Ppt on political parties and electoral process for kids

Public Opinion and Political Action Chapter 6 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition.

immoral Accept law-breaking consequence What Americans Value: Political Ideologies How do people think politically? Ideologues: think in ideological terms Group Benefits voters: view politics through party or group label Nature of the Times: view of politics based on whether times are good or bad No issue content: vote routinely for party or personality Class and Participation Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action Many people have no opinion about government/


Reaching ‘American Dream’ Source: ”Where the American Dream is Dead and Buried”, Huffington Post, Jan., 23, 2014.

, and bold actions and campaigns are intimately linked to electoral processes. Which is very different from the way "politics" is defined in the U.S. The U.S. is bordered off from Latin America, so our ideas about politics are bordered off in the imagination: Politics mean elections. Punto. Well, if you have the Arizona Chamber of Commerce endorsing a pro- immigrant candidate, and calling on the Republican Party/


POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION. LINKAGE INSTITUTIONS What is a linkage institution? Something that allows the citizens to connect to the government.

do they even do? Nominate Candidates for office Inform and Rally Supporters Governing Watchdog PARTY BREAKDOWN How are the people involved in political parties? 1.Organization Leaders, activists, “party professionals” 2. In government People who actually hold government positions 3. Electorate The people who vote…you! PARTY BREAKDOWN How many parties do different governments have? 1.Multi-Party System 2.One Party System 3.Two Party System -What we see in the/


Unit IV Political Participation Chapters 5-9

Upper income ($250,000+) Married w/ kids Owns home in suburbs Very well-educated (2 college degrees or more) Between the ages of 42-65 White (62% of voters) Protestant Member of a political party FEMALE (54% of voters this time) Chapter 7 Notes The Election Process Nomination The process of naming a person to be a candidate for political office Methods of Nomination Self –announcement Caucus/


The Prime Minister and executive

numbers of think tanks and special advisors working directly for Number 10 has marginalised cabinet. Factors influencing appointment Cabinet- constitutionally limited to around 22 Single Party government Promises to political allies- Cameron and Osborne, Brown and Straw Those who represent / than five’ at the very top level. The process began when Gordon Brown was chancellor because some mandarins felt excluded; others found working with him and his temper intolerable. The steam of departures has continued/


The Complexity of Turnout: An Agent- Based Simulation of Turnout Cascades Ed Fieldhouse, Institute for Social Change, University of Manchester Laurence.

is a social norm – civic duty is an important rationale for individual-level turnout. People share the political views of their greater networks – probability of agreement within a network depends on the distribution of political opinion within one’s network (autoregressive networks). Electors can be mobilised to vote by family, friends and political parties – household members, friends and political parties will ask people to vote on election day. There are/


Martin Van Buren President # 8: 1837-1841 Democratic Party (Later ran unsuccessfully for the Free Soil Party) Nndb.com.

Quotes Lasting Influences The Independent Treasury was a good try at creating a truly independent mechanism for money transactions with the federal government and it laid the foundations for the federal reserve as it is today. Van Buren’s participation in the fringe Free Soil party permanently put abolition into the political arena. Van Buren refused to annex Texas, which put off war with Mexico/


Q4 Student Notes Packet SVHS US History. THE NEW FRONTIER AND THE GREAT SOCIETY KENNEDY AND JOHNSON LEAD AMERICA IN THE 1960S.

and kids accountable for learning 23 million /and the environment are inconclusive. Contract with America -Republican party goals 10 items favored by the conservative electorate/process, but as a process of the world becoming increasingly interconnected--and also as one in which values are becoming more oriented to a global context, and international institutions are playing a more central role. Cultural – American products worldwide, languages (820 mil Mandarin, 329 mil Spanish, 328 mil English) Political/


Fundamentals of Arts Advocacy Harnessing Your Power November 1, 2012 Jay H. Dick Senior Director of State & Local Government Affairs Americans for the.

they add value to society Support the arts as they create jobs and tax revenue Support arts education as it diminishes the drop out rate and kids with arts education score, on average, 100 points higher on their / nexus between it and candidate’s prospects for election.  Funds must come from traditional political sources (donations, dues, etc)  Contributions not tax deductible. Basic Rule Section 501(c)(3) organizations may engage in educational activities related to the electoral process as long as they/


Partisanship and Group Voting II POLS 4349 Dr. Brian William Smith.

