# Ppt on pacific ring of fire

##### Earthquakes and waves of energy Learning Target: : I am learning how to analyze data in order to predict changes on the Earth’s surface. The purpose.

learning about earthquakes and the energy and how this wave (force) moves within the lithosphere. CW: Ring of Fire and Hot Spots HW: Ring of Fire The Depths Below : Ring of Fire Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire, or just Ring of Fire for short, is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a/

##### EARTHQUAKES earthquakes = shaking of earth’s crust caused by a release of energy 1. results from sudden movement of part of earth’s crust 2. rocks under.

’s plates 2. three major areas: a. Pacific Ring of Fire = includes west coasts of North and South America, east coast of Asia, western Pacific islands of Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, and New Zealand a. Pacific Ring of Fire = includes west coasts of North and South America, east coast of Asia, western Pacific islands of Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, and New Zealand 1) 80% occur along the edges of the Pacific plate 1) 80% occur along the edges/

##### 1. What are the layers of the earth (C.L.A.M.O.I.C) and their state of matter? 2. How many cm/year do you think your fingernails grow? T.S.W.B.A.T. understand.

. Provided a mechanism for movement Provided a mechanism for movement Evidence for Plate Tectonics 1. Earthquake and Volcano “Belts” Pacific Ring of Fire Pacific Ring of Fire 2. Ocean Floor Topography 3. Mid Atlantic Ridge 4. Convection Currents 5. Seafloor Spreading 6. Paleomagnetism Ring of Fire-All around the Pacific Ocean Geologists discovered that many of the Earth’s volcanoes and earthquakes occurred in a pattern, or set location Geologists discovered that many/

##### Natural Disaster Preparedness in the Pacific Northwest (PNW): Plate Tectonics and Their Hazards Audience: Washington State Residents Presented By: Emily.

Hazards Audience: Washington State Residents Presented By: Emily Brown Walden University PUBH 6165-2 Environmental Health Professor Rebecca Heick Winter, 2010. Pacific Northwest Ranges Northern California to Southeast Alaska Geologically diverse and active Part ofRing of Fire” Alt, DD & Hyndman, DW. (1994) Roadside Geology of Washington. Mountain Press Publishing Company. Missoula, Montana. United State Geological Survey (USGS). (2009) Columbia River Basalt. Retrieved January 20, 2010/

##### Today’s Issues in East Asia. The Ring of Fire Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes because Japan is located in the “Ring of Fire”. The Pacific.

Today’s Issues in East Asia The Ring of Fire Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes because Japan is located in the “Ring of Fire”. The Pacific oceanic plate is forced under the Eurasian continental plate. As it crumples it adds to mountain ranges and volcanoes. Stress Builds At the same time the Pacific plate is forced beneath the Eurasian plate, stresses build up and eventually the plates/

##### GLO 1 – Earth Surface There are 32 questions on this test: A Model of the Earth – Questions 1 – 8 Sudden Changes – Questions 9 – 24 Gradual Transitions.

as... A. extinct B. dormant C. plugged D. stagnant Question 18 There are a number of volcanoes that border the pacific ocean. These volcanoes are known as the Ring of Fire. The name comes from the fact that these volcanoes erupt with red-hot lava, fire and steam. Most volcanoes in the Ring of fire occur at.. A. conduction zones B. abduction zones C. compression zones D. subduction zones/

##### Where is Japan? Japan is lies to the East of China and Korea in the Pacific Ocean. Japan lies on the so called “Pacific Ring of Fire”, an active area.

Japan? Japan is lies to the East of China and Korea in the Pacific Ocean. Japan lies on the so called “Pacific Ring of Fire”, an active area of tectonic activity that causes many of the worlds earthquakes and volcanoes. Each year Japan has around 2000 earthquakes, most of these are not powerful enough to cause any damage. Eurasian Plate Philippine Plate Pacific Plate North American Plate Kobe Japan lies/

##### Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

plants) in Antarctica, and similarities in fossils found across separate continents supported his theory Pangaea The Evidence: The Ring of Fire In the 1930’s, a “ring of fire”, a circle of violent geological activity surrounding much of the Pacific Ocean, was identified Scientists were beginning to reveal a worldwide pattern of earthquakes and volcanoes that did not occur randomly, but rather, were concentrated in zones that extended in lines/

