Ppt on ocean currents

Movements of the Ocean Section 1 Section 1: Ocean Currents Preview Objectives Ocean Currents Factors That Affect Surface Currents Major Surface Currents.

in the density of ocean water affect the flow of deep currents. Movements of the Ocean Section 1 Ocean Currents current * Oceanographers identify ocean currents by studying the physical and chemical characteristics of the ocean water. Scientists place ocean currents into two major categories: surface currents and deep currents. Movements of the Ocean Section 1 Factors That Affect Surface Currents surface current * Surface currents are controlled by three factors: air currents, Earth’s rotation, and/


Ocean Wave and Current Radars By Laura Elston. Our earth is a very aqueous environment with nearly three quarters of it covered by ocean. So how do we.

of strong currents or sudden changes in current direction that can damage offshore oil platforms and cause spills. Global-Climate-Change Researchers Ocean current radars keep us safe by giving us more of a warning during a storm. Ocean current radars keep /direction. Conclusion In conclusion, we are able to measure wave length period, direction and speed of ocean waves and currents. Weve mapped ocean-surface wind directions over areas large enough to reveal the structure and progress of tropical waves that/


Chapter 13 Exploring the Oceans. 13-1 Earth’s Oceans n Divisions of the Global Ocean –Arctic Ocean n the smallest ocean n in the arctic circle n mostly.

of moving objects from a straight path due to the Earth’s rotation n Turns the ocean currents 14-1 Currents n Surface Currents –Continental Deflections n Land changes the ocean currents path n If land wasn’t there currents would flow in an uniform pattern 14-1 Currents n Surface Currents –Temperature n Warm water currents begin near the equator –Carry warm water to cold places n Cold water/


© 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers Chapter 6 Wind and Ocean Circulation.

parallel to latitude. –This is a result of Coriolis deflection. A gyre is a circular current caused by: –Westerly-driven ocean currents in the trade winds –easterly-driven ocean currents in the Westerlies –deflection of the ocean currents by the continents 6-2 Surface Ocean Currents Surface Ocean Currents 6-2 Surface Ocean Currents Figure 6-4 Surface Ocean Currents The sea surface is warped into broad mounds and depressions with a relief of about/


Chapter 3 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF SEAWATER AND WORLD OCEANS

) Gyres large circular systems of ocean currents 3.2 OCEAN CIRCULATION Surface Circulation Surface Currents West side of gyres carry warm water to higher latitudes while cold current flow on eastern sides 3.2 OCEAN CIRCULATION Surface Circulation Surface Currents West side of gyres carry warm water to higher latitudes while cold current flow on eastern sides 3.2 OCEAN CIRCULATION Surface Circulation Surface Currents West side - warm waterEast side/


Ocean Systems CHAPTER the BIG idea The oceans are a connected system of water in motion. The oceans are a connected system. Ocean water moves in currents.

of deep water up to the surface. upwelling KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Ocean water moves in currents. ocean current upwelling downwelling El Niño 10.2 CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER/ CHAPTER HOME II. Ocean water moves in currents. A. The oceans have major currents. B. Currents interact with climate and weather. KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY 1. Surface Currents 2. Deep Currents Ocean water moves in currents. ocean current upwelling downwelling El Ni/


Distribution of solar energy Ocean Currents The Department of Geography Part of the Faculty of Social Subjects St. Mungo’s AcademyGeography HomeSearch.

air masses Changing Climates Planetary Wind Systems ITCZ ITCZ – intertropical convergence zone Distribution of solar energy Ocean Currents The Department of Geography Part of the Faculty of Social Subjects St. Mungo’s AcademyGeography HomeSearch World/ involving rainforest burning, which also produces carbon dioxide. Changing climates: global warming Distribution of solar energy Ocean Currents The Department of Geography Part of the Faculty of Social Subjects St. Mungo’s AcademyGeography HomeSearch World /


Ocean currents  Large-scale moving seawater  Surface ocean currents Transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas Similar to pattern of major wind belts.

