Ppt on pathophysiology of obesity

RESPIRATORY FAILURE Miklós Molnár Semmelweis University Institute of Pathophysiology 2005.

head and neck showing the segment over which sleep related narrowing can occur (arrows). Anatomy of obstructive sleep apnea. An obese young woman with the short, thick neck typically seen in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Pathophysiology Enlarged uvula resting on the base of the tongue (large arrow), along with hypertrophied tonsils (small arrows). The posterior pharyngeal erythema may be secondary to repeated trauma/


RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Melanie Laine, PharmD PGY1 Pharmacy Resident University of Kentucky HealthCare April 22, 2015.

, hands, feet Symmetrical OSTEOARTHRITIS Morning stiffness < 30 minutes, resolves with activity Equal gender prevalence ↑ Age Normal ESR Local symptoms ↑ Obesity Hands, knees, hips, spine Asymmetrical Wahl K and Schuna AA. Chap 72. Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 9th ed. (2014). PREDICTORS OF WORSE OUTCOME Older age Female gender Genotype (HLA-DRB1) Worse physical functioning Cigarette smoking Saag KG et al. Arthritis/


E.S.Prakash, MBBS, MD Division of Basic Medical Sciences

with fat meal Hiatal hernia – in a study cited in the paper below, as many as 50% of morbidly obese patients selected for bariatric surgery had hiatal herniahttp://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/v103/n8/pdf/ajg2008412a.pdf Adipokines from/WNL. She reported fetal movements and fetal heart rate was within normal limits. What is the likely pathophysiologic basis of this presentation? Issue – Transport of bile acids and bile salts by the hepatocyte Figure Link: http://tinyurl.com/6rcz6fg Question 18 Bilirubin is/


Charles V. Pollack Jr, MA, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Program Chairman Chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine Pennsylvania Hospital Professor of Emergency Medicine.

of BP management in the ED We will look to the near future of management of acute severe hypertension We will look to the near future of management of acute severe hypertension We will review the scope, pathophysiology, and epidemiology of / TransientWho cares? History and Physical US Obesity Epidemic US Obesity Epidemic l < 50% exercise more than occasionally l Colorado the thinnest state, only 13% obese l Too small a cuff falsely elevates BP US Obesity Epidemic US Obesity Epidemic l < 50% exercise more /


PATHOPHYSIOLOGY GROUP 1 BALAMIENTO – BALMORES – BERNARDO – CABANTAC – CASTELLANO – CHAN - CORPUS.

glucose levels in urine Promotes osmotic diuresis Nocturia or polyuria Symptoms PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Eventual decline in insulin levels Fuel source shifts from carbohydrates to proteins and fats proteolysis Usage of gluconeogenic amino acids Depletion of glycogen stores Polyphagia Cells become hungry Increased appetite to compensate for depleted energy stores Symptoms PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Obesity –central or visceral obesity is common more associated with insulin resistance –elevated free fatty acids/


Introduction to thrombosis

COAGULABILITY ~inflammatory stimuli ~consumption of endogenous anticoagulants Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis Common: Trauma Post-surgery Immobility/Inactivity Obesity Pregnancy Estrogens/Birth control Malignancy Age Previous history of DVT/PE Age and /Thrombosis: -Pathophysiology, Risk factors, Symptoms and Signs, treatment 2. Venous Thrombosis: -Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, Symptoms and Signs 3. Common anticoagulants 4. Hereditary and acquired hypercoagulable Disorders Indications of a congenital /


Diabetes Mellitus Definition

blood glucose testing at their first prenatal visit are those with marked obesity, a personal history of GDM, glycosuria, or a strong family history of diabetes. Initial management includes dietary modification and blood glucose monitoring. If/ Diabetes Mellitus Patient education 1. Simple pathophysiology Basic definition of diabetes (having a high blood glucose level) Normal blood glucose ranges Effect of insulin and exercise (decrease glucose) Effect of food and stress, including illness and infections/


Pre-test Question 1: Choose the one correct answer 1.Obesity trends in children correlate with declines in milk consumption ** 2.Obesity trends in the.