##### Central America and the Caribbean

lies to the west, and the Caribbean Sea lies to the east. The Ring of Fire The chain of mountains that runs through much of Central America is part of a global geographic zone called the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is a circle of volcanoes around the Pacific ocean. The movement of Earth’s tectonic plates in this zone causes frequent volcanic eruptions, as well as earthquakes. As a result, eruptions & earthquakes/

##### Academic Vocabulary Natural Disaster: any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences, such as avalanche, earthquake, flood, forest fire,

Sentence: Plates collide to create a volcano All continents have volcanoes 75% of volcanoes can be found around the Pacific Ring of Fire. Some volcanoes are very destructive Main Idea Sentence: Two plates collide to create a volcano, all continents can have volcanos, but 75% of the worlds volcanoes can be found around the Pacific Ring of Fire, these volcanoes can be very destructive. Tsunami a very large ocean wave/

##### Network Integrated Robotics At SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

of Operations (CONOPS) development SSC Pacific…on Point and at the Center of C4ISR 5 SSC Pacific’s Regional Collaboration through 3Cs Example Initiative: SSC Pacific’s Regional Collaboration through 3Cs State Agencies CalFire Port of San Diego Ring of Fiber/Diego Fire-Rescue CAL Fire North County Fire JPA County of Riverside County of Yuma 18 local governments or fire districts Federal Government / Military Navy Region SW USMC Base Camp Pendleton USCG Joint Harbor Operations Center Federal Bureau of /

##### East Asia Unit 9. Physical Geography East Asia Land and Sea China covers about 80% of East Asia’s land area and has the world’s largest population. China.

Taiwan to the Philippines and the peninsula of Southeast Asia, carries 1/3 of the world’s shipping traffic. The Ring of Fire The islands of Japan and Taiwan are part of the Ring of Fire, a circle of volcanoes bordering the Pacific Ocean. Plate movements cause frequent, violent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The islands of Japan and Taiwan are part of the Ring of Fire, a circle of volcanoes bordering the Pacific Ocean. Plate movements cause frequent, violent/

##### As hot magma rises towards the Earths surface, bubbles of gas begin to appear. If the magma runs like water, then the gas can escape easily and no.

ground nearby. Loihi Seamount summit with newly formed pit crater. White dots mark location of hydrothermal vents The Ring of Fire : Circum Pacific Rim "Ring of Fire" is a circular arc of active volcanoes that surrounds the Pacific Ocean basin. Much is known about the volcanoes on land within the Ring of Fire (e.g., in the Aleutians, the Cascades, the Andes, etc.), but little is known about the submarine volcanoes, simply because/

##### Fort Benning, Home of the MCoE 19-Sep-15 Maneuver Center of Excellence - Team of Soldiers, Families, and Civilians from the Best Army in the World! Unclassified.

Fires / AGI Counter Recon Combat Tracking Enabling Operations Fort Benning, Home of the MCoE 69-Sep-15 Maneuver Center of Excellence - Team of/ Power Generation/Distribution Battery Monitoring System Increased Amperage Alternator Slip Ring  Line Replaceable Modules (LRM) Improved Commander’s Display /of the MCoE 359-Sep-15 Maneuver Center of Excellence - Team of Soldiers, Families, and Civilians from the Best Army in the World! Armored Forces in the Pacific Over 51,000 armored vehicles in 19 Asian Pacific/

##### Fig. CO7. Ocean currents  Large-scale moving seawater  Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major.

may pinch off into a loop o Warm-core rings form to north o Cold-core rings form to south o Unique biological populations Gulf Stream /-98  Mild events only effect weather in equatorial South Pacific  2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007  Effects of strong event can vary  Can be drier than normal /  Flooding, drought, erosion, fires, tropical storms, harmful effects on marine life  Examples: coral reef death in Pacific, crop failure in Philippines, increased cyclones in Pacific, drought in Sri Lanka Fig./

##### The discovery of radioactivity –destroyed Kelvin’s argument for the age of Earth –and provided a clock to measure Earth’s age A. Radioactivity is the spontaneous.

of death Carbon 14 In cross-dating, tree-ring patterns are used from different trees, with overlapping life spans 4. Tree-Ring Dating Method The age of a tree can be determined by counting the annual growth rings -in lower part of the stem (trunk) The width of the rings/ The higher the number the greater the hazard. Note relationship with plate boundaries-circum Pacific and Mediterranean-Asian Chp 9: Earthquakes: Summary Types of S waves: (surface) a. Rayleigh waves: material distorted in elliptical path b. /

##### Cool fact! The term “volcano” is from the Latin Volcanus or Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

hot magma rises (called a mantle plume) until it reaches the crust. Magma then flows out. Pacific Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions circling the basin of the Pacific Ocean. Result of plate tectonics and the movement and hitting of crustal plates. Ring of Fire Area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in a 40,000km horseshoe shape. Contains 452 volcanoes, with over/

##### Geography 12 Plate Tectonics Ms. Inden. Take a look at this picture of the Ring of Fire! The area that we are discussing is the darker peachy-pink area.

