Ppt on life study of mathematician turing

Chaos and Creativity in the Lives of Entrepreneurs and Scientists by Ted Goertzel.

with biographies in the Montclair, NJ public library 1978: Follow-up sample of over 300 from the Menlo Park, CA pubic library 2003: Sample of over 700 from the Montclair public library online catalog, supplemented expert judgments from Time and Life magazine studies Natural Scientists, Engineers and Mathematicians in the 1962 Cradles of Eminence Sample Luther Burbank George Washington Carver Marie Curie Paul Ehrlich Albert Einstein/

Unix and C Programming Dr. Cong Xing Dept. of Math & CMPS.

FYI: Why didn’t Bill Gates receive Turing Award? Which of the following brilliant ideas which have significant impacts on our life is originally from Microsoft (Bill Gates)? GUI/Mathematicians/Von_Neumann.html http://www-groups.dcs.st- and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Von_Neumann.html Unix Startup Files Startup Files allow users to customize working environment Types of/.e., p is variable of type int *. or as int (*p); i.e., *p is a variable of type int. example next slide, study it carefully, as it involves/

Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics LOT Summer School 2006 Issues in the biology and evolution of language Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini University.

n Even the most elaborate forms of life can be explained n As we will/Turing 1952). LOT Summer 2006The return of the laws of form56 Biological instances n The case of the sea-anemone Hydra and of the leaves of the woodruff (Asperula odorata) LOT Summer 2006The return of the laws of/of the laws of form62 A strange maverick: René Thom (1923-2002) (Fields medal 1958) n Originated by the French mathematician Rene Thom in the 1960s, catastrophe theory is a special branch of dynamical systems theory. It studies/

CSE 301 History of Computing World War II and the Stored Program Computer.

design by Alan Turing Practical design by Tommy Flowers Colossus from Tony Sale, original curator of the Bletchley Park Museum/of Mauchly and Eckert Eckert – chief engineer Mauchley – principal consultant presented by Lt. Herman H. Goldstein, mathematician Constructed completed in the fall of/his first IAS computer from the Archives of the Institute for Advanced Study Hungarian stamp in his honor John / mathematics to the technologies of life and death (Cambridge,MA, 1980). Back in England/

1 st chapter Rashedul Hasan. 1 st Chapter. What Computer is What Computer is -How does a Computer works -How does a Computer works -Characteristics of.

and experience we often make certain judgments in our day-to-day life whereas computer can not make such judgments. No feelings: Computer /of contemporary parts. Leibnitz (1646-1716) was a German mathematician and built the first calculator to do multiplication and division. It was not reliable due to accuracy of contemporary parts. History of/ – to study the structure of viruses such as that causing AIDS Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to study the structure of viruses such /

Page 1 Strictly Confidential Theory Of Everything??? Goh Peng Ooi.

And Language As Part Of Everything, “Theory Of Everything” Is Not Theory Of Everything The Study Of Our Primitive Senses Is Known As Foundation Of Mathematics (FOM). The Strategy Of Mathematics Is Based Solely On ‘Senses’, And It Turns Out To Be Also The Study Of ‘Senses’, Including ‘Purposes’. Page 3 Strictly Confidential Our Senses : Primitive And Complex The list of top mathematicians who have worked on foundation of mathematics are given/

Ayushi Pradhan. A property of machines that, if achieved, mimics human thought processes. Many researchers in artificial intelligence consider the abilities.

Recognition: It is the research area that studies the operation and design of systems that recognize patterns in data. It /of AI, this has to be true. The usefulness of current expert systems depends on their users having common sense. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS & THEIR DEFINITIONS A test for deciding whether a computer is intelligent, proposed in 1950 by the mathematician Alan Turing/ They are a much better model of how we think. It is not often that questions that arise in life have bivalent answers. There are a/

Connecting with Computer Science2 Objectives Understand the performance limitations of Von Neumann architecture Learn why computer speed enables new innovation.

built using the principles of quantum mechanics –The study of matter and radiation at an atomic level –The fundamental unit of information is a qubit / of other areas of artificial intelligence Connecting with Computer Science41 Connecting with Computer Science42 One Last Thought Computers are becoming part of every aspect of life / computers may provide tremendous computer speed increases Mathematician Alan Turing proposed a test to determine the intelligence of a computer Computers will not be constrained /

