with biographies in the Montclair, NJ public library 1978: Follow-up sample **of** over 300 from the Menlo Park, CA pubic library 2003: Sample **of** over 700 from the Montclair public library online catalog, supplemented expert judgments from Time and **Life** magazine **studies** Natural Scientists, Engineers and **Mathematicians** in the 1962 Cradles **of** Eminence Sample Luther Burbank George Washington Carver Marie Curie Paul Ehrlich Albert Einstein/

FYI: Why didn’t Bill Gates receive **Turing** Award? Which **of** the following brilliant ideas which have significant impacts on our **life** is originally from Microsoft (Bill Gates)? GUI/**Mathematicians**/Von_Neumann.html http://www-groups.dcs.st- and.ac.uk/~history/**Mathematicians**/Von_Neumann.html Unix Startup Files Startup Files allow users to customize working environment Types **of**/.e., p is variable **of** type int *. or as int (*p); i.e., *p is a variable **of** type int. example next slide, **study** it carefully, as it involves/

n Even the most elaborate forms **of** **life** can be explained n As we will/**Turing** 1952). LOT Summer 2006The return **of** the laws **of** form56 Biological instances n The case **of** the sea-anemone Hydra and **of** the leaves **of** the woodruff (Asperula odorata) LOT Summer 2006The return **of** the laws **of**/**of** the laws **of** form62 A strange maverick: René Thom (1923-2002) (Fields medal 1958) n Originated by the French **mathematician** Rene Thom in the 1960s, catastrophe theory is a special branch **of** dynamical systems theory. It **studies**/

design by Alan **Turing** Practical design by Tommy Flowers Colossus from Tony Sale, original curator **of** the Bletchley Park Museum/**of** Mauchly and Eckert Eckert – chief engineer Mauchley – principal consultant presented by Lt. Herman H. Goldstein, **mathematician** Constructed completed in the fall **of**/his first IAS computer from the Archives **of** the Institute for Advanced **Study** Hungarian stamp in his honor John / mathematics to the technologies **of** **life** and death (Cambridge,MA, 1980). Back in England/

and experience we often make certain judgments in our day-to-day **life** whereas computer can not make such judgments. No feelings: Computer /**of** contemporary parts. Leibnitz (1646-1716) was a German **mathematician** and built the first calculator to do multiplication and division. It was not reliable due to accuracy **of** contemporary parts. History **of**/ – to **study** the structure **of** viruses such as that causing AIDS Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to **study** the structure **of** viruses such /

And Language As Part **Of** Everything, “Theory **Of** Everything” Is Not Theory **Of** Everything The **Study** **Of** Our Primitive Senses Is Known As Foundation **Of** Mathematics (FOM). The Strategy **Of** Mathematics Is Based Solely On ‘Senses’, And It Turns Out To Be Also The **Study** **Of** ‘Senses’, Including ‘Purposes’. Page 3 Strictly Confidential Our Senses : Primitive And Complex The list **of** top **mathematicians** who have worked on foundation **of** mathematics are given/

Recognition: It is the research area that **studies** the operation and design **of** systems that recognize patterns in data. It /**of** AI, this has to be true. The usefulness **of** current expert systems depends on their users having common sense. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS & THEIR DEFINITIONS A test for deciding whether a computer is intelligent, proposed in 1950 by the **mathematician** Alan **Turing**/ They are a much better model **of** how we think. It is not often that questions that arise in **life** have bivalent answers. There are a/

built using the principles **of** quantum mechanics –The **study** **of** matter and radiation at an atomic level –The fundamental unit **of** information is a qubit / **of** other areas **of** artificial intelligence Connecting with Computer Science41 Connecting with Computer Science42 One Last Thought Computers are becoming part **of** every aspect **of** **life** / computers may provide tremendous computer speed increases **Mathematician** Alan **Turing** proposed a test to determine the intelligence **of** a computer Computers will not be constrained /