Water  Cold surface seawater sinks at polar regions and moves equatorward Conveyor-belt circulation  Combination deep ocean currents and surface currents Fig. 7.27 Deep ocean currents  Cold, oxygen-rich surface water to deep ocean  Dissolved O 2 important for life and mineral processes  Deep ocean currents do bring water across the equator  Changes in thermohaline circulation can cause global climate change Example: warmer surface waters with increased/


Oceanography: Mapping the Ocean Floor Ocean Floor Topography.

La Nina – a climate event that brings colder winds and cool ocean waters La Nina – a climate event that brings colder winds and cool ocean waters Deep Currents – Global Ocean Conveyor Deep currents are caused by differences in the density of ocean water. Deep currents are caused by differences in the density of ocean water. Deep currents move and mix water around the world by carrying cold water from/


Oceanography Dr. R. B. Schultz. Oceanography and Our Oceans *71% of Earths surface is covered with water, so it is important we know something about.

nitrates and phosphates are "upwelled" to the surface and plankton and other fish populations flourish. Deep Ocean Currents: *In general, deep ocean currents are driven by gravity and density differences. *Two factors are important in creating a dense mass of/ flourish. Cold Water Upwelling Hurricane causing algal bloom in upper portion of ocean. Shallow Ocean Currents El Niño and La Niña Deep Ocean Currents: *In general, deep ocean currents are driven by: 1.gravity and 2.density differences. *Two factors /


Climate Change 14.3 Essential Question: How does the ocean and the atmosphere work together to influence global climates? Big Idea: The atmosphere and.

Change 14.3 Normal Conditions:  No influence from El Nino or La NIna  Cool water flows along the west coast of South America coming up from Antarctica  Trades winds and ocean currents keep water warm along the east coast of Australia/Indonesia  Surface waters along the west coast of South America are pushed away from the coastline, and cold nutrient-rich water/


ES. 10: Oceans: The student will investigate and understand that oceans are complex, interactive physical, chemical, and biological systems and are subject.

barrier islands.  Man made features like jetties and groins (small jetties) can alter this. Shore Currents A longshore current is an ocean current that moves parallel to shore. A rip current is a current that can be found near beaches. It is a strong, localized, and rather narrow current of water. It is strongest near the surface of the water, and it moves directly away from the/


Exploring the Oceans Chapter C4. Wind and Waves (C94)  Most of the movement of water on the ocean’s surface is due to _________, which is the up-and-down.

 Many rogue waves form when large storm waves _________ together Currents (#1-C96)  Currents move ________ water than waves do  An ocean current is a stream of water that flows like a _______ through the ocean  Unlike waves, currents actually move water _________, sometimes for long distances  _________ currents are large ocean currents that flow across the surface of the ocean and are caused by ___________ winds  As prevailing wind/


OCEANOGRAPHY. THE OCEAN Covering 70% of the Earths surface, the ocean is our planets largest habitat. Covering 70% of the Earths surface, the ocean.

more dense because most of the salt remains in the water. Ocean currents mix water and affect salinity of the ocean. Ocean currents mix water and affect salinity of the ocean. Runoff water entering the ocean also affect the salinity of the ocean water. Runoff water entering the ocean also affect the salinity of the ocean water. OCEAN CURRENTS OCEAN CURRENTS Ocean currents are created by: Ocean currents are created by: *Wind patterns *Differences in salinity *Differences in/


Ocean Circulation. 1.Ocean circulation is driven by winds and by differences in water density. Along with the winds, ocean currents distribute tropical.

and by differences in water density. Along with the winds, ocean currents distribute tropical heat worldwide. 2.Surface currents are wind-driven movements of water at or near the ocean’s surface. Thermohaline currents (so named because they depend on density differences caused by variations in water’s temperature and salinity) are the slow, deep currents that affect the vast bulk of seawater beneath the pycnocline/


Oceans: Earth’s Amazing Resource Click the mouse to go to the next slide and follow the directions to learn about ocean features, ocean water, and ocean.

this heat energy around the globe. This heats the land and air during winter and cools it during summer. Oceans Affect Earth’s Weather: World’s Ocean Currents: Changes in Ocean Currents: The variable ocean temperatures cause changes in currents and produce unusual wind patterns called El Niño or the opposite, La Niña, which can cause strange weather such as too much or too little/