vending machines with pop schools and a la carte foods Adult BMI Chart 54" Height Weight (lbs) 52 " 50" 510" 58" 56" 60" 62" 120130150160170180 190200210220230240250 140 260270280290300 64" The Pathophysiology of Obesity Impacts Clinical Management 1. Aronne LJ et al. Clin Cornerstone. 2009;9:9-29. 2. Ochner CN et al. Physiol Behav. 2013;120:106-113. Clinical Treatment 1/


Metabolic Syndrome as Pathway for Cardiovascular Disease Neil Schneiderman University of Miami Presented at the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center June 2006.

mg/dL)14% –Normal Glucose 65% –Weight Normal 15%Normal 15% Overweight (BMI >25 25 <30) 44% Obese (BMI  30) 41%Obese (BMI  30) 41% –Metabolic syndrome88% –Diabetes (FG  126 mg/dL)21% –Impaired Glucose (FG 111-/ (Grewen, Girdler, Amico, & Light, 2005) CONCLUSIONSCONCLUSIONS MetSyn_PMBC_June2006 84 Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis From Charo. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1992 MetSyn_PMBC_June2006 85 Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis Ox-LDLOx-LDL LDL NAD(P)H Oxidase MetSyn_PMBC_June2006 86 Oxytocin and/


Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Focus on Disorders of the Biliary Tract (Relates to.

risk factorsOther risk factors  Sedentary lifestyle  Familial tendency  Obesity More common in whites than Asian and African AmericansMore common in whites than Asian and African Americans ↑ incidence in Navaho and Pima ↑ incidence in Navaho and Pima Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Etiology and Pathophysiology CholecystitisCholecystitis  Most commonly associated with obstruction Gallstones or biliary/


1 Management of Patients With Gastric and Duodenal Disorders Part 3 Miss Iman Shaweesh January 2008.

diseases such as pernicious anemia; dietary factors such as caffeine; the use of medications, especially NSAIDs; alcohol; smoking; or reflux of intestinal contents into the stomach. 6 Pathophysiology   In gastritis, the gastric mucous membrane becomes edematous and hyperemic (/ II) 37   Removal of distal third of stomach; anastomosis with duodenum or jejunum. Removes gastrin- producing cells in the antrum and part of the parietal cells. 38 Morbid Obesity   obesity is the term applied to people/


H - h Sherri Katz, MD, CM, FRCPC Pediatric Respirologist Assistant Professor Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario University of Ottawa Obesity & OSA.

, CM, FRCPC Pediatric Respirologist Assistant Professor Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario University of Ottawa Obesity & OSA in Kids Objectives Understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea in obese children Understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea in obese children Recognize associated co-morbidities of obesity and concurrent OSA in childhood Recognize associated co-morbidities of obesity and concurrent OSA in childhood Review alternative treatment/


News in laboratory diagnostics of metabolic syndrome Prof. David Stejskal, MD, PhD, MBA, EurChem ( ) Dept. o f Medical Chemistry.

Endothelial dysfunction – hypertension Atherogenic dislipoproteinemia –  TAG,  HDL 8 Pathophysiology proinflammatory prothrombotic proatherogenic DM II as a manifestation of MS Type II DM insulin resistance insulin resistance hyperinsulinemia hyperinsulinemia visceral obesity visceral obesity hypertension inflammation fibrinolysis impairment fibrinolysis impairment prothrombotic state prothrombotic state dyslipidemiahormonalchanges Consequences of MS (adopted from: Pelikánová. T.: Inzulinová rezistence a/


Management of Clients with Intestinal Disorders NRS 108 SPRING 2008 LOLA OYEDELE MSN,RN,CTN MAJUVY SULSE MSN, RN, CCRN.

organ through the structure that normally contains it. Occurs commonly in the abdomen Etiology and Risk Factors Occurs due to a defect in the integrity of the muscular wall Increased intra – abdominal pressure. Obesity Heavy lifting and straining Pathophysiology Defects in muscular wall and increased intra abdominal pressure leads to herniation Muscle weakness can be congenital, due to trauma or wide space at/


The Epidemiology of Arthritis EPID 624- Epidemiology of Chronic Disease.

