ol.

Reaction occurs by an S N 2 mechanism when the alcohol is protonated by an acid. Other Ways to Prepare Alkyl Halides from Alcohols A Comparison of Alcohols and Phenols Phenyl cations are energetically unstable and are difficult to form. Phenols can also never undergo displacement by the S N 2 mechanism Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids With primary alcohols, oxidation can be stopped at the aldehyde stage by/


Antiseptics & Disinfectants. Antiseptics Antiseptics and disinfectants  Antiseptic  Substance used to treat a person to prevent the occurrence of infection.

to the ring.  Such Compounds are known as alcohols  Thus Phenol is an aromatic alcohol Properties of phenol  Although phenol is technically an alcohol, it behaves differently from other alcohols  It is able to ionise when dissolved in water  This gives it some of the properties of an acid  Hence its old name “Carbolic acid” Phenol as an antiseptic  The phenol molecule comprises an ionisable part and a hydrocarbon part  In other words, the molecule/


Questions of the Day: Which test allows you to distinguish between 1) an aldehyde and a ketone? 2) an aldehyde and a primary alcohol? 3) an alcohol and.

) an aldehyde and a ketone? 2) an aldehyde and a primary alcohol? 3) an alcohol and a phenol? Today: “Unknowns” - Review of Preliminary Tests and Solubilities Unknown #1: - Classification tests and derivatives for: Aldehydes and Ketones Alcohols and Phenols Family Science Night/Classification Tests for Aldehydes and Ketones also a good derivative! 1.What are desirable properties of a derivative? 2.What is the purpose of preparing a derivative? →Prepare two good derivatives of each unknown. Recrystallize from/


Volunteers needed To help doing chemistry activities (“Plant smells and molecules”) with youngsters and their families Saturday, April17 (~ 10-2) ACS Earth.

1 can be: Aldehyde Ketone Alcohol or Phenol Unknown #1 can be: Aldehyde Ketone Alcohol or Phenol Aldehydes and Ketones functional groups? Typical properties…. Mp., bp., solubility… Preliminary tests Solubility Classification tests Derivatives Spectra 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone Classification Tests for Aldehydes and Ketones also a good derivative! 1.What are desirable properties of a derivative? 2.What is the purpose of preparing a derivative? →Prepare two good derivatives of each unknown. Recrystallize from/


ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS and ETHERS Chemistry 21A Dr. Dragan Marinkovic Functional group of an alcohol molecule ethanol ethyl alcohol propan-2-ol, 2-propanol,

glycol (PEG) Polyethylene glycol has a low toxicity and is used in a variety of products. It is the basis of a number of laxatives (such as Movicol and polyethylene glycol 3350, or MiraLax or GlycoLax). It is the basis of many skin creams, as cetomacrogol, and sexual lubricants, ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS and ETHERS Chemistry 21A Dr. Dragan Marinkovic Physical Properties: The polar nature of the C-O bond (due to the electronegativity/


New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 3B1 Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives 35.1Introduction 35.2Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and their.

2 CO 3 can be used to separate a mixture of alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 3B55 Check Point 35-4 (a)Describe how to separate a mixture of benzoic acid and phenol in the laboratory. Answer 35.5 Reactions of Carboxylic Acids (SB p.46) (a)Sodium hydrogencarbonate, water and diethyl ether are added to the mixture. Benzoic acid/


Chapter 8 of Alcohols and Phenols. Structure of AlcoholsAlcohols are simply organic derivatives of water formed by replacing one H of water with an.

phenoxide anion  Phenols with an electron-donating substituent are less acidic because these substituents concentrate the charge Preparation of Alchols: an Overview  Alcohols are derived from many types of compounds  Also the alcohol hydroxyl can be converted into many other functional groups  This makes alcohols useful in synthesis Review: Preparation of Alcohols from Alkenes  Markovnikov and Anti-Mardovnikov hydration H 2 SO 4 Alcohols from Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds  Reduction of a carbonyl/


