**Stability** Example, contd 7 8 9 10 **Equal** **Area** Criteria The goal of the **equal** **area** criteria is to try to determine whether a **system** is stable or not without having to completely integrate the **system** response. **System** will be stable after the fault if the Decel **Area** is greater than the Accel. **Area**/ and current are “transformed” into the d-q reference frame using the rotor angle, Terminal voltage in network (**power** flow) reference frame are V T = V r - V i 16 Two-Axis Model Equations Numerous models exist for/

You could have made SpaceShipOne look like a breadbox or something **equally** ugly and still have it perform. But he chose not/a many-body microscopic **system** Is a `real’ macroscopic description possible? i.e. thermodynamics Interactions must obey ‘H-**stability**’ constraints H-**stability**: A **system** of N >> /vs. N-dense **system** ~ r max **Area** decreases with N! fixed, catastrophic vortex regime Clockwise - Counterclockwise coexistence Other potentials? Lennard-Jones Hard disks Always stable p **Power** law divergences p /

single line to ground, line to line and double line to ground faults in **power** **system** – analysis of unsymmetrical fault using Z bus. 12 VStability: Dynamics of synchronous machine – **power** angle equation – node elimination technique – steady state **stability** – transient **stability** – **equal** **area** criterion – numerical solution of swing equation – multi machines **stability** – factors affecting transient **stability** 12 TOTAL HOURS60 TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKS: T/R BOOK TITLE/AUTHORS/PUBLICATION T1 Modern/

/ Congestion and redispatch Example Each line has capacity of 900 MW **Equal**, lossless lines between nodes The right generator is cheaper than the left/**Power** flow analysis Performed through iterative method (Newton- Raphson) Basis for many **power** **system** studies Optimal **power** flow **Power** flow control happens in several independent stages Inter-**area** ties make the grid more reliable Voltage control is independent of **power** (frequency) control © K.U.Leuven - ESAT/Electa / References **Power** **System** **Stability**/

4 11 2.2 Identifying **systemic** events and creating financial **stability** cycle Use the data set / i.e. we assume the policymaker is **equally** concerned of missing **systemic** events and issuing false alarms (“neutral external / ROC curve = TP rate vs. FP rate AUC = **Area** under the ROC curve (probability that a randomly chosen positive /**power**, but do not focus on visualization 40 1. Introduction - motivation Visualizing the state of financial **stability** is a challenging task:Visualizing the state of financial **stability**/

% population growth creates challenges Rapid growth in urban **areas** Rapid growth in urban **areas** History 731 Mayan Empire reaches highest point 1193 Aztec/**system** emerges—to support rebels who want **power** Early 20 th Century: Patron Client **system** emerges—to support rebels who want **power** Constitution of 1917 brings some **stability** Constitution of 1917 brings some **stability**/ are far more likely to define democracy in terms of **equality** than freedom. Religion very important though. Corporatist structure: central/

**Stabilizer**, rudder (movable)-yaw control Vertical **Stabilizer**, rudder (movable)-yaw control Horizontal **Stabilizer**, elevator (movable)-pitch control Horizontal **Stabilizer**, elevator (movable)-pitch control **Power** Plants (Engine/propeller) **Power**/**area** on the top makes the air velocity flows faster on the top & vice versa. Slow flowing air Fast flowing air An aircraft flies due to the aerodynamic reactions that happen when air passes over the wing. Aircraft Control **System**/ there is an **equal** and opposite reaction./

