Ppt on leadership styles theories

Chapter 14 Leadership MGMT3 Chuck Williams

July 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/05/business/05corner.html (accessed 11/2/2009). Path Goal Theory: When to Use Leadership Styles 4.2 Adapting Leadership Behavior Beyond the Book Adapting Leadership Behavior Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Worker Readiness Leadership Styles Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership theory is based on the idea of follower readiness. They argue that employees have different levels of readiness for/


What Is Leadership? Leadership Management

support and supervision. LOW Amount of Follower Readiness HIGH Amount of Leader Support & Supervision Required HIGH LOW Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Unwilling Willing Supportive Participative Able Delegating Leadership Styles High Task and Relationship Orientations Unable Directive Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders select certain followers to be “in” (favorites) based on competence and/or compatibility and similarity to/


Women leaders underrate their skills...wk 5

‘telling, selling, participating and delegating’ (Northouse, 2004). Depending on the development level of a follower (i.e. their maturity), it is suggested that leaders will adopt one of these leadership styles. The theory has been evaluated in many studies. One study evaluated 105 health care institution nursing staff (Norris & Vecchio, 1992). The study setting has practical relevance to the findings since there was/


9 Leadership Groups generally require guidance as they strive to reach their goals, and the individual who coordinates and motivates the group can fundamentally.

Effectiveness is NEGATIVE Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Style Theories Leadership effectiveness depends on the leader’s “style”—some styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to situation is also important. Blake and Mouton’s “leadership grid” theory Style Theories Leadership effectiveness depends on the leader’s “style”—some styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to situation is also important. The situational leadership theory, proposed by Hersey and Blanchard/


Leadership Across Cultures

U.S. managers have a basically different philosophy of managing people – Ouchi’s Theory Z combines Japanese and U.S. assumptions and approaches providing a comparison of seven key characteristics Leadership in the International Context Differences Between Japanese and U.S. Leadership Styles Another difference between Japanese and U.S. leadership styles is how senior-level managers process information and learn Variety Amplification Japanese executives are/


1 1 The leader (trait, style, behavior, vision, charisma) The task (from holistic to reductionism, needing discretion or direction) The led (follower)

specific applications. S1 S2 S3 S4 Telling Selling Participating Delegating Guiding Explaining Encouraging Observing Directing Clarifying Collaborating Monitoring Establishing Persuading Committing Fulfilling 17 Table 2.3 Contingency and Situational Theories and Models Theories Situational Variables Leadership Styles Fiedler’s Contingency Theory The Quality of leader-subordinates relations Task-oriented The leader’s position power Relationship-oriented The degree of task structure House’s Path-Goal/


Chapter 5: Contingency Leadership Theories

. Fortune Magazine says shes the "most powerful woman in business." "Fiorina whips H-P into fighting shape," with strong leadership and sound decision making, changing HPs culture...streamlining operations... and cutting costs." –Jon Swatz, USA Today Contingency Leadership Theories: “It Depends” explain that the appropriate leadership style based on the (1) leader, (2) followers, and (3) situation. If managers can properly diagnose a situation and/


Leadership Theories.

door” policy Studies that Identified Communication Patterns of Leaders The Michigan Leadership Studies The Ohio State Leadership Studies McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Blake and McCanse’s Leadership Grid The Michigan Leadership Study Conducted shortly after WWII One dimensional Identified two basic leadership styles: Production oriented Employee oriented A building block for newer leadership studies Ohio State Leadership Studies After WWII Measured specific leader behaviors Identified two dimensions/


Chapter 14 Leadership MGMT7 © 2015 Cengage Learning.

participation (from none to letting employees make the entire decision) should be used when making decisions. Normative Theory, Decisions Styles, and Levels of Employee Participation Unlike nearly all of the other leadership theories discussed in this chapter, which have specified leadership styles, the normative decision theory specifies five different decision styles, or ways of making decisions. (Refer back to Chapter 5 for a more complete review of decision/