Income Education Cost Pathophysiologies of Specific Arthritides Osteoarthritis Post-Traumatic Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Gout Osteoporosis Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Intervention and Research Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Current Research Future Areas of Research Part I:/in the Southeastern U.S. Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control (2010) Risk Factors Joint Trauma Obesity Repetitive Joint Usage Muscle Weakness Nutritional Deficiency Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control (2010) High Risk /


CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS Department of Pharmaceutics 1.

.  The pharmacokineticist should carefully evaluate these results while considering the patient and patients pathophysiological conditions. 12 7) Readjustment of dosage regimen: From the serum drug concentration data and patient observations, the Pharmacokineticist might/ tissue.  Other pharmacokinetic parameters may be altered in the obese patient due to possible physiologic alterations such as fatty infiltration of the liver affecting biotransformation and cardiovascular changes which might affect renal/


Nursing of Adults with Medical & Surgical Conditions Disorders of the Peripheral Vascular System.

Antiembolism stockings n Surgery – thrombectomy – vena cava umbrella (Greenfield filter) Greenfield Filter Varicose Veins n Etiology/Pathophysiology – Tortuous, dilated vein with incompetent valves – Most common in women 40-60 years of age – Caused by: n congenital defective valves, absent valve, valve that becomes incompetent n Pregnancy or obesity n prolonged standing n constrictive clothing Varicose Veins n Signs & Symptoms – Dark, raised, tortuous veins/


Diabetes Mellitus Definition: metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to an absolute or relative lack of insulin or to a cellular resistance.

DM may require insulin Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology 1. Sufficient insulin production to prevent DKA; but insufficient to lower blood glucose through uptake of glucose by muscle and fat cells 2. Cellular resistance to insulin increased by obesity, inactivity, illness, age, some medications Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors 1. History of diabetes in parents or siblings; no HLA 2. Obesity (especially of upper body) 3. Physical inactivity 4/


Nursing of Adults with Medical & Surgical Conditions

hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection Cancer of the Endometrium Etiology/Pathophysiology Adenocarcinoma of the uterus Slow growing tumor Usually affects postmenopausal women More likely to be localized can spread to cervix, bladder, rectum and lymph nodes High risk History of irregular menstruation Difficulty during menopause Obesity Hypertension Diabetes mellitus No children Family history of cancer of the uterus Cancer of the Endometrium Signs & Symptoms Postmenopausal bleeding 50/


Copyright © 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Napa Valley College ADN N142 Unit IV Endocrine/Diabetes.

produced is either insufficient or poorly utilized by tissues Copyright © 2007, 2004, 2000, Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Etiology and Pathophysiology Obesity (abdominal/visceral) –Most powerful risk factor Genetic mutations –Lead to insulin resistance –Increased risk for obesity –http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/player/popu p/?cl=7492540http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/player/


Focus on Disorders of the Biliary Tract (Relates to Chapter 44, “Nursing Management: Liver, Pancreas, and Biliary Tract Problems” in the textbook) Copyright.

Obesity More common in whites than in Asian and African AmericansMore common in whites than in Asian and African Americans ↑ incidence in Navajo and Pima ↑ incidence in Navajo and Pima Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 7 Etiology and Pathophysiology/in ducts and produce an obstruction Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 15 Etiology and Pathophysiology Cholelithiasis (cont’d)Cholelithiasis (cont’d)  If blockage occurs in cystic duct Bile can/


Obesity & Diabetes. Initial Talking Points Weakness of Data Weakness of Data –Self-report Exercise & T2DM risk? Exercise & T2DM risk? Improved Control.