Consciousness and Creativity in Brain-Inspired Cognitive Architectures

Tralvex Yeap. All Rights Reserved Challenges: language Turing test – original test is too difficult. Loebner/of Mathematicians in Paris David Hilbert delivered what is now considered the most important talk ever given in the history of mathematics, proposing 23 major problems worth working at in future. 100 years later the impact of/ Large society of agents – is collaborative project possible? In Second Life? AGI, / System (AMS) Kernel Memory Approach Series: Studies in Computational Intelligence (SCI), Vol. 1/

1 Programming with the Mathematical and the Physical Uday S. Reddy School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham.

of inspiration: –Traditional algorithms –Instruction manuals –Recipe books –Turing machine model Mathematical paradigm (Functional programming) –Based on functions for calculation Sources of inspiration: –Recursive function theory –Lambda calculus model –Denotational semantics of programming languages 30 Imperative paradigm Example: To sum a series of/ entity? Mathematicians themselves have not produced a definition of the idea. We can try to generalize from the kinds of things mathematicians study: –numbers/

Consciousness and Creativity in Brain-Inspired Cognitive Architectures

of Mathematicians in Paris David Hilbert delivered what is now considered the most important talk ever given in the history of mathematics, proposing 23 major problems worth working at in future. 100 years later the impact of/of these jobs can be done by AI systems (Nilsson, Turing’s “child machine”). Knowledge-based information processing jobs – progress measured by passing a series of/of being aware - yes, robots should have it. Phenomenal consciousness with inner life/ Series: Studies in Computational/

History of People in Africa. Pre-Historic Africa.

of Sunni Ali’s generals, named Muhammad Ture, overthrew the new king and made himself king of Songhay. Ture was a follower of Islam (Muslim) and so he made Islam the religion of his kingdom. This is a photo of a mosque, or place of/of the world came to Timbuktus famous University of Sankore to study Law and Medicine. Medieval Europeans came the Kingdom to study from mathematicians, astronomers, physicians, and jurists whose intellectual endeavors were said to be paid for out of/mark passages in life. The doll/

LGB&T History Month Prepared by Gloria Wallace, Fellow of Suffolk New College 1 February 2011.

as Renée Vivien. They shared a love of Sappho’s poetry and studied Greek so they could fully appreciate her poetry./mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was influential in the development of computer science and providing a formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, playing a significant role in the creation of/ tests chromosomes of athletes, and puts a stop to transsexuals competing. In 1950 Foekje Dillema was expelled for life by the /

THE COMPUTATION PROJECT VERSUS BOURBAKI’S PROJECT Solomon Marcus Stoilow Institute of Mathematics Romanian Academy

of recursive functions (Kleene, Gödel), ● mathematical logic, ● theory of algorithms (Markov), ● of computability (Turing), ● Post combinatorial systems, ● symbolic dynamics (Morse and Hedlund), ● combinatorics and algebra of/of Nicolas Bourbaki, to monitor such a diversity and richness of ideas, theories and results. It was initially a group of about seven very young mathematicians/, Gheorghe Paun), Number 148 in the series “Studies in Fuzziness and Softcomputing”, Berlin, Springer, 2004, 11-53. /

Proof, Computation, & Randomness Kurt Gödel John von Neumann and Theoretical Computer Science Avi Wigderson School of Mathematics Institute for Advanced.

Church-Turing Thesis: “Turing machine captures every realistic physical model of computation” Computation: evolution of an environment via repeated application of simple,/of Knowledge (II) P – problems for which solutions can be efficiently found. Everything we can know. NP – problems for which solutions can be easily verified. Everything we want to know. Mathematician/: Game Theory Make conflicts in Economics, Politics, War & life, amenable to mathematical analysis Is there always a rational solution/

Why Programming Matters Eric Roberts Professor of Computer Science, Stanford University Past Chair of the ACM Education Board NACCQ Napier, New Zealand.

concerns: –Long hours with little chance for a balanced life –A less pleasant social milieu than other occupations —/ more orders of magnitude initially seems hard to believe. In fact, such differences in effectiveness occur across a range of occupational categories: –Mathematicians –Creative artists/I went to art school to study painting. A lot of people seemed surprised that someone interested /Turing Award 1974 Don Knuth Implicit in these remarks is the notion that there is something undesirable about an area of/

Programming and the CS Curriculum: Eric Roberts Professor of Computer Science, Stanford University Past Chair of the ACM Education Board FLICS Swarthmore.

concerns: –Long hours with little chance for a balanced life –A less pleasant social milieu than other occupations –A/ more orders of magnitude initially seems hard to believe. In fact, such differences in effectiveness occur across a range of occupational categories: –Mathematicians –Creative artists/ went to art school to study painting. A lot of people seemed surprised that someone interested /Turing Award 1974 Don Knuth Implicit in these remarks is the notion that there is something undesirable about an area of/