/watch?v=NwzaxUF0k18 Learning Outcomes I Evaluate how people develop political opinions and how this impacts their political behavior. Evaluate and interpret the importance of partisanship in shaping political opinion and vote choice Identify and describe the formal and informal institutions involved in the electoral process Readings Chapter 4: Partisans and Partisan Change (Flanigan) Chapter 5: Social Characteristics of Partisans and Independents (Flanigan) For Groups to Matter It has to be big It/


The Executive Branch: The Presidency The Presidency Demographics, Roles, Formal and Informal Powers of the President.

to the White House Since 1960, the Presidential Election process has been affected by an increase in all of the following: –proportion of independents in the electorate –influence of political consultants –number of primaries –role television. Once elected,/Possible FRQ’s for the President and Congress The concept of “divided government in the United States means that one political party can control the executive branch while another controls the legislative branch. This poses problems for the President in/


Voter Turnout POLS 21: The American Political System “A citizen of America will cross the ocean to fight for democracy, but wont cross the street to vote.

traits and psychological orientations Socialization through programs such as Kids Voting USA How Does Motor-Voter Work? 1.Simultaneous application for driver’s license and voter registration 2.Mail application for voter /process unfairly targeted African-American voters. The Problem with Motor-Voter Voter Registration Voter Turnout Motivation and/or interest in politics Voter Turnout as a Political Strategy With narrow margins of victory, and an electorate split evenly down the middle, political parties/


The Iraq war divided the Arabs, the Europeans, the Americans and caused a structural damage to Iraq’s society, state, & infrastructure Aljazeera.

strategy and as a recruiting tool to provide a steady flow of willing young patriots for its wars....Give a nineteen-year-old kid an automatic weapon, and it takes him four days to become God’” -- Watch “Hollywood and /political process which is under brutal occupation.   Prof. Dr. Harith al-Dari described the current political process as a way to legalize the occupation and the confirmation of American hegemony over Iraq saying: "We will not be a party in the electoral process and in the political process/


Food Where it is on the map and weather Mayan Ruins hotels Welcome to Cozumel Mexico Ways to get there Things to do.

collapse and political unrest. Fall of the PRI and the emergence of opposition From the mid-1990s several demonstrations and economic crises arose to reveal the peoples dissatisfaction at the government. After the dubitable 1988 election, the IFE (Instituto Electoral - Federal Electoral Institute) was established in the early 90s to ensure the transparency of the electoral process. Consequently, PANs candidate for the 2000 election (Partido Accion Nacional, National Action Party/


The Iraq war divided the Arabs, the Europeans, the Americans and caused a structural damage to Iraq’s society, state, & infrastructure Aljazeera.

strategy and as a recruiting tool to provide a steady flow of willing young patriots for its wars....Give a nineteen-year-old kid an automatic weapon, and it takes him four days to become God’” -- Watch “Hollywood and the/political process which is under brutal occupation. Prof. Dr. Harith al-Dari described the current political process as a way to legalize the occupation and the confirmation of American hegemony over Iraq saying: "We will not be a party in the electoral process and in the political process/


The Iraq war divided the Arabs, the Europeans, the Americans and caused a structural damage to Iraq’s society, state, & infrastructure Aljazeera.

strategy and as a recruiting tool to provide a steady flow of willing young patriots for its wars....Give a nineteen-year-old kid an automatic weapon, and it takes him four days to become God’” -- Watch “Hollywood and the/political process which is under brutal occupation. Prof. Dr. Harith al-Dari described the current political process as a way to legalize the occupation and the confirmation of American hegemony over Iraq saying: "We will not be a party in the electoral process and in the political process/


Russia Political Structure. Think… “It’s all about Putin”

Electoral System: Proportional Representation (2007)   Constitution: 1993 Constitution   Legislature: Bicameral—Duma and Federation Council   Current President: Dmitry Medvedev   Current Prime Minister: Vladimir Putin   Current Ruling Party: United Russia Party   Major Political Parties/contributed greatly to Russia’s crisis.   Impeachment is a complicated process involving the Duma, Federation Council, Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Court (Yeltsin’s opponents in the Duma tried, but were/


Ohio Social Studies Strands Project Grade Six Standards and Activities Tiffany Moore Lori Siconolfi October 21, 2004.