Chapter 13 Ocean Systems. Ocean water covers much of Earth 71% Earth covered by oceans 71% Earth covered by oceans All five oceans connected together.

the western coast of South America which disrupts the weather around the planet for 12 to 18 months Deep ocean currents  Deep currents are driven by density differences  Highest density sinks to bottom  Seawater becomes more dense by cooling, increasing/density water formed at poles as sea ice forms  Water sinks to bottom and flows toward equator Deep ocean currents (Con’t)  Water in deep currents involve two processes  downwelling- movement of water from the surface to greater depth, water is oxygen /


Chapter 18 Ocean Currents. Section One – Ocean Water A. Oceans are important for food, mineral, and energy resources: Transportation: and weather and.

Earth’s rotation. 2.Much knowledge of surface currents comes from nineteenth-century sailors. Section Two – Ocean Currents… Continued 3.Items washed up on beaches can be used to study currents. 4.East coast surface currents are warm ; west coast ocean currents are cold. B. A circulation that brings deep, cold water to the ocean surface is upwelling. Section Two – Ocean Currents… Continued C. When a mass of seawater becomes/


VOCABULARY LIFE ZONES OF THE OCEAN.

WINDS WINDS BLOWING ACROSS EARTH’S SURFACE CAUSING SURFACE CURRENTS CONTINENTAL DEFLECTIONS WHEN SURFACE CURRENTS MEET CONTINENTS THEY ARE DEFLECTED DEEP CURRENTS DUE TO TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY, DENSITY OF WATER CHANGES CAUSING DIFFERENT CURRENTS TO RUN AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS AND SPEEDS LONGSHORE CURRENTS CURRENTS THAT ARE MORE PARALLEL TO THE SHORELINE RIP TIDE CURRENTS THAT RETURN TO THE OCEAN IN A POWERFUL NARROW FLOW UPWELLING RISING OF DEEP/


Marine Fisheries Management

a hurricane reaches shore or an earthquake occurs, landslides can occur landslides can produce a turbidity current underwater Currents in the deep water become the bottom currents responsible for moving sediments on the ocean floor Currents transporting water from the Atlantic Basin to the southern Atlantic Ocean Life the ocean is a wonderland of plant and animal life storehouse of food and nutrients is virtually untapped Life/


Atlantic Ocean Maury Project 2013 CAPT Bill Schulz US Naval Academy

Atlantic Ridge Age of Oceanic Crust – Millions of Years Before Present Major Surface Currents in the Atlantic UCARs Windows to the Universe Ocean currents tutorial from RSMAS Tomczak & Godfrey Regional Oceanography text Wind Drives Atlantic Ocean Circulation 1 Sv = /up water) is biggest damager COMET storm surge tutorial Satellite Imagery Of Past Hurricanes Archive Imagery from CIMSS Of Current Ocean Basins NRL Satellite Homepage, NRL Tropical Cyclone Page The Historic 2005 Season - 27 Named Systems - 15 /


OCEAN CURRENT ENERGY Ocean Currents, Available Technology, & Economic Feasibility BY: MATTHEW SAVIN

streams Although both use similar technology, we will focus mainly on Ocean Current Power What Are Ocean Currents? Surface Currents: 328 Ft. (100 meters) or above Coastal Currents Surface Ocean Currents Development of ocean current energy technology refers to the use of surface currents Deep Ocean Currents (Global Conveyer Belt) For our purposes, we will focus solely on surface currents What Drives Surface Ocean Currents? The Coriolis Force: Wind is the primary factor in forming Surface/


REVISION HISTORY Date Version Revised By Description Aug 25,

is particularly badly polluted by plastic is the North Pacific Gyre. The North Pacific Gyre is a swirling vortex of ocean currents comprising most of the northern Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Gyre has a clockwise circular pattern but is relatively stationary at its center. The circular rotation of the gyre draws in waste material which has led to /


The Restless Ocean.

are < 4 °C (39 °F) Times Atlas of the World W. W. Norton Ocean water movements Surface circulation Ocean currents are masses of water that flow from one place to another Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across the surface Huge, slowly moving gyres Ocean water movements Surface circulation Five main gyres North Pacific Gyre South Pacific Gyre North/


Ocean Research Methods and Technology Science 8: Water Systems Curriculum Outcomes Addressed Provide examples of how technologies used to investigate the.