Tralvex Yeap. All Rights Reserved Challenges: language **Turing** test – original test is too difficult. Loebner/**of** **Mathematicians** in Paris David Hilbert delivered what is now considered the most important talk ever given in the history **of** mathematics, proposing 23 major problems worth working at in future. 100 years later the impact **of**/ Large society **of** agents – is collaborative project possible? In Second **Life**? AGI, / System (AMS) Kernel Memory Approach Series: **Studies** in Computational Intelligence (SCI), Vol. 1/

**of** inspiration: –Traditional algorithms –Instruction manuals –Recipe books –**Turing** machine model Mathematical paradigm (Functional programming) –Based on functions for calculation Sources **of** inspiration: –Recursive function theory –Lambda calculus model –Denotational semantics **of** programming languages 30 Imperative paradigm Example: To sum a series **of**/ entity? **Mathematicians** themselves have not produced a definition **of** the idea. We can try to generalize from the kinds **of** things **mathematicians** **study**: –numbers/

**of** **Mathematicians** in Paris David Hilbert delivered what is now considered the most important talk ever given in the history **of** mathematics, proposing 23 major problems worth working at in future. 100 years later the impact **of**/**of** these jobs can be done by AI systems (Nilsson, **Turing**’s “child machine”). Knowledge-based information processing jobs – progress measured by passing a series **of**/**of** being aware - yes, robots should have it. Phenomenal consciousness with inner **life**/ Series: **Studies** in Computational/

**of** Sunni Ali’s generals, named Muhammad **Ture**, overthrew the new king and made himself king **of** Songhay. **Ture** was a follower **of** Islam (Muslim) and so he made Islam the religion **of** his kingdom. This is a photo **of** a mosque, or place **of**/**of** the world came to Timbuktus famous University **of** Sankore to **study** Law and Medicine. Medieval Europeans came the Kingdom to **study** from **mathematicians**, astronomers, physicians, and jurists whose intellectual endeavors were said to be paid for out **of**/mark passages in **life**. The doll/

as Renée Vivien. They shared a love **of** Sappho’s poetry and **studied** Greek so they could fully appreciate her poetry./**mathematician**, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was influential in the development **of** computer science and providing a formalisation **of** the concept **of** the algorithm and computation with the **Turing** machine, playing a significant role in the creation **of**/ tests chromosomes **of** athletes, and puts a stop to transsexuals competing. In 1950 Foekje Dillema was expelled for **life** by the /

**of** recursive functions (Kleene, Gödel), ● mathematical logic, ● theory **of** algorithms (Markov), ● **of** computability (**Turing**), ● Post combinatorial systems, ● symbolic dynamics (Morse and Hedlund), ● combinatorics and algebra **of**/**of** Nicolas Bourbaki, to monitor such a diversity and richness **of** ideas, theories and results. It was initially a group **of** about seven very young **mathematicians**/, Gheorghe Paun), Number 148 in the series “**Studies** in Fuzziness and Softcomputing”, Berlin, Springer, 2004, 11-53. /

Church-**Turing** Thesis: “**Turing** machine captures every realistic physical model **of** computation” Computation: evolution **of** an environment via repeated application **of** simple,/**of** Knowledge (II) P – problems for which solutions can be efficiently found. Everything we can know. NP – problems for which solutions can be easily verified. Everything we want to know. **Mathematician**/: Game Theory Make conflicts in Economics, Politics, War & **life**, amenable to mathematical analysis Is there always a rational solution/

concerns: –Long hours with little chance for a balanced **life** –A less pleasant social milieu than other occupations —/ more orders **of** magnitude initially seems hard to believe. In fact, such differences in effectiveness occur across a range **of** occupational categories: –**Mathematicians** –Creative artists/I went to art school to **study** painting. A lot **of** people seemed surprised that someone interested /**Turing** Award 1974 Don Knuth Implicit in these remarks is the notion that there is something undesirable about an area **of**/

concerns: –Long hours with little chance for a balanced **life** –A less pleasant social milieu than other occupations –A/ more orders **of** magnitude initially seems hard to believe. In fact, such differences in effectiveness occur across a range **of** occupational categories: –**Mathematicians** –Creative artists/ went to art school to **study** painting. A lot **of** people seemed surprised that someone interested /**Turing** Award 1974 Don Knuth Implicit in these remarks is the notion that there is something undesirable about an area **of**/