CS157B Lecture 1 Prof. Sin-Min Lee Department of Computer Science San Jose State University.

of his studies, he chose to fly in the Royal Air Force. ©Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan2.60Database System Concepts Codd first came to the United States in 1948, at the age of 25. He found work with IBM as a programming mathematician/; elected Fellow of the Britain Computer Society; elected member of the National Academy of Engineering; and elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 1981 he received the ACM Turing Award, the most prestigious award in the field of computer science. He/

Lewinter & WidulskiThe Saga of Mathematics1 Ones and Zeros Chapter 12.

Lady Augusta Ada (1815 - 1852)  Augusta Ada was the daughter of the poet, Lord Byron.  Her mother encouraged her to study mathematics and music.  She was a bright mathematician who was introduced to Charles Babbage in 1833. Lewinter & WidulskiThe Saga of Mathematics18 Lady Augusta Ada (1815 - 1852)  Ada Byron was fascinated by a demonstration of Babbages Difference Engine.  Babbage found that Ada understood and could/

Technique, Technology and their relationship with the Body (A sociological theory on a very strange couple). Guido Frison Rome, May 2011 . A workshop.

mathematician, when he considered the Euclidian geometry on his Grundlagen der Geometrie. Hilbert began his discussion by considering three systems of things which he calls points, straight lines, and planes, and sets up a system of/ W. “Critique the Maussian criterion of technique efficacy”, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion, 7,  2, 1995 ,/Turing ( 1912 – 1954)) 1835, Andrew Ure, The Philosophy of Manufactures, or an Exposition of the Scientific, Moral and Commercial Economy of the Factory System of/

Participating and Anticipating Actors and Agent Networks. Social Computing Gordana Dodig Crnkovic Professor of Computer Science Mälardalen University,

of Mathematicians, Paris, 1900. Turing AM. On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the EntscheidungsproblemÊ. Proceedings of the/Study of networks regularities: Laszlo Barabasi 14 See the work of Albert-László Barabási who studies/of its existence. Cognition = info-computation 6. Cognition is equivalent with the (process of) life. Its complexity increases with evolution. This complexification is a result of morphological computation. Information, computation, cognition. Agency-based Hierarchies of/

Part II The New Computer Cultures: The Mechanization of the Mind 5. Personal Computer with Personal Meanings 6. Hackers: Loving the Machine for Itself.

of life, more than an object of study The image of the hacker crystallizes a fear of getting lost in the world of things + leads to isolation Passion of Virtuosity MIT hacker supply virtuosity be left free to construct their own way of life around of/ group of mathematicians Use the computer to build a mind Describe mechanism that might allow machines to take the first steps toward manifesting intelligence (ex. playing chess) Alan Turing John von Neumann Norbert Wiener Claude Shannon the birth of Artificial /

Character Education In Primary Schools Dr Tom Harrison Director of Education Jubilee Centre for Character and Virtues.

) Integrity (Moral) Integrity is when you adhere to the moral principles of honesty. Honesty, Courage, Optimism, Service History – A study of a theme in British history. Inspiring a Nation Winston Churchill (British Prime/of physical/ human geography Driven to Make a Change Wangari Maathai (Kenyan environmental activist) Drive (Performance) Drive is to move or push forward despite obstacles in your path. Resilience, Motivation, Optimism, Service Computing - Coding Code Breaker Alan Turing (Mathematician/

The History of Management Thought

of the University of Western Ontario Other Views of Managerial Work Rosemary Stewart examined the "demands," "constraints," and "choices“of a managers job. John Kotters studies of general managers and his finding of/role of business leaders. Howard Bowen provided one definition of social responsibility and observed that business firms alone could not solve the problems of economic life. //~history/Mathematicians/Wiener_Norbert.html What are Cybernetics? http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CYBSWHAT.html Death of the /

CS 208: Computing Theory Assoc. Prof. Dr. Brahim Hnich Faculty of Computer Sciences Izmir University of Economics.

study theory? Philosophy What is computation? What is provable? Course of two parts The Good News You only have to take this course once Except those of you who will not pay attention to the lectures At the end, you can say that you understand what computers are really about Good for postgraduate and professional life 2nd half of/ half of the 20 th century, mathematicians like Kurt Goedel, Alan Turing, and Alonzo Church discovered that some problems do not have a computable solution! Example of undecidable /