– 2008 Congestion and redispatch Example Each line has capacity of 900 MW **Equal**, lossless lines between nodes The right generator is cheaper than the left,/**Power** flow analysis Performed through iterative method (Newton- Raphson) Basis for many **power** **system** studies Optimal **power** flow **Power** flow control happens in several independent stages Inter-**area** ties make the grid more reliable Voltage control is independent of **power** (frequency) control © Copyright 2005 – 2008 References **Power** **System** **Stability**/

and circulatory **system** to supply /**area** that surrounds the outside edge of the body when it is in contact with a surface. It affects our **stability** or our ability to control equilibrium. A wide base of support is essential for **stability**/**equal** to whatever force is being applied. ; We see evidence of the application of force in all physical activity. Consider the following examples: the high jumper, discus thrower, cricket bowler and basketball player all exert forces when executing movement skills. ; **Power**/

physical-, informational-, and human resources. Management functions 4 **areas** Planning: is the process of setting objectives and then determining/ ORGANIZATIONS – 2. 2.6. The Mechanical Structure Accommodates to the **stabil** environment Division of labor : exact tasks, experts Hierarchy /policies, motivation **system**, authority, communication, CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORGANIZATIONS – 3. 3. Tipologies 3.1.Handy **Power** culture : the/ increases and as they become more **equal** in size and capability When /

–Steering and maneuvering –Visibility n Truck-related topics –Vehicle capacity and **stability** –Vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform / spots, docks, electrical panel boxes, ramps/slopes, **power** lines, confined **area**, etc. Warehouse Hazards Sprinkler **systems**/lights Lighting Stored/stacked material Blind spots Overhead doors/ Single Shift Charger Battery Charging **Area** With Ride On Battery Changer. Weekend/**Equalize** Charge Charger Control **Equalize** charge once per month on /

devise a peace settlement and restore **stability** and order to Europe A balance of **power** is what the leaders at the / to investors This allowed businesses to expand into many **areas** Investors and businessmen made large sums of money in / mian intention behind socialism was to eliminate poverty, create **equality** and end social descrimination between the classes of rich and/Lower wages). The proletariat would Rise up and overthrow the capitalist **system** Create their own government. Take control of the means of /

and circulatory **system** to supply /**area** that surrounds the outside edge of the body when it is in contact with a surface. It affects our **stability** or our ability to control equilibrium. A wide base of support is essential for **stability**/**equal** to whatever force is being applied. ; We see evidence of the application of force in all physical activity. Consider the following examples: the high jumper, discus thrower, cricket bowler and basketball player all exert forces when executing movement skills. ; **Power**/

to electronic **systems** (except in applications in highly flammable **areas**) Early 80’s computer based control **system** became cheap and **powerful** enough to use for process control **system** Current:/a controller Gc(s) so that the **system** has some desired characteristics Typical objectives: **Stabilize** the **system** (**stabilization**) Regulate the **system** about some design point (regulation) Follow/ axis Rule 2: The number of branches of the root locus is **equal** to the order of the characteristic equation Rule 3: the locus starts/

**stability** for the **system**. The selection of the gain controller /in the secondary LFC/ should be such that i. control loop must be stable, ii. Frequency error should return to zero COMPOSITE **SYSTEM** IN A SINGLE CONTROL **AREA** : The composite **power**/frequency characteristics of a **power** **system**/ economical operation of a **power** **system**. An **equally** important factor in the operation of a **power** **system** is the desire to maintain **system** security. Security of supply is a measure of the **power** **system**’s capacity to continue /

GRADED DISCUSSION The Presumption of Innocence American justice **system** assumes that the defendant is innocent. The /and this resulted in an unacceptably low **stability** level, which caused the machines to /correct? A. I took courses in many different **areas** of engineering. (The expert has failed to answer/not over state your case or become melodramatic. Eight **Powerful** Speaking Techniques 1.Vivid, crisp imagery – “crippled / disputed facts. Don’t give the other side **equal** time “They said this…, but we say…” Explain/

PI controller improves the **stability** of the **system** The voltage in the PCC is constant and **equal** to the desired value In presence of a voltage dip I g is forced to be phase-shifted by almost 90° with respect to the corresponding grid voltage the 3rd and the 5th harmonics are compensated Ancillary Services of Distributed **Power** Generation **Systems** Marco Liserre liserre@ieee.org/