**of** his **studies**, he chose to fly in the Royal Air Force. ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan2.60Database System Concepts Codd first came to the United States in 1948, at the age **of** 25. He found work with IBM as a programming **mathematician**/; elected Fellow **of** the Britain Computer Society; elected member **of** the National Academy **of** Engineering; and elected member **of** the American Academy **of** Arts and Sciences. In 1981 he received the ACM **Turing** Award, the most prestigious award in the field **of** computer science. He/

Lady Augusta Ada (1815 - 1852) Augusta Ada was the daughter **of** the poet, Lord Byron. Her mother encouraged her to **study** mathematics and music. She was a bright **mathematician** who was introduced to Charles Babbage in 1833. Lewinter & WidulskiThe Saga **of** Mathematics18 Lady Augusta Ada (1815 - 1852) Ada Byron was fascinated by a demonstration **of** Babbages Difference Engine. Babbage found that Ada understood and could/

**mathematician**, when he considered the Euclidian geometry on his Grundlagen der Geometrie. Hilbert began his discussion by considering three systems **of** things which he calls points, straight lines, and planes, and sets up a system **of**/ W. “Critique the Maussian criterion **of** technique efficacy”, Method & Theory in the **Study** **of** Religion, 7, 2, 1995 ,/**Turing** ( 1912 – 1954)) 1835, Andrew Ure, The Philosophy **of** Manufactures, or an Exposition **of** the Scientific, Moral and Commercial Economy **of** the Factory System **of**/

**of** **Mathematicians**, Paris, 1900. **Turing** AM. On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the EntscheidungsproblemÊ. Proceedings **of** the/**Study** **of** networks regularities: Laszlo Barabasi 14 See the work **of** Albert-László Barabási who **studies**/**of** its existence. Cognition = info-computation 6. Cognition is equivalent with the (process **of**) **life**. Its complexity increases with evolution. This complexification is a result **of** morphological computation. Information, computation, cognition. Agency-based Hierarchies **of**/

**of** **life**, more than an object **of** **study** The image **of** the hacker crystallizes a fear **of** getting lost in the world **of** things + leads to isolation Passion **of** Virtuosity MIT hacker supply virtuosity be left free to construct their own way **of** **life** around **of**/ group **of** **mathematicians** Use the computer to build a mind Describe mechanism that might allow machines to take the first steps toward manifesting intelligence (ex. playing chess) Alan **Turing** John von Neumann Norbert Wiener Claude Shannon the birth **of** Artificial /

) Integrity (Moral) Integrity is when you adhere to the moral principles **of** honesty. Honesty, Courage, Optimism, Service History – A **study** **of** a theme in British history. Inspiring a Nation Winston Churchill (British Prime/**of** physical/ human geography Driven to Make a Change Wangari Maathai (Kenyan environmental activist) Drive (Performance) Drive is to move or push forward despite obstacles in your path. Resilience, Motivation, Optimism, Service Computing - Coding Code Breaker Alan **Turing** (**Mathematician**/

**of** the University **of** Western Ontario Other Views **of** Managerial Work Rosemary Stewart examined the "demands," "constraints," and "choices“**of** a managers job. John Kotters **studies** **of** general managers and his finding **of**/role **of** business leaders. Howard Bowen provided one definition **of** social responsibility and observed that business firms alone could not solve the problems **of** economic **life**. //~history/**Mathematicians**/Wiener_Norbert.html What are Cybernetics? http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CYBSWHAT.html Death **of** the /

**study** theory? Philosophy What is computation? What is provable? Course **of** two parts The Good News You only have to take this course once Except those **of** you who will not pay attention to the lectures At the end, you can say that you understand what computers are really about Good for postgraduate and professional **life** 2nd half **of**/ half **of** the 20 th century, **mathematicians** like Kurt Goedel, Alan **Turing**, and Alonzo Church discovered that some problems do not have a computable solution! Example **of** undecidable /