Brief history of “programming” “Programming” in the sense of devising rules, methods, procedures, recipes, algorithms, has always been present in human.

of Al-Khwarizmi, Arab mathematician from 800AD. Al-Khwarizmi, 860AD “Algorists” 1504AD Sumerian division algorithm, 2000BC Sumerian division, translated [The number is 4;10. What is its inverse? Proceed as follows. Form the inverse of/Turing Award for Unix ML programming language Statically typed, general-purpose programming language –“Meta-Language” of/management of effects Why Study /life? “Learning Haskell is a great way of training yourself to think functionally so you are ready to take full advantage of/

11/13/2015 Mic Porter 1. A “Tutor’s Perspective”… Mic Porter - Ergonomist Some of the key experiences that created my weltanschauung: A little history.

Factors aspects, that later, I found myself studying. School was generally good; became skilled in /of course, “R” Apparently the test to see if the person you were speaking to was a WW2 code-breaker. (Asa, worked in Bletchley Park’s “Hut 6” deciphering intercepted Enigma encrypts from the German Army & Air force.) “Station X” (BP) was the birthplace the “computer” but the double standards that encouraged mathematician Turing/codify and refine the variety of my life and complexity of thought. I wrote for my/

Logic and Mathematics The Art and Science of Mathematics.

the rescue! Logic Logic is the study of reasoning In particular, logic studies the conditions under which we can say that a piece of reasoning is valid, i.e. /Turing in 1936) we have excellent reasons to believe that arithmetic is undecidable, i.e. that there is no systematic procedure (computer program) that can decide for any first-order logic arithmetical statement whether it is true or false! So what does this mean? Well, if one believes that human mathematicians are able to figure out (in principle of/

Introduction to optimization

of that maximum or minimum? History of Optimization Greek mathematicians solved some optimization problems that were related to their geometrical studies Euclid [Father of/life situations for which negative quantities are generally illogical. The recourses must be in limited supply. For example, if a firm starts producing greater number of a particular product, it must make smaller number of/Dewdney, A.K. (1989) Linear Programming. The New Turing Omnibus. Computer Science Press. Kapoor V.K. (1990) Operations Research./

The Future of Computer Science Frederick C Harris, Jr. March 23, 2012 Utah State University.

goal, Though no one has won outright May 15, 2012 Bletchley Park, UK Pass the Turing Test Put Rovers on Mars Pathfinder – 1997 Sojourner Mars Exploration Rover Spirit (2004-2010) /of computer science, and on computing technology and the use of core computational and applied mathematics. Findings and Recommendations to confront GC Problems 1) Computational Models, Methods, and Algorithms Recommendation: NSF should support multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams that bring together applied mathematicians/

The Role of Artificial Life, Cellular Automata and Emergence in the study of Artificial Intelligence Ognen Spiroski CITY Liberal Studies 2005.

move left, right, up or down instead of on diagonals like gliders … Game of Life - Research A completely known universe Computation is possible –A Turing machine has been implemented –Formal proof that self-reproducing mechanisms are possible … Summary Artificial Life: –Biology inspired –Multidisciplinary approach –Computational evolution Complex Systems –Emergence and self-organization –Life at the edge of chaos Cellular Automata –Simple, yet effective models for studies in Artificial/

Intermediate-level English Listening Practice (II) Textbook: Listen In (BOOK 3) Instructor: Ying-Ying Kimberly Chuang Department of Applied Foreign Languages.

art for art’s sake” was sufficient justification for studying the finer things in life. But more recently, many societies have begun to question the value of investing in the arts. On one side of the debate are those who cite evidence that students/a Person “Human”?  Can a computer think? In 1950, the British mathematician Alan Turing proposed a test for determining whether a computer was intelligent. In this test, called the Turing Test, a person asks questions to another person and a computer, without /

Biomedical Signal and Data Processing Group Artificial Life Lenka Lhotska Gerstner laboratory, Department of Cybernetics CTU FEE Prague

Group Introduction  biology is the scientific study of life on Earth based on carbon-chain chemistry  Artificial Life („AL or „Alife) - name given to a new discipline that studies "natural" life by attempting to recreate biological phenomena /of life - LIFE  John Horton Conway – mathematician at University of Cambridge  CA – two states (empty and living cell) and full neighbourhood  Rules  Birth – in the neighbourhood of an empty cell there are three living cells  Survival – in the neighbourhood of/

CSE1720 Summer 2005 Lect 01 / 1 Introduction Welcome to CSE1720 An Elective Unit for Bachelor of Business and other Approved Degrees Summer Semester 2005.