Diabetes Type 2 Risk Factors Family history of diabetes Family history of diabetes Older age Older age Obesity, particularly intra-abdominal obesity Obesity, particularly intra-abdominal obesity Physical inactivity Physical inactivity Prior history of gestational diabetes Prior history of gestational diabetes Impaired glucose homeostasis Impaired glucose homeostasis Race or ethnicity Race or ethnicity Diabetes Type 2 Pathophysiology Results from a combination of insulin resistance and β-cell failure Results/


Diabetes Mellitus Pathophysiology. Diabetes Mellitus Literally “sweet urine” Defined by excess blood serum glucose –Normally all glucose in the PCT is.

defects –Insulin receptor Antibodies –Accelerated insulin destruction Insulin Resistance Obesity is most common –Decreased number of receptors –Failure of receptor to activate Skeletal muscle: failure of glut-4 transport Compensatory mechanism: secrete more insulin / Peripheral –Ulcers, amputations –Charcot joints –Neuralgia Pathophysiology InsulinBeta cellsCells that Require Insulin Transport MechanismReceptor AffinityNumber of receptors Alpha CellsGlucagon Liver secrete glucose Hunger IntestinesIncretin /


Diabetes Mellitus. DEFINITION Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in carbohydrate,

blood glucose control over time. Type 2 DM occurs when a diabetogenic lifestyle (excessive calories, inadequate exercise, and obesity) is superimposed upon a susceptible genotype. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Uncommon causes of diabetes (1% to 2% of cases) include endocrine disorders (e.g., acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), diseases of the exocrine pancreas (e.g., pancreatitis), and medications (e.g., glucocorticoids, pentamidine, niacin, and α- interferon/


Control of Cardiovascular Function, Disorders of Blood Flow and Blood Pressure, Hyperlipidemia, and Artherosclerosis 1.

aortic/pulmonic valves shut (S2). 106 Ventricular Diastole Diagram 107 Ventricular Diastole Diagram 108 Porth, 2007, Essentials of Pathophysiology, 2 nd ed., Lippincott, p. 334. Ventricular Diastole Description 109 Ventricular Diastole Description Ventricular relaxation and / Associated with other health problems and behaviors (high fat diet, obesity, diabetes mellitus) 394 Diagnosis Screening 395 Diagnosis Screening All adults 20 years of age and older should have a fasting lipoprotein profile done every /


Obesity & Diabetes. Initial Talking Points Weakness of Data Weakness of Data –Self-report Exercise & T2DM risk? Exercise & T2DM risk? Improved Control.

Diabetes Type 2 Risk Factors Family history of diabetes Family history of diabetes Older age Older age Obesity, particularly intra-abdominal obesity Obesity, particularly intra-abdominal obesity Physical inactivity Physical inactivity Prior history of gestational diabetes Prior history of gestational diabetes Impaired glucose homeostasis Impaired glucose homeostasis Race or ethnicity Race or ethnicity Diabetes Type 2 Pathophysiology Results from a combination of insulin resistance and β-cell failure Results/


Type II Diabetes Heidi Chamberlain Shea, MD Endocrine Associates of Dallas.

Diabetes Heidi Chamberlain Shea, MD Endocrine Associates of Dallas Points of Discussion Type II Diabetes Background Background Diagnosis Diagnosis Pathophysiology Pathophysiology Oral treatments Oral treatments Office visits Office visits Type II Diabetes Epidemic Epidemic Increase intake Increase intake Decreased activity Decreased activity Parallels the rise in obesity Parallels the rise in obesity Genetics Genetics Obesity causes earlier disease Obesity causes earlier disease High risk ethnic groups High/


Aetiology, epidemiology, presentation, detection, clinical course and pathophysiology of: Cervical Cancer.

lesions, and early diagnosis with more than 95% of patients with early cancer of the cervix cured Aetiology, epidemiology, presentation, detection, clinical course and pathophysiology of: Endometrial Cancer Aetiology- Endometrial CA Same as for endometrial hyperplasia prolonged oestrogen stimulation of the endometrium, which can be due to anovulation, increased oestrogen production from endogenous sources, or exogenous oestrogen. –Obesity –diabetes (abnormal glucose tolerance is found in more/


Diabetes Mellitus 101 for Medical Professionals An Aggressive Pathophysiologic Approach to Cardiometabolic Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: Stanley Schwartz.