**of** Al-Khwarizmi, Arab **mathematician** from 800AD. Al-Khwarizmi, 860AD “Algorists” 1504AD Sumerian division algorithm, 2000BC Sumerian division, translated [The number is 4;10. What is its inverse? Proceed as follows. Form the inverse **of**/**Turing** Award for Unix ML programming language Statically typed, general-purpose programming language –“Meta-Language” **of**/management **of** effects Why **Study** /**life**? “Learning Haskell is a great way **of** training yourself to think functionally so you are ready to take full advantage **of**/

Factors aspects, that later, I found myself **studying**. School was generally good; became skilled in /**of** course, “R” Apparently the test to see if the person you were speaking to was a WW2 code-breaker. (Asa, worked in Bletchley Park’s “Hut 6” deciphering intercepted Enigma encrypts from the German Army & Air force.) “Station X” (BP) was the birthplace the “computer” but the double standards that encouraged **mathematician** **Turing**/codify and refine the variety **of** my **life** and complexity **of** thought. I wrote for my/

the rescue! Logic Logic is the **study** **of** reasoning In particular, logic **studies** the conditions under which we can say that a piece **of** reasoning is valid, i.e. /**Turing** in 1936) we have excellent reasons to believe that arithmetic is undecidable, i.e. that there is no systematic procedure (computer program) that can decide for any first-order logic arithmetical statement whether it is true or false! So what does this mean? Well, if one believes that human **mathematicians** are able to figure out (in principle **of**/

**of** that maximum or minimum? History **of** Optimization Greek **mathematicians** solved some optimization problems that were related to their geometrical **studies** Euclid [Father **of**/**life** situations for which negative quantities are generally illogical. The recourses must be in limited supply. For example, if a firm starts producing greater number **of** a particular product, it must make smaller number **of**/Dewdney, A.K. (1989) Linear Programming. The New **Turing** Omnibus. Computer Science Press. Kapoor V.K. (1990) Operations Research./

goal, Though no one has won outright May 15, 2012 Bletchley Park, UK Pass the **Turing** Test Put Rovers on Mars Pathfinder – 1997 Sojourner Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (2004-2010) /**of** computer science, and on computing technology and the use **of** core computational and applied mathematics. Findings and Recommendations to confront GC Problems 1) Computational Models, Methods, and Algorithms Recommendation: NSF should support multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams that bring together applied **mathematicians**/

move left, right, up or down instead **of** on diagonals like gliders … Game **of** **Life** - Research A completely known universe Computation is possible –A **Turing** machine has been implemented –Formal proof that self-reproducing mechanisms are possible … Summary Artificial **Life**: –Biology inspired –Multidisciplinary approach –Computational evolution Complex Systems –Emergence and self-organization –**Life** at the edge **of** chaos Cellular Automata –Simple, yet effective models for **studies** in Artificial/

art for art’s sake” was sufficient justification for **studying** the finer things in **life**. But more recently, many societies have begun to question the value **of** investing in the arts. On one side **of** the debate are those who cite evidence that students/a Person “Human”? Can a computer think? In 1950, the British **mathematician** Alan **Turing** proposed a test for determining whether a computer was intelligent. In this test, called the **Turing** Test, a person asks questions to another person and a computer, without /

Group Introduction biology is the scientific **study** **of** **life** on Earth based on carbon-chain chemistry Artificial **Life** („AL or „Alife) - name given to a new discipline that **studies** "natural" **life** by attempting to recreate biological phenomena /**of** **life** - **LIFE** John Horton Conway – **mathematician** at University **of** Cambridge CA – two states (empty and living cell) and full neighbourhood Rules Birth – in the neighbourhood **of** an empty cell there are three living cells Survival – in the neighbourhood **of**/