Lect 01 / 19 Your Input 4. Use the Self Study period 5. Practise and develop your computing skills in the/Engine - the first computer 1840 Augusta Ada Lovelace (mathematician) introduces Binary as the form for data representation 1854/Lect 01 / 40 A History Snapshot 1937 Alan Turing - the Turing machine, a theoretical model of a computer 1940 Atanasoff and Berry - Electronic Computer/technology addressing all forms of life 2. Economics The economy becomes information-centered. The creation of wealth is tied to/

Computer Architecture. Generations of Computer The First Generation: Vacuum Tubes ENIAC - background (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) Eckert.

to perform a series of complex calculations that were used to help determine the feasibility of the hydrogen bomb. Von Neumann/Turing The mathematician John von Neumann, who was a consu- ltant on the ENIAC project, and Alan Turing developed the idea at/ computer, referred to as the IAS computer was done at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies. IAS completed in 1952, and it is a prototype of all subsequent general-purpose computers. Cont. IAS Structure Main memory storing programs (instructions) and/

Mathematics of Planet Earth. Discovering the Earth.

of an earthquake. Inge Lehmann discovered the inner core of the Earth in 1936 She used the measures of the different travel times of seismic waves generated by earthquakes to different stations over the Earth. Inge Lehmann was a mathematician./The Milankovitch cycles include - Variations of the eccentricity of the Earth’s elliptical orbit Life could appear on Earth because we have a relatively stable system of seasons Why? Indeed, the oscillations of the obliquity of the axis of Venus in the past and /

John von Neumann in Computer Science Balint Domolki Honorary President of the John von Neumann Computer Society The 2016 IEEE International Conference.

2016 7 Computing Last decade of his life „Man of action” period Earlier no interest: – 1937: letter of recommendation to Alan Turing not mentioning his paper on computing! Regarded mainly as tool for scientific research – Explosion theory, shock wawes…. Los Alamos  Aberdeen Stanislav Ulam: „ His work, from the beginnings of the Second World War, concerns a study of the equations of hydrodynamics and the theory of shocks. The phenomena described/

The GOD Delusion. DESERVED RESPECT Definition of God 1.Personal God: a supernatural creator that is ‘appropriate for us to worship’ 2.Awesome structure.

PRINCIPLE: PLANETARY VERSION Named by mathematician Brandon Carter in 1974 The origin of life had to happen only once. Extremely improbable event We exist here/–Bees & Flowers Reputation Buying Unfakeably Authentic Advertising Case Study in the Roots of Morality We do not need GOD in order to /Turing –German enigma codes –Offered a choice between 2 years in prison or chemical castration (1954) Faith and the sanctity of human life The death penalty –George Bush Euthanasia Abortion –Does the embryo suffer? –Violence of/

McGraw Hill (c) 2001 by the McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Promises of the Digital Age Chapter 10 Society & Information Technology.

(c) 2001 by the McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 - 10 Artificial Life  What is artificial life? A field of study that deals with computer instructions that try to simulate human responses  What English mathematician and computer pioneer created a test in 1950 to determine computer intelligence? Alan Turing McGraw Hill (c) 2001 by the McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 - 11/

The Mysteries of Algorithms A Self-told Story of Richard M. Karp (People & Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science) Three principles Getting Educated The.

of Washington, he is a professor of CS and Engineering and an Adjunct Professor of Molecular Biotechnology. The unifying theme of his work has been the study of combinatorial algorithms. The U.S. National Medal of Science, Turing/), conducting the lecture. Professorial Life The move to Berkeley marked the end of my scientific apprenticeship. A professor’s life is a juggling act. Supervised/cast of young computer scientists and mathematicians to work at the Institute for a year, and to attract a number of the/

World History Daily 10 #1 1.Hammurabi is remembered for a)inventing the first wooden bicycle. b)creating a post office. c)his law code, a collection of.

to the philosophy of Epicurus, a)happiness was the goal of life, and could be achieved through the pursuit of pleasure. b)enlightenment could only be achieved through long periods of meditation. c)happiness could be found only when people studied poetry. d)public/ figure. d)Pluto is part of our solar system. 2.The mathematician Euclid wrote the Elements, which was a a)treatise on the geometry of spheres and cylinders. b)revolutionary exploration of art, including the value of painting. c)textbook on plane /

Cryptography Made Easy Stuart Reges Principal Lecturer University of Washington.

of Washington Why Study Cryptography? Secrets are intrinsically interesting So much real-life drama: Mary Queen of Scots executed for treason primary evidence was an encoded letter they tricked the conspirators with a forgery Students enjoy puzzles Real world application of/for symmetry Broken by the British in WW II (Alan Turing) Public Key Encryption Proposed by Diffie, Hellman, Merkle First/FBI and a grand jury The NSA hires more mathematicians than any other organization Exploring further Simon Singh, The/

人工智慧 50 年 By Shang-Sheng Jeng 思索指南 Why not in traditional chinese character? 什麼是智慧 ? IQ (Intelligence Quotient, 智慧商數 ) EQ (Emotional Quotient, 情緒商數.