Earth – Can you see it? Africa Remember that the earth is made up of broken plates of crust? The area surrounding the Pacific Ocean is known as the Ring of Fire, because of the volcanoes that occur around its edges – mainly because of the type of plate boundary – subduction – we’ll learn more about that. Ring of Fire Here it is again, without the plates Volcanoes also happen over hotspots – not just/

##### Table of Contents Essential Question: How Does A Volcano Erupt? Where are volcanoes found on Earth’s surface? 6.1 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Pgs. 196-199.

where an oceanic plate is subducted beneath a continental plate. Example: Volcanoes of the Andes Mts. In South America. Fig. 1 Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics pg. 197 The Ring of Fire The Ring of Fire is a belt of volcanoes that circles the Pacific Ocean. As with most of Earth’s volcanoes, these volcanoes form along boundaries of tectonic plates. Circle a volcano on the map that does NOT fall along/

##### OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR Germany unified in 1862 under BismarckGermany unified in 1862 under Bismarck Went to war with Austria – Austria lost territoryWent.

fired toward enemy –4. Poison Gas –5. Tanks –6. Air Planes STALEMATE 1915 Stalemate neither side moved more than a total 4 miles.1915 Stalemate neither side moved more than a total 4 miles. February 1916 Germany began a new battle plan. February 1916 Germany began a new battle plan. Took an offensive at Verdun which was protected by a ring of/ the PacificAustralia and New Zealand stole other German possessions in the Pacific OTTOMAN EMPIRE Ottoman Empire enters the war aiding the Central PowersOttoman Empire/

##### The Theory of Plate Tectonics

motions generate magma that erupts on earth’s surface. More About Tectonic Plates A zone of active volcanoes that encircles the Pacific ocean is known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. Earthquakes also occur frequently in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The characteristics of the Pacific Ring of Fire indicates that the Pacific Ocean is surrounded by plate boundaries. Types of Plate Boundaries Divergent is the boundary between tectonic plates that are moving away from each other/

##### Transformation of Earth

whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters. Outside the Andesite Line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the worlds foremost belt of explosive volcanism. The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones. The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones. In the beginning/

##### Plate Tectonics and Topographic maps. How do the plates move? Convection currents, in the plastic like layer of the mantle of the earth, constantly churn.

– Oceanic Dense oceanic plate subducts under less dense continental plate, which creates a subduction zone. This can create ocean trenches, and very violent subduction volcanoes such as Mt. St. Helens. Ring of fire- Pacific Plate Convergent Boundaries Continental-Continental Fold mountains, mountain ranges. EX: The Himalayas Oceanic- Oceanic Creates deep trenches Sometimes volcanoes can be formed Divergent boundaries Continental- Continental Forms Rift Valleys, sometimes/

##### Benchmark 1 Reviewer Eric Angat Teacher.

://lhs.loswego.k12.or.us/z-alts/Earth%20Science/unit%205%20plate%20tectonics/02_Notes_Plate_Boundaries_files/frame.htm Where do most earthquakes happen? http://engwell.wikispaces.com/RING+OF+FIRE+MAP Most EARTHQUAKES happen anywhere around the Pacific Ring of Fire! http://engwell.wikispaces.com/RING+OF+FIRE+MAP Ridge Ridge push Ridge push convection Rocks are melted and recycled into new rocks. Rocks are melted and recycled into new rocks. In/

##### What is the arrow pointing to?

died in the 1930’s before his idea of continental drift was accepted by the global scientific community. Which of the following allowed his idea to eventually become a theory? Identification of the Pacific Ring of Fire Discovery of trenches Development of the theory of sea floor spreading Identifying a pattern of earthquakes around the world Which of the following theories states that large pieces of lithosphere are moving at different speeds and/