, campaign for a party, and vote on Election Day. Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities Websites ► Kids Voting USA  http://www.kidsvotingusa.org/ http://www.kidsvotingusa.org/ ► Take Your Kids To Vote/for Kids: Citizenship  http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/citizenship/index.html http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/citizenship/index.html  Election Process: http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6- 8/election/index.html http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6- 8/election/index.htmlhttp://bensguide.gpo.gov/6- 8/election/index.html ► Electoral/


Chapter 38 1960-1968.  Complacent and comfortable as the 1950s closed, Americans elected in 1960 a young, vigorous president who pledged “to get the.

Electoral College was 489 to 52.  Johnson’s huge victory temporarily smashed the conservative congressional coalition of southern Democrats and/ orders and to prohibit racial discrimination in all kids of public accommodations and employment./and barefaced intimidation still barred black people from the political process.  MS law required the names of prospective black registrants to be published for/party.  Eugene McCarthy, a little-known Democratic senator from Minnesota, had emerged as a contender for/


Public Opinion and Political Action Part I. 1.Unanimity rare in public opinion (9/11 the exception) 2. American people? a. Very diverse b. Pop. 310 million.

for every person on Social Security! c. America’s most costly public policy after National Defense d. Both parties won’t touch it- why? III. How Americans Lean About Politics: Political Socialization 1.Political Socialization: -the process by which an individual acquire his particular political orientation -his knowledge, feelings, and evaluations about his political/ these places to interview every tenth person to predict the electoral winners quickly –Historically, media reports likely winner before people/


Competency Goal #1 Investigate the foundations of the American political system and explore basic values and principles of American democracy.

and prestige of European countries. ► It took many years for the descendants of the Europeans to realize the wrongs that had been committed in the process of expansion. Colonial Society ► Near the end of the 17 th Century (1600s) in the Chesapeake, elite Virginia farmers owned the best farms and had strong political/into the early years of the country and eventually the factions became political parties. Federalists/Anti-Federalists ► ► The Federalists were the first party. ► ► The developed around the /


Linkage Institutions Political Parties Interest Groups 1.

been doing business. 26 Review Activity 1.Working with a partner please begin completing the review activity for Political Parties and Interest Groups. 2.This is not optional today. 27 Linkage Institutions - Overview and Homework Cram for the exam (4:00) – Political Parties Cram for the exam Cram for the Exam (4:00) – Interest Groups Cram for the Exam (4:00) Please study for the test of Topics 10.7 (Interest Groups/


 Citizen- member of a community with certain rights, duties, and responsibilities  Rights  Duties  Responsibilities  Definitions and examples of.

decisions, and records.  This is called the “Full faith and credit” clause.  It also explains the process for creatig new states  It promises that the federal government will protect and defend the/elections (primary and general elections)  Lobbyists  Political Parties  Interest Groups  PACs  Media  Propaganda  Foreign Affairs  US citizens  18 and up  Registered  Not serving time for a felony  How has voting expanded over the years?  Primary  Caucus  General Election  Electoral College /


Response to the defeat of Napoleon

, etc. No government should interfere with this natural process 4/12/2017 John 3:16 Economic Liberalism David Ricardo further developed Malthus ideas Wrote, “Principles of Political Economy” Population increases More workers Wages fall Misery and starvation Population is reduced Wages climb, workers have more kids, the cycle repeats 4/12/2017 John 3:16 Political Liberalism Political liberals held common beliefs Protection of basic rights/


Chapter 7: Issues of the Gilded Age ( )

could live, work, & send their kids to school. Plessy Vs Ferguson –/electoral vote. Chester Arthur became President after Garfield was assassinated… then failed to win his parties nomination in a re-election campaign. Grover Cleveland was only really notable leader…was known for/political party that was elected. a. local, state, and federal level b. allowed for many unqualified people to be given very important jobs “It’s not what you…it’s who you know” President was often not involved in the campaign process/


What political structure did the strong nation state replace? feudal monarchy.