Use: The information collected helps scientists understand how fast nutrients and other elements move from the ocean surface to the deep ocean (ocean circulation). Advantages: Currently, this is the only way to get data about the amounts and kinds of material that surface waters / as 6 months and travel at a speed of 20 kilometers per day. Disadvantages: They are sometimes put off path by ocean currents because they are light weight, and they cannot go deeper than 1,500 meters at this time, so the depth of /


Chapter 15 Review Earth’s Oceans.

combined Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean the third-largest ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean contains roughly half of Earth’s seawater Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean north of the Arctic Circle is often known as the Arctic Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean Vertical movement of nutrient-rich ocean water wave height tidal range gravitation breakers neap tide density currents gyres upwelling wavelength/


1 Global Ocean Monitoring: Recent Evolution, Current Status, and Predictions Prepared by Climate Prediction Center, NCEP June 7, 2010

comparable in recent months. 13 ENSO cycle as indicated by 1st EOF of surface current and SST anomalies - Surface westward current anomaly intensified in May 2010, comparable with that in 1998. - On average, ocean surface zonal current anomaly leads the SSTA by a few months. First EOF mode of ocean surface current (SC) and SST anomalies for the past decade extending through the latest 10-day/


COASTLINES.

of the exposed continental surfaces. The sediments are transported to the shoreline by streams and carried out into the ocean floor by ocean currents. As the sediment continues to accumulate, it forms a structure formerly called a geocline, now referred to as a/accumulates as a wave-built platform. In many places, the width of the wave-built platforms are limited as the ocean currents carry the rock debris into the offshore deep sea trenches. Wave erosion continues beyond mean high tide to the point /


Unit 10: Circulation of the World Ocean

A global conveyor belt is often used as a conceptual model to illustrate how the largely wind-driven surface ocean currents are linked to the largely density-driven deep ocean currents. The mixed layer features shallow, narrow, and relatively fast-moving horizontal currents, while the deep ocean currents move as slow, diffuse surges with both horizontal and vertical movement. El Niño-Southern Oscillation El Niño/


Topic: Ocean Systems Essential Question: How does energy from the Sun drive wind and ocean currents?

drive wind and ocean currents? Ocean currents are created by the sun, heating up the ocean creating a convection current. Warm water rises, cools off, and then sinks. Global winds move ocean currents around the globe. Topic: Ocean Systems Essential Question: How does energy from the Sun drive wind and ocean currents? Ocean currents circulate warm and cool water. Warm currents come from the equator. Cold currents come from the poles. Topic: Ocean Systems Essential Question/


Studying Ocean Currents

Lagrangian study methods researchers use: 1. A drogue. The advantage over a simple surface float is that the “holey sock” ensures that the current and not the wind determine where it drifts. Studying Ocean Currents Chapter 9 Page 9-34 Instrumentation and Methods (continued) 2. The Argo float drifts at depth before periodically rising to the surface to transmit to a satellite a/


The Ocean Basins. Ocean Basins Oceans are all connected, so it’s really just 1 big ocean! 5 ocean basins –Atlantic –Pacific –Indian –Antarctic (Southern)

(i.e. east side of continent) originate in the tropics and are warm-water currents Examples: Gulfstream, Brazil Current Currents on the east side of the ocean basin (i.e. west side of continent) originate at the poles and are cold-water currents Examples: California Current, Humbolt Current (cause of El Nino) Surface Ocean Currents Deep-Ocean Currents- Thermohaline Circulation –caused by density differentials –Temperature: cold water is more dense than/


Which of the following gasses dissolves most easily in ocean water? a) Hydrogen b) Oxygen c) Nitrogen d) Carbon dioxide.

caused by a) Density differences b) Salinity differences c) Gravitational attraction d) Currents Which type of current results from underwater landslides? a) Rip current b) Turbidity current c) Longshore current d) Tidal current Which type of current results from underwater landslides? a) Rip current b) Turbidity current c) Longshore current d) Tidal current What is the driving force for surface ocean currents? a) Density layering b) The Coriolis Effects c) Global winds d/