**areas** of application for dc transmission. Long distance bulk **power** transmission. Underground or underwater cables. Asynchronous interconnections of ac **systems** operating at different frequencies or where independent control of **systems** is desired. Control and **stabilization** of **power** flows in ac ties in an integrated **power** **system**/ has two converters of **equal** rated voltage, connected in series on the DC side The junctions between the converters is grounded Currents in the two poles are **equal** and there is no /

activities. Historical bid information is stored in DSS: Decision Support **System** General Information Terminology LRE: Long Range Estimates Trnsport PES, / for shoulder and non-traffic **areas**. Selecting Pay Items 100s 160 **Stabilizing** 161 Predesigned Subbase 162 Prepared / Assembly 635 Pull and Junction Boxes 639 Electrical **Power** I Basis of Estimates- Part 2 The grounding/the average width, so that the length*width total will **equal** the total bridge **area**. Part 3- Estimating and Review Categories & Pay Items /

evolved relatively strong State **systems** The periphery lacked strong State **systems** The semiperiphery was in-between The World-**System** Approach Three particular **areas** – Poland (periphery)/ of different production **systems** with different levels of productivity, surplus and **power** structures, that is, horticultural, agrarian and industrial **systems** – the latter /national divergence Weighted studies find **stability** Do we want to give nations or individuals **equal** weight? Weighted versus Unweighted Convergence/

2001 sect. 206.9.3 vertical impact force for crane load, if **powered** monorail cranes are considered, the max. wheel load of the crane shall/Exposure B Exposure C Exposure D Urban and suburban **areas**, wooded **areas** or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having/ to take the radius of gyration **equal** to _______times the overall dimension of the direction of **stability** is being considered. (NSCP 410./ for lacing bars arranged in single **system** shall not exceed ________. (NSCP 505.5.80) 140/

Distribution from Sector Receivers to Local Users: The trigger **system** is very similar to the existing SLAC trigger **system**……Two 11.424 GHz signals with **equal** amplitude… form the drive signal for the klystrons. By/**power** for both cavities, with a small “trim” klystron providing pulse-to-pulse corrections to one of the two cavities…” COMMENT: the phase control **system** is well understood and described, clearly based on great experience at SLAC. However, the required **stability** seems difficult to reach in some **areas**/

ability to avoid uncontrolled, **area**-wide **power** interruptions under adverse credible conditions. 6. Types of **Stability** Studies A. Steady-state **stability** Use of linear **system** analysis techniques to study the modal **system** response Typical purpose of such studies: Obtain safe operating limits and guidelines Identify poorly damped modes of oscillation Setting of controls (e.g., exciters, **power** **system** **stabilizers**) B. Transient **Stability** Use of non-linear **system** analysis tools to study/

was mechanically created. E.The result is **equal** to or better than the most recent human/ on to have ideas in an extraordinary number of **areas**—sound recording, flight, lasers, tetrahedral construction, and hydrofoil/**system**. –Most people wouldn’t consider the computation of a Turing machine (even weakly) emergent. But recall levels of abstraction! What about **stability**? 79 How is **stability** defined? **Stability**/ Groups are nature’s way to build **systems**. –We can build **powerful** groups because we evolved to live in /

, combustors) Compressor surge and stall Otis Elevator/cable dynamics Noise **Power** electronics dynamics Electric drives dynamics Pratt & Whitney Compressor stall and / Instantaneous equivalence ratio Instantaneous flame surface **area** Linear dynamics define **system** **stability** Nonlinear effects determine limit cycle amplitude/to form “representative” data set to span fields for parameter range of interest (“**equal**” representation?) July 1999 DS&C Recruiting Cumulative POD energy spectrum Flow reconstruction 2q~8/