Directing & Leadership

in one situation and a follower in another. No specific set of traits and no one leadership style is effective in all situations. 5) Behavioral Theories: two major aspects of leadership behavior. Task: Job — centered behaviors Interpersonal relationship: Employee centered behaviors. Theories of Leadership.. Cont.: 6) Contingency Theories: A- Fiedler Model: leadership style will be effective or ineffective depending on situational factors: 1. Leader member relations, (amount of confidence/


Leadership and Trait Theory

learning, innovation, and change. Transactional Leadership Based on leadership style and exchange. Symbolic Leadership Based on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture. Situational Leadership Theories Situational Leadership Theorists Attempt to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations. Contingency leadership theory Leadership continuum Path-goal theory Normative leadership theory Situational leadership theory Leadership substitutes and neutralizers “Should the/


Chapter Five Contingency and Situational Leadership

© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Normative Decision Model Another leadership theory in which leadership style is matched with situational factors to achieve the best results. © 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible/


Leadership in Organizations

exchanges improve delegation. Supervisors are not overly influenced by the exchanges. Copyright © 2005 South-Western. All rights reserved. Contingency Theories of Leadership Contingency (Situational) leadership Attempts to specify the conditions under which various leadership styles would lead to the best results. Assumes the best style of leadership depends on: The leader’s relations with subordinates Characteristics of the subordinates Factors in the work setting. Copyright © 2005 South/


Leadership Chapter Ten

situation for a leader depends on the degree to which the situation permits the leader to influence the behavior of group members. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Group Performance = Leadership Style Situational Favorableness The first basic assumption of Fiedler’s theory is that leaders are effective when the work groups they lead perform well. To maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the/


Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer

members in the accomplishment of those goals. (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer Path-Goal Theory Leadership styles Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented (Continued) Fire and Emergency Services Company Officer Results-Based Leadership Theory Explains that leadership ability should not be judged by personal traits alone but by the results those traits have on the success of the organization/


Management 11e John Schermerhorn

13 Study Question 3: What are the contingency approaches to leadership? House’s path-goal leadership theory Effective leadership deals with the paths through which followers can achieve goals Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal relationships: Directive leadership Supportive leadership Achievement-oriented leadership Participative leadership Management 11e Chapter 13 Figure 13.6 Contingency relationships in the path-goal leadership theory Management 11e Chapter 13 Study Question 3: What are the/


Introduction: The Nature of Leadership

unable Unwilling/unable 4 3 2 1 22 Hersey & Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory DIRECTIVE STYLE A leadership style characterized by the giving of clear instructions and specific direction to immature employees. COACHING STYLE A leadership style characterized by expanding two-way communication and helping maturing employees build confidence and motivation. Situational Leadership cont. SUPPORTING STYLE A leadership style characterized by active two-way communication and support of mature employees efforts/


A Semi-historical Romp Through Prevailing Perspectives on Leadership

those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. 3. Contingency Theories: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the/


Introductory Lectures in Fundamentals of Christian Leadership.

The above characteristics are regarded as immature and antisocial. African/Asian cultures There are no universal leadership traits that can be applied cross-culturally. 25 As a result of these weaknesses in the Personality-Traits Theory, those who studied leadership theory moved to an examination of leadership behavioral styles. 26 LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES Leadership style refers to the way a leader relates to his or her followers and to the objectives/


Contingency Theories & Situational Leadership

, and therefore has little to do with inspiring and influencing others and bringing about important changes Situational Leadership Theory The Situational Leadership Theory explains how to match leadership style with follower readiness. The key contingency factors are group member characteristics. Situational Leadership Theory (cont.) The theory has its roots in the Ohio State Studies on Leader Behavior. That study identified 2 distinct leader behavior categories: Initiating structure (task behavior/


Chapter Five Contingency & Situational Leadership

tends to find the group member’s job satisfaction and performance increase. A leader should choose a leadership style that takes into account the group member characteristics and the task demands. The theory is based on the Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Path-Goal Theory Using Path-Goal Theory to Match Leadership Style to Situations DIRECTIVE Tasks are unclear SUPPORTIVE Tasks are frustrating and stressful, plus group members are/


Women and Leadership Chapter 14.