: Stanley Schwartz MD, FACE, FACP Emeritus, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Affiliate, Main Line Health System Wynnewood, Pa. Part 3 Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Pathophysiology Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes IR phenotype Atherosclerosis obesity hypertension  HDL,  TG, HYPERINSULINEMIA Endothelial dysfunction PCO,ED Envir.+ Other Disease Obesity (visceral) Poor Diet Inactivity Insulin Resistance Risk of Dev. Complications ETOH BP Smoking Eye Nerve Kidney  Beta/


PTA 120 Pathophysiology Week 5. Objectives Discuss anatomic structures and physiologic processes related to the skeletal system. Discuss physical effects.

extension exercises Heat, massage, spinal support to reduce pain Balance training if needed PTA 120 Pathophysiology Day 3 Abnormal curvatures Kyphosis Description Exaggeration of the normal posterior thoracic curvature Excessive rounding > 45-50 degrees (20-40 degrees is /Traumatic twisting injury Boys > girls, between 11 and 16 years old Obesity or growing rapidly Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Signs and Symptoms Pain, restriction of movement at hip Knee pain, referred from the hip Impaired ambulation /


Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is “a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia.” (HPIM.

& fat metabolism Impaired insulin secretion Increased hepatic glucose and lipid production DM Type 2 Pathophysiology Abnormal muscle and fat metabolism Obesity Genetic susceptibility Insulin resistance Impaired glucose utilization hyperglycemia ↑ hepatic gluconeogenesis ↑ FPG ↓ peripheral glucose usage Postprandial hyperglycemia ↑ impairement in glycogen formation of skeletal muscles DM Type 2 Pathophysiology Impaired insulin secretion 2 nd genetic defect Insulin resistance ↑ insulin secretion Mild insulin/


Targeting the Underlying Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes

strong risk factor for insulin resistance.3 1 World Health Organization, 2005. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity 2Basdevant A, et al. Presse Med 1987; 16:167–170. 3Ascaso JF, et al. Eur J Intern/ team to increase the proportion of individuals achieving good glycemic control and thus decrease the risk of complications. These include the need to target the underlying pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Primary sites of action of oral antidiabetic agents  Carbohydrate /


Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy

agent proven to reduce mortality risk UKPDS shows metformin is best suited for obese type 2 DM patients; reduces mortality Biguanide Summary Medication (A1C reduction) Mechanism of Action Comments Metformin (1.5% to 2%) Decreases hepatic glucose production Improves/ RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM: Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 7th Edition: http://www.accesspharmacy.com Thiazolidinediones Usual reduction in HbA1c of 1.5% - 2.5% Decreases in blood glucose can be seen within 2/


CENTRAL SLEEP APNEA/ HYPOVENTILLATION SYNDROME

apneas can also occur during sleep-onset in otherwise healthy individuals and during sleep at high altitude. Pathophysiology of Central Sleep Apnea During the waking state respiration is controlled by three processes, Metabolic (automatic) Wake-/stage lung disease C. Sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemia due to neuromuscular and chest wall disorders Examples: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, neuromuscular disease, kyphoscoliosis 1-Central apnea due to hyperventilation Treatment Summary 1-Central apnea /


Phenotype-driven Approaches to the Molecular Pathophysiology of Depression 洪成志 醫師 台北榮民總醫院 精神部 行為與基因實驗室.

studies Animal studies Hereditary models Screen abnormal behavior in ENU-mice Personalized Medicine Pharmacological models Tool & model developments Pathophysiology of depression Screen potential antidepressants Clinical trial Heritability test Hereditary animal models Gene cloning Mouse ENU-mutagenesis program Justice, 1999/: 尿多 m/+ G1 WT j f k b d 41 151 68 152 153 G2 G3 IVF m/+ G1 G0 +ENU WT j Obese pedigree 341 f k b d 41 151 肥胖 68 152 153   IVF G2 outcross 21 mice (all normal) BALB G3 F1 /