software decreases as complexity increases. P2: All Bugs are Not **Equal**: for a given degree of complexity, the reliability function has /of a simple and reliable core that can guarantee the **stability** of the **system**. This result is also robust against change of model / heat & **power** in multi-function phase array radars real time search and tracking? UIUC Real Time **Systems** Lab lrs@cs/(or runtime checks) Attack: Jump to illegal code within data **area** Compiler solution: check for jumps to non-label type Attack: /

at one focus. Kepler’s 2nd law: the radius vector from the sun to a planet sweeps out **equal** **areas** in **equal** time intervals. Kepler’s 3rd law: the square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional / still need “momentum dumping” (off-loading) Relatively high **power**, weight, cost Control logic simple for independent axes Attitude control: gravity gradient **stabilization** courtesy from Oliver L. de Weck: 16.684 Space **System** Product Development, Spring 2001 Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics, /

**POWER** **SYSTEM** SECURITY AND CONTROL: Main **Area** of Expertise : Voltage **Stability** , Oscillatory **Stability**, VAR Planning and dispatch , ATC : Sub **Area**: **Power** Electronics and Real Time Control The group is developing a comprehensive approach for voltage and oscillatory **stability**/Voltage **Stability** Boundary: Reactive **Power** Variation Optimal Margin Boundary Tracing Basic Formulation Minimize a cost function : f(U) For a sequence of specified margin levels: Minimize a cost function : f(U) Subject to : **Equality** /

NTE = (AE + NE) - S Emissions **Stabilization**: the level at which GHG concentrations are **stabilized** the climate **system** To **stabilize** requires GHG to reach a peak and then decline/output growth @ 2.5% requires 80% cuts (from today) 2 **areas** for quick, cost-effective reductions: Deforestation: 18% of emissions, 50%/Decarbonization of **power** (5 strategies) 3. Decarbonization of fuel (4 strategies) 4. Forest and agricultural soils (2 strategies Wedge **Stabilization** Approach + Efficiency and Transport (all **equal** 1 wedge/

**system** can have imperfections. It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large deformations are assumed The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of freedom. **STABILITY** ANALYSIS The dynamic method is very **powerful**/at the fixed end are fully restrained. Therefore, **equal** to zero. Torsionally pinned or simply-supported end /length and width? For each fiber, save the **area** of fiber (A fib ), the distances from/

loans. When the rating on government bonds of one euro-**area** country fell below investment grade in 2010, the ECB /rates are the primary linkage between the financial **system** and the real economy. **Stabilizing** growth means keeping interest rates from being overly/each percentage point increase in inflation, The real interest rate, **equal** to the nominal interest rate minus expected inflation, goes up /now much is needed to be effective. QE can be **powerful** tool for central bankers to prevent a sustained deflation, /

degree of precision and **stability**. Output voltage/current should be independent of **power** supply. Output voltage/current/solution of inflection temperature T0 in terms of R0, R1, **area** ratio: The current at the inflection point is Curvature and/available from industry no longer meet the performance requirements of emerging **systems**. **System** Resolution12 bits14 bits16 bits TC requirement on reference 2.44ppm/ / point, T INF, will make the following partial derivative **equal** to zero. –It is difficult to get a closed /

cut which divides a given network into **equal** halves. Whats the Best Choice? / the **system**. Every competitor recognizes the same winner. Self-**stabilization**: A **system** is self-**stabilizing** if/6 teraflops of Linux Cluster computing **power** distributed at the four TeraGrid sites/**areas**) Agents and Mobile Code Distributed Algorithms Distributed Data Management Distributed Operating **Systems** Middleware Multimedia Network Protocols Peer-to-Peer Communication Real-time and Embedded **Systems** Security and Fault Tolerant **Systems**/