’s CEO, Avon’s CEO, General Ann Dunwoody, etc. Current research primary questions “What are the leadership style and effectiveness differences between women and men?” “Why are women starkly underrepresented in elite leadership roles?” Historical View Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Gender and Leadership Styles Meta-analysis (Eagly & Johnson, 1990) Women were not found to lead in a more interpersonally oriented/


Chapter 4 Leadership: A Framework for Thinking and Acting.

Knowledge Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmat Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9 Leadership Perspective and Theories Skills Perspective –Three core leadership skills (Mumford): Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmat Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10 Leadership Perspective and Theories Behavioral Perspective –Identifies leadership behaviors –Develops models of leadership style –Examines how different styles are related to leadership effectiveness Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmat Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11/


CHAPTER 9: LEADING © John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., Barry Wright, and Lorie Guest Business Leadership: Management Fundamentals.

© John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd. HERSEY-BLANCHARD LEADERSHIP STYLES House’s path-goal leadership theory: – Effective leadership deals with the paths through which followers can achieve goals. – Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal relationships: Directive leadership Supportive leadership Achievement-oriented leadership Participative leadership © John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd. PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY Directive leadership: – Communicate expectations – Give directions – Schedule work – Maintain/


Content 3 Motivation Theories & Management Practices.

situation which influences the effectiveness of a particular management style are –The leader –The subordinates –The task –The environment of management Choosing a Style –Handy argues that leadership style should be tight or loose according to the conditions./ have different preferences. Some emphasize on self esteem and recognition even on hunger. Two Factor Theory –Herzberg’s Theory: Frederick Herzberg conducted a research and results revealed that the factors which created satisfaction were different/


Leadership Theories. What does Leadership mean to you? Who do you consider to be effective leaders and why? What is the role of leaders in organizations?

social environment - Ambitious and achievement-orientated - Assertive - Cooperative - Decisive and Tolerant of stress - Dependable Willing to assume responsibility - Dominant (desire to influence others) - Energetic (high activity level) - Self-confident Situational leadership theories A good situational leader is one who can quickly change leadership styles as the situation changes The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors. Using the Right/


HUBERT KAIRUKI MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES AND ETHICS SUBJECT:BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES TOPIC:THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP.

Some of the ideas that we are going to discuss in our presntation include 1.Great Man Theory 2.Trait Theory 3.Behavioural Theories i. The Managerial Grid ii. Theory X and Theory Y 4.Participative Leadership – Lewin’s leadership styles 5.Situational Leadership 6. Contingency Theory 7.Transactional Leadership 8.Transformational Leadership 1.GREAT MAN THEORY The idea of the great man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in/


Leadership. Objective To learn to apply leadership skills to contribute to effective team work and management. 2Leadership.

way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. High Low Low High 1 10 110 Leadership Traditional Leadership Theories Contingency Leadership Theory Contingency Leadership Theory – Attempts to pinpoint the various situational conditions in which a person’s traits and leadership style will result in effective leadership. Based on the idea that the most effective leadership style is situation based. Good leaders are those who diagnose the situation and adjust their behaviour/


CHAPTER – 7(SEVEN) The Leading Process. Leadership Leadership is defined as the process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically.

and involvement in such areas as setting goals and appraising progress toward goals. Contingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The most appropriate leadership style depends on whether the overall situation is favorable, unfavorable, or in an intermediate stage/2) Path improvement – the steps surrounding goal setting represent only half of the path goal leadership process. 3) Leadership style – according to path goal theory the leader’s roles are to help employees understand what needs to be done (the /


LEADERSHIP - WHY LEARN ABOUT LEADERSHIP: - Helps us understand group behavior, because it’s the leader who usually directs us toward our goals. -Knowing.