XI What was the primary requirement for being a Renaissance Prince? Power What technological process that preceded movable metal type made/kids and lived with your aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents? SE Europe What was the primary unit of both production and /for a happy life What work and author described the fall of Satan? Milton’s Paradise Lost Describe Shakespeare’s political & social outlook. Conservative What work and author described the effects of too much Restoration Partying? Bunyan’s Life and/


TURKISH ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION: IDENTITIES, DISCOURSES, CONFRONTATIONS ASSIST.PROF.DR. BASAK ALPAN DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE & PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.

politics at 3 November 2002 general elections the then recently established Justice and Development Party (AKP) won 34.4 per cent of votes and 365 seats in the parliament which provided the Party with an opportunity to form a majority government for the first time in Turkish political/ We will leave Copenhagen with the best result possible (…) We are a party which is determined to accelerate the EU integration process and to execute an economic programme which would strengthen integration with the rest of /


Divided Youth in the Digital Age: Two Paradigms of Citizen Identity ~ Lance Bennett Center for Communication and Civic Engagement University of Washington,

Electoral Political Activities US youth vs. adults Schools and Political Engagement: What are the challenges? What schools do best teaching textbook knowledge about government -- most effective for DCs Engaging AC identity and digital lifestyles present challenges for/Australia Knowledge of Australian political institutions and structures Values concerning democracy, the rule of law, social justice, equity and fairness Commitment to including all Australians in the political process …………………… An obligation to/


Article V: A Brief History and Contemporary Efforts to Trigger a Convention. 2015 Jeff Lewis National Director Richard D. Fry.

County Green Party East Bay Peace Action Eastern Washington Voters Eat Drink Politics Eco-Eating EcoBirth-Women for Earth and Birth EcoJive Economic Justice Action Group of the First Unitarian Church Essex County, New York, Democratic Committee Ethical Business Society First Unitarian Universalist Church of Columbus, OH First Unitarian Universalist Congregation of the Palm Beaches - Social Action Committee Florida Immigrant Coalition Florida Initiative for Electoral Reform/


Unit 3 Political Beliefs and Behaviors Exam Review PowerPoint.

The Rise of the American Electorate Women given right to vote by 19 th Amendment (1920); participation rose immediately, but no major impact on electoral outcomes 18-year-olds given /political participation Gender- equal Race – Black participation is lower, BUT controlling for socioeconomic status, they actually participate at a higher rate Political Participation Factors that Decrease Turnout Youths, minorities pushing down percentage of eligible adults who are registered and vote (Ya darn kids!) Parties/


The first Tuesday after the first Monday..  1. Campaign and debate for primary elections  Candidate for the two major parties chosen by primary process.

the first Monday.  1. Campaign and debate for primary elections  Candidate for the two major parties chosen by primary process  Conventions- formally nominate and promote candidate  Campaign and debate for general election  Election day  Electoral College formality  PRIMARY- Decides which candidate party prefers in the general election. Closed- only vote within party Open- vote either party, but only one party- Ind can vote too Blanket primary- vote either party and cross over on ballot. Beauty/


Unit 3 by Marvin Paz and Mikayla Woolhouse. 1)what factors shape public opinion? the factors that shape it are social class, education, region, age, gender,

groups affect the political process, and what advantages do they garner for represented sectors? They are an organized coalition of people with a specific goal in mind to influence politics 10) What are the ideological stances of the major parties? Ex. Budget and economy-Democrats-Create an economy built to last & built from the middle out. (Sep 2012) OpEd: Republicans want to cut benefits to kids. (Jan 2012/


1 Redistricting California: An Overview of Data, Processes & GIS Karin Mac Donald & Nicole Boyle Statewide Database – Berkeley Law

with political parties, incumbents, or political candidates Neighborhoods: Vary in size Are sometimes defined by cities (often poorly), and/or communities No data sources available that show neighborhoods statewide Need to be documented and submitted /and implement an open hearing process for public input and deliberation that shall be subject to public notice and promoted through a thorough outreach program to solicit broad public participation in the redistricting public review process. The hearing process/


A Society Gone with the Wind… Antebellum Southern Society Look for it only in books, for it is no more than a dream remembered. A Civilization gone with.