bonds like hydrogen bonds among polar **areas**, ionic bonds between charged R groups/sulfhydryl groups (SH) of cysteine monomers, **stabilize** the structure. 4- The quaternary structure: / with alternating **power** and recovery strokes.Cilia move more like oars مجاديف with alternating **power** and recovery strokes/Solutions with **equal** solute concentrations are isotonic.Solutions with **equal** solute /glands.Humans have nine endocrine glands. The Vertebrate Endocrine **System** Fig. 45.5, Page 960 الصنوبرية النخامية الدرقية /

benefit, **equality** and coordination, advocates the settlement of international disputes and regional flashpoint issues through peaceful means, opposes resort to the use or threat to use of force at will, opposes acts of aggression and expansion, and opposes hegemony and **power** politics in any form. 4. The strategy and policy of national defense Part Six: China Military **System** -- Maintaining world peace and **stability**. China/

**stability**. Output voltage/current should be independent of **power** supply. Output voltage/current should be independent of temperature. Output voltage/current should be independent of process variations. Bandgap reference circuit widely used, but sill a lot of research improving **stability**, lowering voltage, reducing **area**/longer meet the performance requirements of emerging **systems**. **System** Resolution12 bits14 bits16 bits TC requirement / will make the following partial derivative **equal** to zero. –It is difficult/

and they are vibration free. SOFCs could provide higher **system** efficiency, higher **power** density and simpler designs than fuel cells based on / the cell to remove a quantity of heat **equal** to the difference between the heat of reaction and/each of the components of the SOFC are listed below. Good **stability** (chemical, phase, morphological and dimensional), Appropriate conductivity, Chemical /phase material. To surmount the disadvantages of low surface **area** and limited control of the microstructure inherent in the/

and the linear quadratic regulator LQR: Optimal **stabilizing** rules with quadratic loss function subject to linear dynamical **system**. Solution uses Radon: Riccati equation. = / = shock and inflation in the basis of eigenvectors Step 4: **powers** of A+BF and initial condition; choose stable arm = Blanchard/ optimal simple » rule results Where is the **area** of determinacy? Where is laissez-faire equilibrium?/in demand equation (parameter **equal** to zero) and on x3 in supply equation (parameter **equal** to zero) allows /

Robespierre (National Convention) 3. Backlash against the Terror (1794-1799) Attempts at **stability** & moderation (The Directory) 4. Shifts back toward dictatorship (1799-1815) /**equalized** taxation, balanced the budget 3. Created a public school **system**, the Lycees, admission was merit based 4. Censorship of the press & private mail III. Napoleon’s Empire 2 Goals: 1) extend **power**/Liberals wanted more **power** Middle classes wanted right to vote Conservatives tried to suppress revolutionary goals **Areas** of Rev. /

c k = 0 for all k not **equal** i then x(t) = r i e i t l this solution can then be propagated through the **system** equations to find the **power** flow on key lines (or some other variable/Investigation on the use of **Power** Systme **Stabilizers** for Damping Inter-**Area** Oscillations in Longitudinal **Power** **Systems**" IEEE-PES 1997 Winter **Power** Meeting, Paper No. PE-492-PWRS-0-01-1997. [7]Zhou, E. Z. "**Power** Oscillation Flow Study of Electric **Power** **Systems**" International Journal of Electric **Power** and Energy **Systems**, Vol. 17, No/

**Stabilizing** the/**power**. Federation- **System** where **power** is divided between central and local governments Confederation- **Power** is divided amongst a loose friendship of states Parliamentary- A **system** of government where the legislative branch gives the executive **power** and hold the executive accountable. Presidential- A **system** of Government where the Executive and Legislative branches are separated. Democracy- **System** where eligible voters have an **equal** say and vote. Republic- **System**/different research **areas**. The /