##### Horizontal Movement of

Indian - 10 x106 km2 Scotia - 5 x106 km2 Juan de Fuca - 2 x106 km2 the Pacific Ring of Fire IS 40,000 km long chain of volcanoes caused by "convergent tectonic plates" coming together; Convection cells cause frictional drag on lithosphere Plate /Destructive margins Subduction zones Driving Mechanisms for Plate Motions the Pacific Ring of Fire IS 40,000 km long chain of volcanoes caused by "convergent tectonic plates" coming together; Type of boundary between plates: Constructive margins  Mid ocean ridges /

##### Patent Law : A Year in Review Annual Study of Decisions by the U. S

means, associated with the first ring and the second ring, for evaluating the integrity of the multiplexed subrate communications on the first ring and the second ring, respectively” D Ct – corresponding/evidentiary basis for the Georgia-Pacific factors, and whether the benchmark (XMetaL) was sufficiently comparable.” Fed Cir – “[i]nstead of the more searching review permitted/ demanded assignment – Carter refused – Carter fired Carter sues alleging, inter alia, John Doe I violated PTO ethical rules by representing/

##### 1 Networking for the Future of Science ESnet4: Networking for the Future of DOE Science William E. Johnston ESnet Department Head and Senior Scientist.

Canopy Physiology Species Composition Ecosystem Structure Nutrient Availability Water Disturbance Fires Hurricanes Ice Storms Windthrows Evaporation Transpiration Snow Melt Infiltration Runoff/Confidential 70 ESnet4 ESnet4 will also involve an expansion of the multi- 10Gb/s Metropolitan Area Rings in the San Francisco Bay Area, Chicago, /(AMPATH) Canada (CANARIE) CERN (30 Gbps) Canada (CANARIE) Asia- Pacific Asia Pacific GLORIAD (Russia and China) Boise Houston Jacksonville Tulsa Boston Science Data Network /

##### What is an Earthquake and how does it occur? A sudden motion or trembling of the earth caused by the abrupt release of energy that is stored in the rocks.

boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates. KH Major Earthquakes seen in San Francisco: THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1906 The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 is perhaps the most discussed earthquake in history After this earthquake in San Francisco, subsequent fires destroyed almost the /, South Carolina and Washington, DC. In Boston, Massachusetts, 1,000 miles away, church bells were made to ring. The effects of the quake were felt as far south as New Orleans and as far north as Canada. LP The Good Friday/

##### Central America and the Caribbean. Central America  Located on the continent of North America, Central America is an isthmus that links North America.

America  Central America is very mountainous. They are part of a large horseshoe-shaped band that follows the edge of the Pacific Ocean, called the Ring of Fire.  The faults (weak points) that occur along the Ring of Fire produce earthquakes and active volcanoes.  Much of the area is covered by dense vegetation called a tropical rain forest. Ring of Fire ... Physical Features (con’t)  Central Highlands (Sierra de Chiapas) – curves like a/

##### Plate Tectonics Restless planet The Structure of the Earth &

. …what’s the connection? Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics… Volcanos are mostly focused at plate boundaries Pacific Ring of Fire Hotspot volcano chain- Hawaiian Islands Pacific Ring of Fire Most of the active volcanoes and earthquakes are located at the plate boundaries. The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area of almost constant earthquake and volcanic activity. It circles the Pacific Ocean basin. - Subduction - Rifting - Hotspots Volcanoes are formed by: Hot mantle plumes breaching the surface/

##### A Geographical Look at Southeast Asia: A Region of Beautiful and Exotic Lands.

Mountains Annam Cordillera- separates Vietnam from Laos and Cambodia Arakan Yoma Range- located in western Myanmar Bilauktaung Range- borders Myanmar and Thailand Ring of Fire The Ring of Fire is the circle of volcanoes bordering the Pacific Ocean. An arc of islands east of China marks where the Pacific, Philippine and Eurasian tectonic plates meet. Plate movements cause frequent earthquakes that can generate tsunamis and violent volcano eruptions. Java, an Indonesian/

##### Chapter 23. Ulysses S. Grant ~Republican Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) Civil War general and eighteenth president of the United States. Grants postwar.