CONTENTS Prior knowledge Synthesis from benzene Reactions of the OH group Reactions of the ring Benzene diazonium chloride - preparation Benzene diazonium.

of the OH group Reactions of the ring Benzene diazonium chloride - preparation Benzene diazonium chloride - reactions Revision check PHENOL Before you start it would be helpful to… know the functional groups found in organic chemistry know the arrangement of bonds around atoms recall and explain electrophilic substitution of aromatic rings PHENOL PHENOL Structurephenol is an aromatic alcohol/PROPERTIES DIAZONIUM SALTS - REACTIONS Benzene diazonium chloride undergoes two main types of reaction SUBSTITUTION OF/


Phenols Dr Md Ashraful Alam. Ar-OH Phenols are compounds with an –OH group attached to an aromatic carbon. Although they share the same functional group.

an aliphatic carbon, the chemistry of phenols is very different from that of alcohols. Nomenclature. Phenols are usually named as substituted phenols. The methylphenols are given the special name, cresols. Some other phenols are named as hydroxy compounds. Physical properties The crystals are hygroscopic and turn pink to red in air phenols are polar and can hydrogen bond phenols are water insoluble phenols are stronger acids than water and will dissolve in 5% NaOH/


VOLATILE OILS. All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin. Normally pre-exist in the plant – stored in a special secretory tissue.

long after they were cut. ENFLEURAGE: METHOD A glass plate is covered with a thin coating of especially prepared and odourless fat (called a chassis). The freshly cut flowers are individually laid on to the fat /Many are phenols are phenol esters E.g. Vanillin PROPERTIES OF VOLATILE OILS  Almost entirely volatile without decomposition.  Density: Most are less than 1g/ml. 2 are heavier – Oil of Cinnamon and Clove oil. 2 are heavier – Oil of Cinnamon and Clove oil.  Soluble in ether, chloroform & alcohol. /


Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Properties of Selected Mesoporous Solids Challapalli Subrahmanyam Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of.

of phenol (%) Product selectivity (%) CatecholHydroquinone Para benzoquinone Ti-MCM-48 V-MCM-48 Cr-MCM-48 Mn-MCM-48 10.70 3.57 7.53 8.12 58.9 50.1 51.8 61.1 24.6 17.9 20.5 23.5 16.5 32.0 27.7 15.4 26 Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Properties of V, Cr and/BenzaldehydeBenzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Others None /and Characterization of Thermally Stable Mesoporous Titania Can we extend this approach to prepare other transition metal oxides ? 64 Mechanism SurfactantInorganic precursor pH, method Removal of/


Alcohols and Phenols Chem. 108 Chapter 7 1. Alcohols and Phenols The Hydroxyl group (-OH) sp 3 sp 2 2.

with increase of number of hydroxyl groups. Boiling points ofalcohol > 2° alcohol > 3° alcohol 13 Acidities of Alcohols and Phenols: Alcohols and Phenols have weak acidic properties. Introduction of the electro-withdrawing groups, such as NO 2 or CN the ring increases the acidity of phenols dramatically. > 14 Phenols are a stronger acids than Alcohols. Because the negative charge in oxygen is dispersed by resonance through the benzene ring. 15 Preparation of Alcohols 1- Hydrolysis of Alkyl halide/


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY AND UNIT PROCESSES Guided by : Prof. Mayank.Dalal Prepared By : MODI VATSAL D (Enroll:140420105035 ) SCET CHEMICAL OCUP.

, herbici des such as phenoxy herbicides, and numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Although similar to alcohols, phenols have unique distinguishing properties. Unlike alcohols, where the hydroxyl group is bound to a saturated carbon atom, phenols have the hydroxyl group attached to an unsaturated aromatic (alternating double and single bond) hydrocarbon ring such as benzene. Consequently, phenols have greater acidity than alcohols due to stabilization of the conjugate base through resonance in the/


12 TH STANDARD CHEMISTRY. 101. The time required to complete 1/u th fraction is independent of a) rate constant b) initial concentration c) half life.

CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 152.Bakelite is a polymer of phenol and a) methanal b) ethanol c) formic acid d) none CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 153.The number of ether isomers posible for a compound with molecular formula /of a) ketones b) carboxylic acids c) unsaturated alcohols d) both a and c CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 164.The product in Rosenmund reduction in the absence of BaSO 4 is a) acid chloride b) aldehyde c) primary alcohol d) ketone CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 165.Which of the following cannot be prepared/


KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

/hoptonj/sci.htm Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page or using the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition/


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2008 SPECIFICATIONS.

/sci.htm Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page orusing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition/


Alcohols, Ethers and Thiols Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell and Farrell Chapter 14.

as MW increases Chemical Properties of Alcohols Combustion Reactions (they burn in O 2 ) Acid-Base Chemistry Dehydration Oxidation Acidity of Alcohols Alcohols have about the same pK a values as water –Aqueous solutions of alcohols have the same pH as that of pure water –Phenols have lower pK a values than normal alcohols do (are more acidic) Acidity of Alcohols Alcohols and phenols both contain an OH group –Phenols are weak acids and react with strong bases/


CHAPTER – IV DISINFECTION.

electron transport chain (uncertain). Quinolines and isoquinolines Form a complex with iron , copper to form toxic complex. Properties of Disinfectants Phenol Produced From Coaltar Distillaries.Activity Reduced By Dilution. More active in acidicpH. Organic matter – dimnishes its action Alcohols Most active against vegetative bacteria. Methanol vapour is fungicidal Aldehydes Gas or solution – sporicidal. Virus infectivity can be reduced in vaccine preparation Dyes Inhibit Staphylococci, Streptococci. Crystal/


Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry Instructor Dr. Upali Siriwardane (Ph.D. Ohio State) Office: 311 Carson Taylor.

14.4 Isomerism for Alcohols, 427 14.5 Important Commonly Encountered Alcohols, 427 14.6 Physical Properties of Alcohols, 431 14.7 Preparation of Alcohols, 433 14.8 Classification of Alcohols, 434 14.9 Chemical Reactions of Alcohols, 435 14.10 Polymeric Alcohols, 443 14.11 Structural Characteristics of Phenols, 443 14.12 Nomenclature for Phenols, 443 14.13 Physical and Chemical Properties of Phenols, 444 14.14 Occurrence of and Uses for Phenols, 445 14.15 Structural Characteristics of Ethers, 447 14.16/


1 Synthesis and Characterization of N- Heterocyclic Carbene Copper(I) Complexes. The Catalytic Application on Huisgen Cycloaddition and Acetylation Reactions.

defined structures 4. Using the NHC-Cu I complexes to catalyze acetylation of alcohols and Huisgen cycloaddition reactions 14 15 Preparation of Copper(I) Complex Catalysts 15 Yield : 95 % Preparation of (bmim)HBr Preparation of [Cu(bmim) 2 ](OTf) Yield : 60 % 2 eq 1 eq 6 eq 16 Preparation of 1-mesityl-1H-imidazole Preparation of [Cu(Mesbim) 2 ](OTf) Yield : 55 % Preparation of (Mesbim)HBr Yield : 92 % Yield : 61 % 2 eq1 eq 6 eq/


UNIT 4: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers. 12.1 Alcohols: Structure & Physical Properties Alcohol- organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached.

UNIT 4: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 12.1 Alcohols: Structure & Physical Properties Alcohol- organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an alkyl group. Has similar bond angle to water. -OH groups are very polar because the O and H have different electronegativities. H bonds hold alcohol molecules together. Very high boiling points because of the H bonds. The smaller the molecule, the more soluble in water (much/


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2015 SPECIFICATIONS.

Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page orusing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS CONTENTS Structure and classification of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition/


CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial.

CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition of a covalent bond Recall the difference types of physical bonding Be able to balance simple equations Be able to write out structures for simple organic molecules Understand the IUPAC nomenclature rules for/


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2008 SPECIFICATIONS N.B strikethrough font is not for AQA syllabus.

/sci.htm Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page orusing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition/


234 Chapter 24: Phenols. Chapter 24: Phenols. Alcohols contain an OH group bonded to an sp 3 -hybridized carbon. Phenols contain an OH group bonded to.

OH group bonded to an sp 2 -hybridized carbon of a benzene ring 24.1: Nomenclature (please read) 24.2: Structure and Bonding (please read) 24.3: Physical Properties (please read). Like other alcohols the OH group of phenols cab participate in hydrogen bonding with other phenol molecules and to water. 24.4: Acidity of Phenols. Phenols are more acidic than aliphatic alcohols 235 Factors that influence acidity: Inductive effect: CH 3/


Introduction to Organic Chemistry and Alkanes 1. What is Organic Chemistry? The chemistry of Carbon and its compounds. There are over 18 million known.

and where? Name? 115 Answer Properties of Ethers Do not react readily with bases, dilute acids, or most oxidizing agents. Good general solvents. Not very water-soluble, although water can hydrogen-bond with the ether. Boiling points similar to alkanes: they cannot form hydrogen-bonds with other ethers. 116 Thiols Sulfur analogs of alcohols/ four carbon groups is called a quaternary ammonium salt. 140 Preparation of Quat. Salts Reactions of tertiary amines with primary alkyl halides gives a quaternary salt. /


Alcohols and Phenols 145 Chem1 King Saud University Chemistry Department.

Properties of Alcohols The presence of the hydrogen bonding between alcohol molecules as a result of the high b.p. of alcohol. Alcohols are week acids. 145 Chem10 King Saud University Chemistry Department Homework 145 Chem11 King Saud University Chemistry Department 1. From alkene – alkyl halid – Grignard reagent. 145 Chem12 King Saud University Chemistry Department Synthesis (Preparation) of Alcohols 2. Reduction of aldehyde, ketone and carboxylic acid. 3. Addition of Grignard compounds to aldehyde and/


Polymeric Materials ( วัสดุพอลิเมอร์ ) 209382 22.5 hours 1.Mechanical properties 2.Thermoplastic polymer 3.Thermosetting polymer 4.Additives อ. จันทราวรรณ.

properties of alternatives to phthalates: –non-toxic (human- and eco toxicity) –comparable performance (e.g. primary plasticiser) –competitive price Commercially available alternatives –adipates expensive, secondary plasticisers –benzoatesmixtures –citratesexpensive –specialties (ESO, polyesters)expensive, secondary plasticisers New Plasticisers based on isosorbide: –Example: IsDEH =structuralDEHP analogue Passed primary toxicity tests Performances are good to excellent Raw materials: –sorbitol, prepared/


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS Before you start it would be helpful to… Recall the definition of a covalent bond Recall the difference types of physical bonding Be able to balance simple equations Be able to write out structures for /


Phenol Physicochemical properties effect of substituent groups on acid strength? Electron withdrawing groups will decrease the negative charge in the phenoxide,

, makes phenol more acidic than an alcohol Eelectrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution The –OH group is a powerful activating group in EAS and an ortho/para director. a) nitration https://youtu.be/8YWVBBGSxZ8?t=242 b) halogenation c) sulfonation d) Kolbe reaction (carbonation) e) Friedel-Crafts Acylation and Alkylation. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Friedel-Crafts Acylation ETHERS AND EPOXIDES; THIOLS AND SULFIDES Names and Properties of Ethers Simple/


A guide for A level students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

from benzene Reactions of the OH group Reactions of the ring Benzene diazonium chloride - preparation Benzene diazonium chloride - reactions Revision check Before you start it would be helpful to… PHENOL Before you start it would be helpful to… know the functional groups found in organic chemistry know the arrangement of bonds around atoms recall and explain electrophilic substitution of aromatic rings PHENOL Structure phenol is an aromatic alcohol with formula/