**stability** and balance… 1) Centre of gravity (COG) 2) Line of gravity (LOG) 3) Base of support (BOS) Centre of Gravity The point at which all parts of the body/object are **equally**/the greatest range of motion. Revision Questions To achieve maximum **power** in a set, the legs leads the movement. Explain why/of remembering… Mechanical Advantage… How efficient a lever **system** is. i.e. when a lever **system** puts out more force than it puts in. / of support X X X The LARGER the **area** of your Base of Support, the MORE STABLE/

uncontrolled, voluntary offers – Resources of peers are heterogeneous bandwidth, CPU **power**, storage space, … quality depends on device / connectivity – Distributed / effort vs. performance Scalability: the **system** adapts with the size Adaptability: modifying a component **Stability**: preserving the structure Fault tolerance: / (globally unique identifier) to avoid loops TTL max. **equal** to 7 Phases: – Connecting PING PONG – Querying / the target node Key 28 Data in this **area** is stored into Node 27 The distance to /

EMS had several goals To enhance Europe’s **power** in international affairs: as a union of countries, the EU could represent more economic and political **power** in the world. To make Europe a/**system**. How would this affect the critical point where the monetary efficiency gain **equals** economic **stability** loss? Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Fig. 20-6: An Increase in Output Market Variability Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Is the EU an Optimum Currency **Area**/

reliable outdoor contact between Al-Al requires: **Stabilized** normal contact force of about 100 N to/**equally** illuminated or partially shaded or partially polluted Single fault conditions Multiple fault conditions –Conduction losses Reliability Safety –Touch safety –Energy hazard Costs –Installation costs –Material costs –Energy payback time Comparison PV-string **systems** and PV-wirefree **systems** PV-laminate definitions PV-string modules 36 cells of 150 x 150 mm Dimensions: 0.649 m x 1.414 m **Area** = 0.918 m² **Power**/

to Cutting Performance (Analytical Solution, TXF) Chatter in red **areas** MRR Axis Chatter freqs. (in red) and resonant speeds/**system** Measure force Measure response Transform into frequency domain (Fourier Transform) divide frequency by frequency See video demonstration. (PLUCKING A TUNING FORK) MetalMAX Training Manufacturing Laboratories, Inc. Cutting Performance (TXF) Max Torque Max **Power** **Stability** Lobes **Power**/approximately a 1 L/D with a diameter approximately **equal** to the gage length. With machine in known /

and hydro and wind curtailment level.**Power** **system** output stimulation : optimize the operational model of the **power** **system** accommodating renewable **power** generation, the consumption method of wind **power** and other renewable energies and hydro and wind curtailment level. Analysis/Verification of **system** frequency adjustment: identify the impact of the development and consumption plan for wind **power** and other intermittent **power** on the **stability** of **system** frequencyand adjust the consumption plan for/

Euro Zone Debt Crisis, 2010-11 The Greek government’s problem would have been a lot less severe if it had the **power** to print its own money If Greece had not abandoned the Drachma, its pre-Euro currency, it could have simply printed / and members of a fixed exchange rate **system**. How would this affect the critical point where the monetary efficiency gain **equals** economic **stability** loss? Fig. 20-6: An Increase in Output Market Variability Is the EU an Optimum Currency **Area**? If the EU/EMS/economic and monetary/

Kuwait’s legitimate government. Commitment to the security and **stability** of the Persian Gulf. Protection of the lives of /confidently our belief in self-determination, religious freedom, and **equal** rights for women. By standing for the hope and/ Shiite dominated and the Sunnis also want some **power**. http://web.ebscohost.com/src/detail?vid=9/gets Russia’s new s-300 AA missile **system**, it will be virtually impossible to take out/ fire missiles in through drones into the **areas** that we believed had Taliban and other /

wind variability Water “ponded” by storing wind energy must **equal** water required for regulation scheduling to break even More ponded /**areas** must be defined Use of curtailed energy must be defined Slide 43 Frequency Control Frequency deviations will increase Frequency variability will increase if units are de-committed Frequency impacts can be simulated Slide 44 Kodiak Hz – Simulation vs Actual Slide 45 WTG “Options” Inertial Control - Simulates machine inertia on **power** **system** - Increases frequency **stability**/

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