SOAR 2005 Ocean Circulation and Heat Transport. Coriolis Force: All moving objects are deflected to their right in northern hemisphere to their left in.

phase (since April 2001)  Fisheries in northeast pacific very productive PDO – Pacific Decadal Oscillation  Currently in Positive phase (since April 2001)  Fisheries in northeast pacific very productive Regional Current Variations Gulf Stream  Keeps Europe warm!!  Drives worldwide currents Gulf Stream  Keeps Europe warm!!  Drives worldwide currents Deep Ocean Currents Thermohaline circulation  Density of sea water  increases with salinity  decreases with temperature  Evaporation  decreases/


Chapter 4 Marine Sediments

process whereby the leading edge of a glacier breaks up into icebergs upon entering the ocean (or large lake) is known as calving. Transported by ocean currents and wind, icebergs eventually melt in warmer environments, releasing a poorly sorted mix of /rock and sediment and are transported to the sea in suspension by rivers along with other lithogenous particles. Ocean waves and currents sort and concentrate metals and gemstones in coastal or submarine deposits, known as placer deposits. Placer minerals /


General Ocean Circulation. 75% of the Earth’s surface Couples atmospheric processes with tectonic processes Important in regulating atmospheric CO 2 Important.

of gyres due to Ekman transport and creates a pressure gradient in the opposite direction. Pressure gradient Ocean gyres Circular flow around the periphery of an ocean basin n Westerly-driven ocean currents in the trade winds, easterly- driven ocean currents in the Westerlies and deflection of the ocean currents by the continents result in a circular current, called a gyre. This flow is often broken down into interconnected/


Ocean Currents & Climate

Currents The major landmasses on Earth are connected by moving water called ocean currents. Image A current is a large mass of continuously moving ocean water. The largest currents that move across the ocean are called global ocean currents. These currents are like rivers that travel great distances. Ocean currents/below shows total ice coverage since 1973. As glacial ice melts, sea levels rise and ocean currents can change. Background Image http://www.futura-sciences.com/img/willy.jpg Image Carbon Dioxide /


Do Now 05.19.10  What causes the seasons?. Objective  State the reasons for global wind patterns and ocean currents.

Effect Coriolis Effect Ocean CurrentsCurrents are the steady movement of water in the ocean Ocean CurrentsCurrents are the steady movement of water in the ocean surface currents move on or near the surfacesurface currents move on or near the surface Ocean CurrentsCurrents are the steady movement of water in the ocean surface currents move on or near the surfacesurface currents move on or near the surface  driven by the wind Ocean CurrentsCurrents are the steady/


Plate techtonics See p. 41 Ocean currents.

. 11. Some modern technologies that have helped scientists explore the deep ocean are: 1.Satellites 2.Sonar 3.Submersibles 4.Deep sea cameras and video 1. An ocean current is a large amount of ocean water that moves in a particular and unchanging direction. There are more than 20 major ocean currents. 2. Surface currents are shaped by the wind, the Earth’s rotation, and the shape/


FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF TIDAL CURRENT IN THE MOUTH OF ISAHAYA BAY BY MEANS OF DBF OCEAN RADAR AND ADCP DURING AUTUMN SEASON IN 2005 Kenta Takenouchi 1),

time regardless of weather conditions. In addition, it can monitor ocean currents over a wide area simultaneously in a short period of time. Transmission antenna eight reception antennas Shelter of DBF Radar System DBF ocean radar Constitution of DBF ocean radar Constitution of DBF ocean radar 4. Outline of Field Observation (2) Current observation using DBF ocean radar Observation area in Isahaya Bay 5km Isahaya Bay DBF/


Ch 21-Movements of Ocean Objectives

air sinks Global Wind Belts Trade winds-located just N and S of equator, push currents westward Westerlies-push ocean currents eastward in higher latitudes of N and S Hemispheres Both affect flow of ocean surface currents Rotation and Continental Barriers Continental barriers-current is deflected and divided when surface currents flow against continent Coriolis Effect-apparent curving of the path of moving object from an otherwise/


Global Scale Winds The global winds mold global and seasonal patterns of temperature, precipitation, and climate, drive surface ocean currents, and provide.