Alcohols Properties & Synthetic Preps. Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds. Alcohols.

the award: University of Glasgow, Scotland Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols What reagents did we use to accomplish this transformation? Substitution can occur by S N 1 or S N 2. Preparation of Alcohols Catalytic Reduction Hydration of alkenes Hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes Hydrolysis of alkyl halides New Syntheses using Grignard reagents Organolithium reagents Alcohol Preps Reactions: Reduction of aldehydes and ketones Reduction of carboxylic acids Reduction of esters Reaction of Grignard reagents with/


Polymer Revolution Organic Functional Group. Learning Outcomes (d) recognise and write formulae for alkenes and use systematic nomenclature to name and.

LABORATORY PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLS from haloalkanes- reflux with aqueous sodium or potassium hydroxide from aldehydes - reduction with sodium tetrahydridoborate(III) - NaBH 4 from alkenes- acid catalysed hydration using concentrated sulphuric acid Details of the reactions may be found in other sections. REVISION CHECK What should you be able to do? Recall and explain the physical properties of alcohols Recall the different structural types of alcohols Recall the Lewis base properties of alcohols Recall and/


1 Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids and Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution.

properties 47 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 48 1.Hydrolysis of Nitriles 1. Hydrolysis of Nitriles Elimination occurs for 2  and 3  RX as CN  is a relatively strong base 49 Examples 50 2.Oxidation of aldehydes and 1  alcohols (pp.83-84, 93) 2. Oxidation of aldehydes and 1  alcohols (pp.83-84, 93) 3.Oxidation of/184 B.Alcoholysis (Reactions with alcohols) HZ = H-OR Phenolysis (Reactions with phenols) HZ = H-OAr  Refer to the preparation of ester (p.121)  Esters and amides do not undergo alcoholysis//


Learning Objectives 1.Properties of phenols 2.Reaction of phenols.

Objectives 1.Properties of phenols 2.Reaction of phenols Preparation of phenol From aryl sulphonic acids Aryl sulphonic acid gives corresponding phenol on heating with molten sodium hydroxide at 570-620 K. Preparation of phenol Chlorobenzene is hydrolysed by treating it with NaOH at 623 K and 320 atm. Preparation of phenol From hydrolysis of diazonium salt Diazonium salts are prepared by treating an aromatic primary amine with nitrous acid (NaNO 2 + HCl) at low temperature. Preparation methods Synthesis/


 physical or chemical agents that prevent putrefaction, infection, and analogous changes in food and living tissue by destroying or arresting the development.

lipophilicity, is easily absorbed from the skin and mucous membranes. Resorcinol for antibacterial activity gives phenol. In low concentrations ¬ centrations resorcinol has keratoplastic property in large - ¬ capable of damaging stimuli and keratolytic. Use it with some skin diseases ¬ tions (eg, eczema, seborrhea, etc.), conjunctivitis. The composition includes phenol birch tar and derivatives thereof, gums, and other compounds. A preparation in the dry distillation of birch bark. Be tar ¬ cuts has/


Benoît Moreau Organohypervalent Iodine as Mild and Selective Reagents for Multiple Oxidation Processes Literature Meeting June 6 th, 2005.

and potassium compounds. Iodine exhibits some metallic-like properties. Group 17 (Halogens) Iodine: Oxidation States - 1,2-diol cleavage - mild alcohol oxidation - Various purposes! Commonly used for… Hypervalent Iodine: Timeline 1886 Ph-ICl 2 prepared by Willgerodt Since 1990, ‘‘rediscovery’’ of hypervalent organoiodine compounds - Applied to total synthesis of a large number of/ Synthesis of Dumsin Reaction of Ylides Oxidation of CH-OH bond Functionnalization  to carbonyls 3- Phenolic oxidation Seminal/


GLYCOSID ES. DEFINITION Organic natural compounds present in a lot of plants and some animals, these compounds upon hydrolysis give one or more sugars.