Diabetes and Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia

Excessive thirst (polydipsia) Frequent urination (polyuria) Polyphagia Weight loss Diabetes Type 2 Risk Factors Family history of diabetes Older age Obesity, particularly intra-abdominal obesity Physical inactivity Prior history of gestational diabetes Impaired glucose homeostasis Race or ethnicity Diabetes Type 2 Pathophysiology Results from a combination of insulin resistance and β-cell failure Insulin resistance: decreased tissue sensitivity or responsiveness to insulin Endogenous insulin levels/


Diabetes Mellitus Part I

body to produce enough insulin or insulin is poorly utilized The pancreas continues to produce insulin Not enough insulin Inability of the body to use the insulin effectively The production of insulin is the major pathophysiological difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type 2 Diabetes: Risk Factors Obesity - especially abdominal and visceral adipose tissue Genetic Insulin Resistance Can be genetic link to/


Bone Pathology.

.6 F) Risk factors for gout with hyperuricemia are age > 30 years, familial history of gout, alcohol use, obesity, thiazide administration, lead etc. GOUT Arthritis: synovial fluid is poorer solvent for sodium urate /. Note the size and number of bone spicules. Vertebral bone with osteoporosis demonstrates a compressed OSTEOPOROSIS Pathophysiology: AGING ↓ replicative activity of the osteoprogenitorcells ↓ synthetic activity of the osteoblasts. ↓ activity of the matrix bound growth factors. OSTEOPOROSIS/


MNT in Cardiovascular Disease. Prevalence and Incidence The United States ranks 14th and 16th, among industrialized nations for the prevalence of CVD.

above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cut points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts: United States. "Obese" is not defined for children. See Data Table for data points graphed, standard errors, and additional notes. Data /cells, and calcium (rate depends partly on level of LDL-C in the blood) → Plaque thickens, incorporating cholesterol, protein, muscle cells, and calcium (rate depends partly on level of LDL-C in the blood) → Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis (cont) Arteries harden and narrow as /


Chapter 41 Assessment and Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus 1.

of total caloric intake to attain or maintain a reasonable body weight, control of blood glucose levels, and normalization of lipids and blood pressure to prevent heart disease. Obesity is associated with an increased resistance to insulin. Some obese/ Diabetes Mellitus Patient education 1. Simple pathophysiology –Basic definition of diabetes (having a high blood glucose level) –Normal blood glucose ranges –Effect of insulin and exercise (decrease glucose) –Effect of food and stress, including illness and /


Neurology Issues. Study data suggest that increased levels of dietary _______ may protect against dementia. (A) Coenzyme Q10 (B) Resveratrol (C) Selenium.

in the United States and elsewhere, if people respond to the drug as mice do.obesity Resveratrol is found in the skin of grapes and in red wine and is conjectured to be a partial explanation for the French/ pushes sumatriptan under skin and provides continuous delivery over 4 hr telcagepant— calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist Pathophysiology of migraines migraines generated from area near periaqueductal grey or dorsal raphe signals travel along parasympathetic outflow pathway (from superior /


Chapter 5 Care of the Patient with a Gastrointestinal Disorder Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

abdominal wall Slide 61 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Disorders of the Intestines Hiatal hernia  Etiology/pathophysiology Protrusion of the stomach and other abdominal viscera through an opening in the membrane or tissue of the diaphragm Contributing factors: obesity, trauma, aging  Clinical manifestations/assessment Most people display few, if any, symptoms Gastroesophageal reflux Slide 62 Mosby/


Welcome Cutting Healthcare Costs Through Prevention: Measuring the Efficacy, Safety, and Cost Savings of Dietary Supplements.

IRS-1/IRS-2Insulin receptor signaling AdiponectinAnti-inflammatory and insulin- sensitizing adipokine Effect of ω-3 fatty acids on factors involved in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome Factor Function Effect of ω-3 Fatty Acid AMPK phosphorylation A fuel sensing enzyme and a gatekeeper of the energy balance Hepatic statosis Obesity induced insulin resistance VLDL HDLDecreases the risk for coronary heart disease Lp(a/


Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Obese Adults Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Obese Adults Pathophysiology and Perioperative Airway Management Anesthesiology, 2009,

sleep in humans. This obstructive apnea is caused by complete or partial closure of the pharyngeal airway. Obesity is a common feature of OSA patients. The increasing prevalence of obesity has lead to an increase in the prevalence of OSA in the general population. pathophysiology Although we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of pharyngeal obstruction during sleep, anatomical imbalance surrounding the pharyngeal airway, lung volume reduction/


Bone Pathology. Normal anatomy Parts of a long bones: diaphysis (shaft), physis (growth plate), epiphysis (ends of bone, partially covered by articular.