and cattle Breeding Not officially endorsed You bred more kids…freedom/Africa Stricter legal codes for slaves Movement for abolition is concentrated in/process perfectly legitimate on its own part, blameless on ours.... California will, probably next fall away from...Mexico...imbecile and/and only when required by the political and economic needs of the business elite of the North. It was Abraham Lincoln who combined perfectly the needs of business, the political ambition of the new Republican party, and/


Hand in your signed syllabus to the basket. Answer on your own sheet of paper: Why (do you think) the school (and the state of Delaware) require all students.

in one kid getting in trouble instead of another kid? 3. How/and Violence › Use Christianity as a front for their tactics  Goals During Reconstruction › Destroy Republican Party › Aid the Planter Class › Prevent African Americans from exercising their political/and others who threaten property; and the right to voluntarily transfer land, labor, capital and entrepreneurial talent to others. Property rights are defined, enforced and limited through constitutional guarantees, legislation and other processes/


History 120 United States to 1877 Week 11 Jacksonian Politics (Chapter 12) Southern Slave Society (Chapter 10) Modernizing North (Chapter 11)

voted in ’24)  = 80% of eligible electorate  Both avoid slavery  House adopts “gag rule” (1836) to block discussion of abolition petitions Whigs  Heirs to Federalists  Activist US Government for:  growth (new BUS, more paper currency)  reform (public education)  Class/religion/ethnicity affect membership  Whigs:  middle to upper-class merchants, planters, commercial farmers  evangelical Protestants, blend politics and religion  fear “excess of democracy” p. 309/


CHOOSING THE NOMINEE: HOW PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES CAME TO BE AND THEIR FUTURE IN AMERICAN POLITICS Senior Honors Thesis by Ryan Rainey.

Nomination and Party Structure  Eliminated threshold set by Mikulski  Publicly declared party preference  Establishes time frame for primary /Comeback Kid  Primary campaign in trouble  Strong start  Major issues  Fundraising  Dropping poll numbers  Lack of support The Comeback Kid /for states with four or less electoral votes  State equality issue? One Day National Lottery  All primary and caucus contests held on same day  Eliminates “who goes first?” controversy  Eliminates advantages for/


Saki Yoshida Mio Imada Suhyun Kim. Human Security Economic FoodHealth Environ- mental Personal Commun ity Political.

month. =>Immediate response and recovery(important!!!) X =>Due to the lack of aid for such a long time, many people who would have been saved lost their lives, human security was threatened. From Book2-Fukushima  Japan-democratic, liberal, multi-party election ( Freedom in the World 2014 by Freedom House - 1.0 /7.0 “Free”-PR:1 CL:1) Political Insecurity? Ha! Kidding!? From Book2-Fukushima/


Unit V Notes The Legislative Branch. Why is Congress called the Worlds Most Exclusive Club? There are only 535 Members and it costs between $45 and $300.

White – Male – Protestant – Married (to original spouse) – Average of 2.5 kids – An Ivy League grad – Lawyer – Born in the State they serve – Very wealthy (ave/for re-election and raising funds Have to do all 5 every day….. Sometimes at the same time!!!! Congressional Voting Philosophies Trustee: vote is based on own knowledge and judgment Delegate: vote is based on the public opinion of the District/State Partisan: vote is based on political party Politicos: try to combine judgment, public opinion, and party/


Governmental Change Benchmark: Analyze ways in which people achieve governmental change including political action, social protest, and revolution. Methods.

policy works within the system. It is nonviolent and usually socially acceptable. Methods used to change the government A. Method of Gov. Change #1: Political Action 1. Uses the processes within a gov. to get change 2. Ex: Congress passes a new law or amends an old law B. Method of Gov. Change #2: Political Parties 1. Political party: an organization whose chief purpose is to elect/


American Political Culture and Public Opinion

identification Family #1 influence of political attitude Very strong correlation for Political Party support Gender Examples More men support military More women consider sexual harassment a serious problem Since ’60s, women vote Dem more than men, and vice versa Not as significant of/to office d. prevent states from using literacy requirements for voting e. allow sixteen year olds to vote if they have a valid driver’s license Political socialization is the process by which a. the use of private property is/


Power in People’s Republic of China (PRC)  China used to be a monarchy with an emperor and a supporting bureaucracy.  Throughout the dynasties preceding.