Prunasin v. Isothiocyanate: vi. Flavonol/Flavonoid: vii. Alcohol: viii. Aldehyde: ix. Lactone: x. Phenol: xi. Tanin: BEST WAY OF CLASSIFICATION BIOSYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSIDES It involves the following two steps: 1.Transfer of a uridylyl group from uridine triphosphate (UTP) to /properties of fresh gel they have not verified such activity in the stabilized product. The stabilized product is incorporated into a wide range of preparations for external and internal use, ranging from hand lotion to frozen yogurt, and/


Control of Microorganisms by Chemicals 1. 2 Chemical Antimicrobial Agents An ideal disinfectant should have the following characteristics:

and disinfectant preparations. o-phenylphenol is a combination of phenol and detergent. Mode of Action: Cause disruption of cells, precipitation of cell protein, and inactivation of enzymes and leakage of aminoacids from the cells. Lethal effect is associated with physical damage to the membrane structures in the cell surface. 8 2. Alcohols Ethyl alcohol,CH 3 CH 2 OH, in concentration between 50 and 90% is effective against vegetative or non sporing cells. 70% concentration of alcohol/


S TERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION Prepared by Anfal Mohammed M.Sc. 1.

. It is also effective against gram negative bacteria and fungi. 16 DISINFECTANTS Biguanides Chlorhexidine, a member of the biguanide group, is not a phenol, but its structure and applications resemble hexachlorophene. It is frequently used for surgical skin preparation and surgical hand scrubs. Halogens Iodine: is effective against all kinds of bacteria, many endospores, fungi, and some viruses. Its mechanism of activity may be its combination with the amino/


Phenols (Ar-OH).

. Dr. Talat R. Al-Ramadhany Carboxylic acid > Phenol > Water > Alcohol III. Acidity of Phenols: Phenols are fairly acidic compounds, and in this respect differ markedly from alcohols, which are even more weakly acidic than water. Carboxylic acid > Phenol > Water > Alcohol Aqueous hydroxides convert Phenols into their salts; aqueous mineral acids convert salts back into the free Phenols. Dr. Talat R. Al-Ramadhany The acidity of phenols is mainly due to an electrical charge/


Incompatibility Nahla S Barakat, PhD Professor of Pharmaceutics

a good solvent for many organic compounds such as alkaloid, camphor, phenol, tannins, balsams, resins and some other organic acids. Glycerin: it has solvent properties between those of alcohol and water. It is particularly good for dissolving tannins, boric acid, phenols, codeine and certain metallic salts. PHR 416 4/15/2017 Terpine hydrate …………. 2gm Glycerin ………………… 20 ml Example of alternate solvents to prepare clear solution is given by following prescription/


ALCOHOLS Dr. Sheppard CHEM 2412 Fall 2014 McMurry (8 th ed.) sections 10.5-6, 17.2-8, 17.11.

.2-8, 17.11 Alcohols Important in synthesis Easily converted to or prepared from other functional groups Used as solvents Especially low molecular weight alcohols Types of alcohols: Phenols and enols have different reactivity from alcohols Structure of Alcohols Hybridization of C? Bond angle around C? Hybridization of O? Classification as primary, secondary, or tertiary: Spectroscopy of Alcohols: IR IR absorptions at 1050 cm -1 and 3300-3600 cm -1 Spectroscopy of Alcohols: NMR Atoms bonded to/


AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF ALCOHOLS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.

two compounds are classified as phenols because the OH group is attached directly to the ring. Structural differences alcohols are classified according to the environment of the OH group chemical behaviour, eg oxidation, often depends on the structural type PRIMARY 1° SECONDARY 2° TERTIARY 3° CONTENTS Structure of alcohols Nomenclature Isomerism Physical properties Chemical properties of alcohols Identification using infra-red spectroscopy Industrial preparation and uses of ethanol Revision check list THE/


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