, electronic, digital computer John Mauchy & John Eckert 人工智慧近代發展的平台 David Hilbert Kurt Gödel Alan Turing Lugwig Wittgenstein Alonso Church John Louis von Neumann “ Wir mussen wissen, wir werden wissen. ” ( 我們要知道 ; 我們將知道 ) David Hilbert The 23 Problems: He put forth a most influential list of “23 unsolved problems” at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris in 1900. This is generally reckoned the most successful and deeply considered/

© Negnevitsky, Pearson Education, 2005 1 Lecture 1 Introduction to knowledge-base intelligent systems Intelligent machines, or what machines can do Intelligent.

mathematician Alan Turing over fifty years ago. However, it still stands up well under the test of time, and the Turings approach remains universal. He asked: Is there thought without experience? Is there mind without communication? Is there language without living? Is there intelligence without life/organised a summer workshop at Dartmouth College. They brought together researchers interested in the study of machine intelligence, artificial neural nets and automata theory. Although there were just ten /

Behavioural Economics

isnt the end of the matter, though. Most mathematicians think it really only takes 20 moves to solve any Rubiks cube - its just a question of proving this /of Alan Turing Homage to Shu-Heng Chen’s Wisdom and Prescience From Dartmouth to Classical Behavioural Economics – 1955-2010 We propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of/

The 20th centurys greatest engineering achievements

to replace the rural way of life. Although some may lament the passing of the agrarian way of life, in much of the developing world these transformations /- Timeline 1945 Specifications of a stored-program computer Two mathematicians, Briton Alan Turing and Hungarian John von Neumann, work independently on the specifications of a stored-program computer/ even thinking about light. Townes was an expert in spectroscopy—the study of matters interactions with electromagnetic energy—and what he wanted was a way/

P, NP and beyond CSA Summer School 2013 Chandan Saha.

Study of the amount of resources required by an algorithm to solve a problem. Time (bit operations) Space (bits) Randomness Communications What is Computational Complexity? Study of the amount of resources required by an algorithm to solve a problem. Mathematically formalized as Turing Machines What is Computational Complexity? Study of the amount of/ computers can replace mathematicians some day! Notion of NP-completeness NP-complete problems hardest problems in NP Notion of NP-completeness NP-complete/

AMERICAN MATHEMATICS Sergey Nikolaev Ruslan Pakhomov.

American mathematician of Jewish origin, who made important contributions to quantum physics, quantum logic, functional analysis, set theory, computer science, economics and other branches of science./OF MATHEMATICS. Church famous for developing the theory of the lambda calculus, following his famous article in 1936 in which he revealed the existence of the so-called. "Unsolvable problems." This article preceded the famous study of Alan Turing on the halting problem, which also demonstrated the existence of/

 Negnevitsky, Pearson Education, 2002 1 Lecture 1 Introduction to knowledge-base intelligent systems n Intelligent machines, or what machines can do n.

mathematician Alan Turing over fifty years ago. However, it still stands up well under the test of time, and the Turing’s approach remains universal. n He asked: Is there thought without experience? Is there mind without communication? Is there language without living? Is there intelligence without life/organised a summer workshop at Dartmouth College. They brought together researchers interested in the study of machine intelligence, artificial neural nets and automata theory. Although there were just ten /

Marcus Hutter Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia Australian National University.

History Ancient (Thornton 1847)Ancient (Thornton 1847) In science fiction / mathematicians Stanislaw Ulam (1958) I.J. Good (1965) Ray Solomonoff (1985) Vernor Vinge (1993)In science fiction / mathematicians Stanislaw Ulam (1958) I.J. Good (1965) Ray Solomonoff / tures in the first place, and the memory to store and the comp to run them.  {hard} {easy} cheap manipulation and experimentation and copying of virtual life itself possible. Copying & Modifying Virtual Life  “ virtuan” explosion with life becoming/

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