Ring. The network was a notorious instance of municipal corruption. After terms in the 1850s as city alderman and congressman, Tweed was appointed a supervisor of/Pacific had built 689 miles of track, much of it through the Sierra Nevadas, and the Union Pacific 1,086 miles. California governor Leland Stanford, who was also president of the Central Pacific/the outmanned soldiers fired into an attacking crowd, ten people were killed. In Pittsburgh, as in Martinsburg, local law enforcers refused to fire on the /

##### Plate Tectonics What are the names of the major tectonic plates? Which plate carries the United States? Which plates are adjacent to that plate and could.

years or so, what continent will be within easy reach of our Pacific coast? Project Imagine that you are scientists who must provide support for the theory of plate tectonics. In a written report, summarize the supporting evidence you have found through fossil evidence as well as exploration of the ocean floor and the Ring of Fire region. You must include sketches, drawing, maps, and present. Rubric/

##### Volcanoes and Earthquakes Topic: Earthquake Magnitude Objectives: Day 1 of 4Objectives: Day 1 of 4 –I will review the definition of an earthquake –I.

rises to the surface to form a chain of volcanoes (Ex—Hawaii) Answer Bank apart constant rises subducts layers constant = Volcanoes Ring of Fire Convergent plate boundaries are located all around the Pacific Rim Because of this, volcanoes are located all around the Pacific Ocean These volcanoes make up the Ring of Fire What is the Ring of Fire? A chain or ring of volcanoes ______ the pacific ocean created by convergent boundaries Answer Bank apart/

##### PLATE TECTONICS. Layers of the Earth –The Earth is divided into three chemical layers: the core, the mantle and the crust. The core is composed of mostly.

circle the Earth. A dramatic example is the line of volcanoes that circles most of the Pacific Ocean. This belt is known as the "Ring of Fire" because it is the site of frequent volcanic eruptions. Oceanic and Continental Plates 4 The distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes coincides at most locations. The Ring of Fire is an excellent example. Geologists believe that areas of intense geologic activity, indicated by earthquakes, volcanoes, and/

#####  Proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912  250 million years ago, all of the continents were combined into one super-continent called “Pangaea”  The continents.

ocean floor sinks beneath the continental crust and back into the mantle (seen in the US on the Pacific Coast). Subduction Zone (1:32 mins) The Ring of Fire has over 400 volcanoes, both active and dormant. Most of the world’s earthquakes also occur around this ‘Ring of Fire’. Ring of Fire Ring of Fire (2:11 mins)  2 plates SLIDING HORIZONTALLY past each other  Forms earthquakes San Andreas Fault (3 mins) Transform/

##### Look at the pictures of the natural disasters. Then go to the board to write the words as quikly as you can. You have only 30 seconds, when the time.

………………........... the word “ typhoon “ Unit 9: Natural Disasters Lesson 3: Read I/New words: II/ Read: 1.True or False 2.Complete the sentences 1.The majority of earthquakes occur around the Pacific Rim, known as a Ring of Fire. 2. During the earthquake in Kobe, many houses, office buildings and highways collapsed. 3. A tidal wave can only occur when there is an abrupt shift/

##### PLATE TECTONICS. Layers of the Earth –The Earth is divided into three chemical layers: the core, the mantle and the crust. The core is composed of mostly.

circle the Earth. A dramatic example is the line of volcanoes that circles most of the Pacific Ocean. This belt is known as the "Ring of Fire" because it is the site of frequent volcanic eruptions. Oceanic and Continental Plates 4 The distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes coincides at most locations. The Ring of Fire is an excellent example. Geologists believe that areas of intense geologic activity, indicated by earthquakes, volcanoes, and/

##### Ocean currents  Large-scale moving seawater  Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts.

pinch off into a loop o Warm-core rings form to north o Cold-core rings form to south o Unique biological populations Gulf /1997-98  Mild events only effect weather in equatorial South Pacific  2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007  Effects of strong event can vary  Can be drier than normal or/Nina  Flooding, drought, erosion, fires, tropical storms, harmful effects on marine life  Examples: coral reef death in Pacific, crop failure in Philippines, increased cyclones in Pacific, drought in Sri Lanka “Severe/

##### Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography GEOG 113C – Geography of East and Southeast Asia Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra.

regional power: Japan. Emerging regional power: China. External power: USA. 21 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue B – PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE OF PACIFIC ASIA 1. The Pacific Ring of Fire What explains the high level of tectonic activity in the region? 2. A Maritime and Continental Space What are the basic features of the region’s physical landscape? 3. Monsoons What are the monsoons and what are their impacts on the/

##### Effects of Climate Change on Pacific Northwest Ecosystems Dave Peterson.

El Niño-like pattern of climate variability 20 - 30 year periods of persistence in North American and Pacific Basin climate Warm, dry Cool, wet Droughts were more common prior to 1950 Gedalof et al. (2004) Streamflow for the Columbia River, reconstructed from tree-ring data Why extremes matter Standard deviation 1 in 40 yr high range The distribution of weather events around the climatic/

##### GUATEMALA Originally Known as Goathemala The Land of Trees.

án. None of these volcanoes are active. The Ring of Fire The Pacific Ring of Fire is an arc of intense earthquake and volcanic activity stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America. It is composed over 75% of the worlds active and inactive volcanoes. The Ring of Fire is located along the borders of the Pacific Plate. Think/

##### Unit 9 Western Frontier Unit 10 Immigration Unit 11The Gilded Age Unit 12 Industrial Development Unit 13 Growth of Big Business Unit 14 Growth of the.