He mobilized the entire country in 1992 to speed up the reform process, even though his formal political post was President of Chinese Bridge Association. Legislative National People’s/and jail time, for discussing politics online  Politics is taught in school, in almost every lesson  Teachers and students are still monitored by the CCP Civil Society  Xiaozu- used to be a required form of participation, where the CCP sent out members to educate the peasants, who were often illiterate, about the party, and/


Darwin Is Soooo Last Year AFACCT 2010. Just kidding… Chuck Darwin (1809-1882)

for his views and clearly represents a large segment of our electorate. He is challenging House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer for/kids go to Sunday school and/ party /politeness and craving for conflict resolution expressed by many students. The anonymity of ACOC and the debate format often causes a devolution into “flaming.” Voices of reason? / Seeking compromise?  Finally, and perhaps most astonishingly, Genesis doesnt say how God created life. So whos to say that God didnt use so-called evolution processes/


Overview of summer 2015 end of year examination. This section will be based on two different sources. You must read these sources carefully and then answer.

to 1678. Official colour is Blue Leader is David Cameron, the Prime Minister Political Parties The Liberal Democrats are a social liberal political party in the United Kingdom. Formed in 1988 by a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party. The Liberal Democrats support social liberalism, constitutional and electoral reform, progressive taxation and civil liberties At the 2010 general election, 57 Liberal Democrat MPs were elected, making/


Israeli Politics for Beginners Soc 2 – Monday 15:50-17:00.

called… Know your Peres from your Peretz Tuesday 18:00-19:20 An interactive introduction to Israeli Politics Hopefully in an hour you will Find out how the Israeli electoral system works Learn who the main political parties are and what they stand for Know the results of the last election and who is currently in government Have an idea why things change so fast. Please stop/


Unit 1: Introduction to American Democracy and Political Culture Unit 1.

of racism Against because govt. is not responsible for this and possible reverse racism? For gun control For gun rights AgainstFor Against Economic Views Pure Communism/ Socialism Pure Capitalism Social/Political Views --Totalitarianism --authoritarianism --Libertarianism --Anarchy How Can We Solve This? Political Compass www.politicalcompass.org 2008 Presidential Candidates Election 2004 President Barack Obama Elected Nov, 2008 Electoral vote365173 States carried28+DC+NE-0222 Popular vote68,162/


Topical Review: Colonial Era to 1787

Process; similarities; radical/conservative victories Political (1763-1800) Government policy favors westward expansion Shays’s Rebellion=sign Federalist Era Establishment of new government/precedents; Bill of Rights; Rise of Political parties; Whiskey Rebellion; Alien and Sedition Acts; Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Rise of the two-party system (because domestic and/ Reconstruction Governments and gains for free blacks Crop lien and sharecropping Civil /kids in Schools 1906 Japanese Immigration disallowed/


10 Public Opinion.

important to members of the public, either. The American National Election Study has asked respondents what they like and dislike about each of the political parties at least every four years since 1952. Here the vertical axis shows the percentages of all “likes” and “dislikes” (for Republicans and Democrats combined) that concern taxes. So what changed after the 1960s? Why did taxes become more important to/


Individual citizens hold a variety of beliefs about their government, its leaders, and the U.S. political system in general; taken together, these beliefs.

and democratic: weak parties, more women in politics, more initiatives etc) Founders escape religious freedom (though had it in Holland-so escape here for economic opportunity) Religion Many Americans cite religion as important in life Religious leaders use pulpit for political change Protestant work ethic Family structure--more equal, kids/ Ethnicity Gender Region Race Income Level of education... cleavages The Expanding American Electorate 1789: Adult, White Men, Property Owners 1850: literacy laws & poll/


Progressivism Goal 7. Populism’s Legacy Legacy of Populism 1. Populism failed as a 3rd Party cause but had political influence for 25 years after its.

, & regulation of public utilities. ▫Replaced the existing spoils system with state civil service Political Reform!! Direct primary ▫1903, LaFollette pressured the legislature to instituted an election open to all voters within a party Introduced the initiative, referendum, and recall ▫initiative -- allowed citizens to introduce a bill ▫referendum: voters cast ballots for or against proposed laws ▫recall: gave citizens right to remove elected officials from/


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