, familial history of gout, alcohol use, obesity, thiazide administration, lead etc. Risk factors for gout with hyperuricemia are age > 30 years, familial history of gout, alcohol use, obesity, thiazide administration,/Pathophysiology: Pathophysiology: AGING AGING ↓ replicative activity of the osteoprogenitorcells ↓ replicative activity of the osteoprogenitorcells ↓ synthetic activity of the osteoblasts. ↓ synthetic activity of the osteoblasts. ↓ activity of the matrix bound growth factors. ↓ activity of/


Attribution: Kim Eagle, M.D., 2009 License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution–Share.

of life Prolong life Prevent progression of atherosclerosis Prevent conversion of stable to unstable lesions Relieve symptoms to improve quality of life Prolong life P REVENT P ROGRESSION OF A THEROSCLEROSIS Identify / treat hyperlipidemia Identify / treat hypertension Identify / treat diabetes mellitus Identify / treat smoking Counteract obesity/anterior descending coronary artery; MI, myocardial infarction. Lilly L, et al. Pathophysiology of Heart Disease 2007;166. Improves symptoms: -  -blocker- Ca ++ /


1 Nuggets of knowledge on COPD Scientific highlights from the 2016 ATS in San Francisco.

treatment and managing patients with COPD. 5 Pathophysiology Pathophysiology of COPD 6 COPD airflow limitation Noxious particles or gases, e.g. smoking Broncho- constriction Mucociliary dysfunction Chronic / first exacerbation Patients were classified by their BMI as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity class I, obesity class II and obesity class III Risk of mortality and exacerbations was highest in underweight patients, and reduced in overweight patients, when/


Endocrine Emergencies.  Endocrine System  Physiology/Patho  Function  Disorders of the Pancreas  Disorders of the Thyroid Gland  Disorders of the.

to heredity and obesity.  Accounts for 90% of all diagnosed diabetes patients.  Less risk of fat-based metabolism.  Results in less-pronounced hyperglycemia.  Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic acidosis.  Managed with dietary changes and oral drugs to stimulate insulin production and increase receptor effectiveness. Diabetic Emergencies  Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Hyperglycemia  Pathophysiology  Results from the body’s change to fat metabolism.  Continuous buildup of ketones produces significant/


MIGRAINE 臺北榮民總醫院 神經醫學中心 陳韋達.

foramen ovale Raynaud’s phenomenon Stroke Depression Anxiety Bipolar disorder Eating disorders .Anorexia / bulimia .Obesity  Neurologic Gastrointestinal Pulmonary Seizure disorder Gastric ulcers Irritable bowel syndrome Smoking Asthma Allergies  Endocrine Chronic pain/step in the process is the cortical connection, which continues to be investigated1 1. Silberstein SD et al. The pathophysiology of primary headache. In: Silberstein SD, Goadsby PJ, eds. Headache in Clinical Practice. Oxford, UK: Isis Medical /


Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Leading cause of death in U.S. Narrowing coronary arteries –Atherosclerosis.

via ADH secretion) –Peripheral vasoconstriction 04/11/200929 Pathophysiology of CHF Compensatory mechanisms may restore CO to near-normal. But, if excessive the compensatory mechanisms can worsen heart failure because... 04/11/200930 Pathophysiology of CHF Vasoconstriction: ↑’s the resistance against which / canned foods to reduce sodium. 04/11/200975 Maintain Healthy Weight Blood pressure rises as weight rises. Obesity is also a risk factor for heart disease. Even a 10# weight loss can reduce blood pressure/


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