Ring Do? William “Boss” Tweed -controlled NYC -____________________Hall ring Stealing money, corrupt police Notorious -exposed by political cartoonist __________________________ Exposed the Tweed Ring corruption through a series of/explodes in Havana 260 dead Newspapers all blame Spain Probably a fire that started inside ship -”Remember the____________” Battle cry for /-Panama is part of Colombia -U.S. tries to negotiate a ___________treaty Want a shortcut between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans -Colombia refuses/

##### Eclipses: The Ring of Fire Created by Joslyn Wang & Kathryn Schroeder.

or the sun is closer to earth (also known as THE RING OF FIRE) 3. Total solar eclipse: When the moon completely covers the sun/RING OF FIRE Wasn’t as important as the other solar eclipse before because the moon was too far away from Earth, not fully covering the sun The solar eclipse before this one was a total solar eclipse “A total eclipse is overall far more spectacular, far more emotional," –Andrew Jacob (Astronomer at Sydney observatory) Indonesia, New Zealand, the South Pacific, and other parts of/

##### Reconstruction 1863—1877.  During the process of Reconstruction, many Northern politicians, including President Andrew Johnson, wanted to show no mercy.

dummy construction company to divert funds intended for the construction of Union Pacific into the hands of large investors  Pacific Railway Act gave huge grants to Union Pacific & Central Pacific to build transcontinental Railroads  The Union Pacific & Central Pacific were also funded with land grants & subsidies from the federal government  The Union Pacific employed mainly African Americans & Irish  The Central Pacific employed immigrants from Japan  Chinese Exclusion Act  Prohibited Chinese/

##### Climate, weather, and storms. Weather and climate Weather is day-to-day variability of temperature, pressure, rainfall, wind humidity, etc. Climate is.

~2 to 7 years when typical ocean-atmosphere circulation breaks down During normal years, warm surface waters in the Pacific lie in the east off Indonesia When the pattern oscillates to an “El Nino”, the warm water shifts east/to much of U.S. –Can lead to fires Allows growth of hurricanes in Atlantic 19582003 Climate Change Records of Climate Change National Academy of Science Report, 2006 Records of Climate Change Historical data Proxy data –Marine sediment –Ice –Coral –Lake sediment –Tree Rings –Boreholes –/

##### Volcanoes Windows Into the Earth Volcano – a mountain formed by lava & pyroclastics Crater – opening at the top of a volcano Caldera – summit depression.

Plate Boundaries  Where two plates are pulling apart--Mid Ocean Ridge & Continental Rift 2)Subduction Zones  Where an oceanic plate converges with another oceanic plate or a continental plate--Pacific Ring Of Fire 3)Hot Spots  Fixed source of magma in the center of a plate-- Hawaii, Yellowstone Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcano Cinder cone Composite (stratovolcano) cone Fissure eruptions Shield Volcano Mafic, basaltic lava Rapid streams/

##### Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics. Volcanism is mostly focused at plate margins Pacific Ring of Fire This map shows the margins of the Pacific tectonic plate.

Plate Tectonics Volcanism is mostly focused at plate margins Pacific Ring of Fire This map shows the margins of the Pacific tectonic plate and surrounding region. The red dots show the location of active volcanism. Notice how the majority of the volcanism is focused in lines along the plate boundaries? For this region is the area known as the “Pacific Ring of Fire”. Divergent Convergent Transform Remember that there are three types/

##### Vile volcanoes This is a map of Pompeiis famous volcano called Mount Vesuvius. How many volcanoes are there in the world? There are around 1510 active

which are metamorphic and igneous. Also there was what you call preserved bodies. Popping Pacific What is the Ring of Fire? Did you know: Over half of the world’s volcanoes arise in a belt around the Pacific Ocean called the Ring of Fire; There are 452 volcanoes in the Ring of Fire; About 90% of the worlds earthquakes and 89% of the worlds largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The 10 most active volcanoes