left of the wind. When winds parallel the coast, as against South America, colder water from the depths is forced to rise. This is called upwelling. Cold and Warm Surface Ocean Currents Since cold water is too dense to rise naturally, upwelling must be forced by the winds. Along coastlines, upwelling occurs when the wind blows the surface waters out to sea/


The Ocean / Atmosphere Connection and Climate. Most of the Past 60 years of Global Warming Has Gone into the Oceans The Ocean has absorbed approximately.

a 5% significance level from a one-sided Student t-test. From Meehl et al. (2011) Oscillations in the Ocean Currents Means Oscillations in the Heating of the Oceans World’s largest ocean is the Pacific. Because of its size, the oscillation period over which currents can be modulated by winds is longer than the seasonal period: The El Nino – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycleEl Nino/


Ch 3 Ocean Circulation.

wind direction, to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and the left in the Southern Hemisphere” Ekman Transport If the ocean current is regarded as layered, then each deeper layer moves more slowly than the overlying layer Ekman 8 min http://www.youtube/warming of surface waters along the tropical west coast of South America. El Nino has an impact on ocean temperatures, the speed and strength of ocean currents, the health of coastal fisheries, and local weather from Australia to South America. When does it /


Ocean Literacy: Updates and Future Directions Craig Strang, UC Berkeley Lawrence Hall of Science, COSEE California Sarah Schoedinger, NOAA Office of Education.

away of rock, soil and other biotic and abiotic earth materials, occurs in coastal areas as wind, waves, and currents in rivers and the ocean move sediments. d. Sand consists of tiny bits of animals, plants, rocks and minerals. Most beach sand is eroded/ away of rock, soil and other biotic and abiotic earth materials, occurs in coastal areas as wind, waves, and currents in rivers and the ocean move sediments. d. Sand consists of tiny bits of animals, plants, rocks and minerals. Most beach sand is eroded/


Prepared by Climate Prediction Center, NCEP/NOAA May 8, 2015

presented in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific in Apr 2015. Positive HC300 anomalies initiated in Dec. 2014, and propagated eastward then largely became stationary since Feb 2015, consistent with ocean surface current and subsurface ocean temperature anomalies. Low-level westerly wind anomalies were more frequent in the past 3-4 months. Projection of OTA onto EOF1 and EOF2 (2S-2N, 0-459m, 1979/


Student Presentations on Physical, Oceanic, and Meteorological properties of oceans and how they affect navigation.

Earth. It can be common in places around water with high levels Ocean Currents Ocean currents are the vertical or horizontal movement of surface and deep water throughout the ocean. Ocean currents usually move in a specific direction. They are found all over the / Foundation. Web. 14 Apr. 2015..http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriolis_effect Sources Citations Slide 1. Writer, Amanda. "An Overview of Ocean Currents and How They Circulate." Web. 14 Apr. 2015.. Slide 2. "El Niño - NASA Science." El Niño - /


Currents.

, wind, Coriolis force, Temperature, salinity differences, and tides caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun. What is a gyre? Gyres are any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements. Gyres are caused by the Coriolis Effect; planetary vorticity along with horizontal and vertical friction. http://education. nationalgeographic http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/


Ocean Stratification and Circulation Martin Visbeck DEES, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

Water Antarctic Bottom Water Intermediate Water At the base of the thermocline is the low salinity Antarctic Intermediate water derived from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Oceans Role in Climate The sum of the wind driven and buoyancy driven ocean current transport large amounts of heat and fresh water over large distances. Can you rationalise the signs? Atmospheric Heat Transport simulation in tank Cool/


SOES6047 - Global Climate Cycles SOES 6047 Global Climate Cycles L22: Research Themes: Southern Ocean history and climate Dr. Heiko Pälike

the polar front ๏ learn that there are conflicting lines of evidence from nutrient utilisation proxies about glacial-interglacial changes in the Southern Ocean ๏ learn about the Southern Ocean ๏ appreciate that it occupies a central and crucial role in the mixing of oceanic currents and renewed deep water formation ๏ learn about the mechanisms that connects atmospheric pCO 2 concentrations and processes north and south of/


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