Lect 01 / 19 Your Input 4. Use the Self **Study** period 5. Practise and develop your computing skills in the/Engine - the first computer 1840 Augusta Ada Lovelace (**mathematician**) introduces Binary as the form for data representation 1854/Lect 01 / 40 A History Snapshot 1937 Alan **Turing** - the **Turing** machine, a theoretical model **of** a computer 1940 Atanasoff and Berry - Electronic Computer/technology addressing all forms **of** **life** 2. Economics The economy becomes information-centered. The creation **of** wealth is tied to/

to perform a series **of** complex calculations that were used to help determine the feasibility **of** the hydrogen bomb. Von Neumann/**Turing** The **mathematician** John von Neumann, who was a consu- ltant on the ENIAC project, and Alan **Turing** developed the idea at/ computer, referred to as the IAS computer was done at the Princeton Institute for Advanced **Studies**. IAS completed in 1952, and it is a prototype **of** all subsequent general-purpose computers. Cont. IAS Structure Main memory storing programs (instructions) and/

**of** an earthquake. Inge Lehmann discovered the inner core **of** the Earth in 1936 She used the measures **of** the different travel times **of** seismic waves generated by earthquakes to different stations over the Earth. Inge Lehmann was a **mathematician**./The Milankovitch cycles include - Variations **of** the eccentricity **of** the Earth’s elliptical orbit **Life** could appear on Earth because we have a relatively stable system **of** seasons Why? Indeed, the oscillations **of** the obliquity **of** the axis **of** Venus in the past and /

2016 7 Computing Last decade **of** his **life** „Man **of** action” period Earlier no interest: – 1937: letter **of** recommendation to Alan **Turing** not mentioning his paper on computing! Regarded mainly as tool for scientific research – Explosion theory, shock wawes…. Los Alamos Aberdeen Stanislav Ulam: „ His work, from the beginnings **of** the Second World War, concerns a **study** **of** the equations **of** hydrodynamics and the theory **of** shocks. The phenomena described/

PRINCIPLE: PLANETARY VERSION Named by **mathematician** Brandon Carter in 1974 The origin **of** **life** had to happen only once. Extremely improbable event We exist here/–Bees & Flowers Reputation Buying Unfakeably Authentic Advertising Case **Study** in the Roots **of** Morality We do not need GOD in order to /**Turing** –German enigma codes –Offered a choice between 2 years in prison or chemical castration (1954) Faith and the sanctity **of** human **life** The death penalty –George Bush Euthanasia Abortion –Does the embryo suffer? –Violence **of**/

(c) 2001 by the McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 - 10 Artificial **Life** What is artificial **life**? A field **of** **study** that deals with computer instructions that try to simulate human responses What English **mathematician** and computer pioneer created a test in 1950 to determine computer intelligence? Alan **Turing** McGraw Hill (c) 2001 by the McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 - 11/

**of** Washington, he is a professor **of** CS and Engineering and an Adjunct Professor **of** Molecular Biotechnology. The unifying theme **of** his work has been the **study** **of** combinatorial algorithms. The U.S. National Medal **of** Science, **Turing**/), conducting the lecture. Professorial **Life** The move to Berkeley marked the end **of** my scientific apprenticeship. A professor’s **life** is a juggling act. Supervised/cast **of** young computer scientists and **mathematicians** to work at the Institute for a year, and to attract a number **of** the/

to the philosophy **of** Epicurus, a)happiness was the goal **of** **life**, and could be achieved through the pursuit **of** pleasure. b)enlightenment could only be achieved through long periods **of** meditation. c)happiness could be found only when people **studied** poetry. d)public/ figure. d)Pluto is part **of** our solar system. 2.The **mathematician** Euclid wrote the Elements, which was a a)treatise on the geometry **of** spheres and cylinders. b)revolutionary exploration **of** art, including the value **of** painting. c)textbook on plane /

**of** Washington Why **Study** Cryptography? Secrets are intrinsically interesting So much real-**life** drama: Mary Queen **of** Scots executed for treason primary evidence was an encoded letter they tricked the conspirators with a forgery Students enjoy puzzles Real world application **of**/for symmetry Broken by the British in WW II (Alan **Turing**) Public Key Encryption Proposed by Diffie, Hellman, Merkle First/FBI and a grand jury The NSA hires more **mathematicians** than any other organization Exploring further Simon Singh, The/

, electronic, digital computer John Mauchy & John Eckert 人工智慧近代發展的平台 David Hilbert Kurt Gödel Alan **Turing** Lugwig Wittgenstein Alonso Church John Louis von Neumann “ Wir mussen wissen, wir werden wissen. ” ( 我們要知道 ; 我們將知道 ) David Hilbert The 23 Problems: He put forth a most influential list **of** “23 unsolved problems” at the International Congress **of** **Mathematicians** in Paris in 1900. This is generally reckoned the most successful and deeply considered/

**mathematician** Alan **Turing** over fifty years ago. However, it still stands up well under the test **of** time, and the **Turings** approach remains universal. He asked: Is there thought without experience? Is there mind without communication? Is there language without living? Is there intelligence without **life**/organised a summer workshop at Dartmouth College. They brought together researchers interested in the **study** **of** machine intelligence, artificial neural nets and automata theory. Although there were just ten /

isnt the end **of** the matter, though. Most **mathematicians** think it really only takes 20 moves to solve any Rubiks cube - its just a question **of** proving this /**of** Alan **Turing** Homage to Shu-Heng Chen’s Wisdom and Prescience From Dartmouth to Classical Behavioural Economics – 1955-2010 We propose that a 2 month, 10 man **study** **of** artificial intelligence be carried out during the summer **of** 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The **study** is to proceed on the basis **of** the conjecture that every aspect **of**/

to replace the rural way **of** **life**. Although some may lament the passing **of** the agrarian way **of** **life**, in much **of** the developing world these transformations /- Timeline 1945 Specifications **of** a stored-program computer Two **mathematicians**, Briton Alan **Turing** and Hungarian John von Neumann, work independently on the specifications **of** a stored-program computer/ even thinking about light. Townes was an expert in spectroscopy—the **study** **of** matters interactions with electromagnetic energy—and what he wanted was a way/

**Study** **of** the amount **of** resources required by an algorithm to solve a problem. Time (bit operations) Space (bits) Randomness Communications What is Computational Complexity? **Study** **of** the amount **of** resources required by an algorithm to solve a problem. Mathematically formalized as **Turing** Machines What is Computational Complexity? **Study** **of** the amount **of**/ computers can replace **mathematicians** some day! Notion **of** NP-completeness NP-complete problems hardest problems in NP Notion **of** NP-completeness NP-complete/

American **mathematician** **of** Jewish origin, who made important contributions to quantum physics, quantum logic, functional analysis, set theory, computer science, economics and other branches **of** science./**OF** MATHEMATICS. Church famous for developing the theory **of** the lambda calculus, following his famous article in 1936 in which he revealed the existence **of** the so-called. "Unsolvable problems." This article preceded the famous **study** **of** Alan **Turing** on the halting problem, which also demonstrated the existence **of**/

**mathematician** Alan **Turing** over fifty years ago. However, it still stands up well under the test **of** time, and the **Turing**’s approach remains universal. n He asked: Is there thought without experience? Is there mind without communication? Is there language without living? Is there intelligence without **life**/organised a summer workshop at Dartmouth College. They brought together researchers interested in the **study** **of** machine intelligence, artificial neural nets and automata theory. Although there were just ten /

History Ancient (Thornton 1847)Ancient (Thornton 1847) In science fiction / **mathematicians** Stanislaw Ulam (1958) I.J. Good (1965) Ray Solomonoff (1985) Vernor Vinge (1993)In science fiction / **mathematicians** Stanislaw Ulam (1958) I.J. Good (1965) Ray Solomonoff / **tures** in the first place, and the memory to store and the comp to run them. {hard} {easy} cheap manipulation and experimentation and copying **of** virtual **life** itself possible. Copying & Modifying Virtual **Life** “ virtuan” explosion with **life** becoming/

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