ORGANIZATION MAN ORGANIZATION MAN (5,5) TEAM TEAM (9,9) AUTHORITY OBEDIENCE AUTHORITY OBEDIENCE (9,1) C. CONTINGENCY THEORIES Predicting leadership success is more complex than isolating a few traits or preferable behaviors. SITUATIONAL VARIABLES LEADERSHIP STYLE A LEADERSHIP STYLE B LEADERSHIP STYLE C LEADERSHIP STYLE D LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS SITUATIONAL (CONTINGENCY) THEORIES TRIES EXPLAIN WHAT THOSE SITUATIONAL VARIABLES ARE 1.FIEDLER MODEL EFFECTIVE GROUP PERFORMANCE DEPENDS ON LEADERS’ STYLEDEGREE TO/


Chapter 12 Leadership & Followership. Leadership & Followership Leadership - the process of guiding & directing the behavior of people in the work environment.

., 1977, p. 170. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Hersey & Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory DIRECTIVE STYLE –A leadership style characterized by the giving of clear instructions and specific direction to immature employees. COACHING STYLE –A leadership style characterized by expanding two-way communication and helping maturing employees build confidence and motivation. Situational Leadership cont. SUPPORTING STYLE –A leadership style characterized by active two-way communication and support of mature/


Leadership Ch 17. Managers Versus Leaders Managers  Are appointed to their position  Can influence people only to the extent of the formal authority.

… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)  Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: Telling: high task-low relationship leadership Selling: high task-high relationship leadership Participating: low task-high relationship leadership Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)  Posits four stages follower readiness: R1: followers are/


Chris Jarvis 1 Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the.

perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli 1513 Chris Jarvis 2 Leadership  ‘romance’ of leadership debated in organisational theory  Any evidence for a systematic relationship between leadership styles & organisational performance?’  Subtexts (p87)  A means of generating ‘stories’ about how kinds of power & influence can be exerted  role of/


Chapter 15 Influence Processes and Leadership Influence Tactics in the Workplace.

socioeconomic status u Recent traits – honesty, forward looking, inspiring, and intelligent –Posner 1980’s. LEADERSHIP (continued) The Evolution of Leadership Theory Oldest u Trait theory u Behavioral styles theory u Situational theory u Transformational theory Newest The Evolution of Leadership Theory Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership Styles u Styles are patterns of leadership styles Three Classic Approaches Authoritarian –Leader retains authority, assigns people to tasks with downward communication/


1 Chapter 14 Leadership Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd. MGMT 2008 Chuck Williams.

of control Experience Perceived ability Locus of control Experience SubordinateEnvironmental Task structure Formal authority system Primary work group 4.2 29 Path Goal Theory: When to Use Leadership Styles 4.2 30 Adapting Leadership Behavior Worker Readiness Leadership Styles Leadership Styles Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Beyond the Book 31 Worker Readiness The ability and willingness to take responsibility for directing one’s behavior at work Components of/


Effective leadership 10/3/2015 DSM 504 1. What are some typical leadership behaviors that come to mind? 10/3/2015 2.

suggestions form subordinates but still makes the decision 10/3/2015DSM 504108  4. Achievement- oriented leadership: The leader sets challenging goals for subordinates and show confidence that they will attain these goals and perform well 10/3/2015DSM 504109  The path-goal theory suggests that these various styles can be and actually are used by the same leader in different situations ( differs from/


Thomsom South-Western Wagner & Hollenbeck 5e 1 Chapter Ten Leadership of Groups and Organizations.

 The decision tree model proposes that the most effective leadership style depends on the characteristics of both the situation and the followers 19 Path-Goal Theory  The most comprehensive theory of leadership to date and the theory that best exemplifies all aspects of the transactional model is the path-goal theory of leadership  At the heart of this theory is the notion that the leader’s primary purpose is/


9 Chapter Leadership and Trust Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-1.

Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-24 Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-25 Now let’s examine four contingency theories—Fiedler, Hersey-Blanchard, leader-participation, and path-goal—which each look at defining leadership style and the situation and attempt to answer the contingency: If this is the context (or situation), then this is the best/


Business Leadership and Organizational Behavior Leadership and Power Craig W. Fontaine, Ph.D.

theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Behavioral Theories –University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) Identified three leadership styles: –Autocratic style/


Michael A. Hitt C. Chet Miller Adrienne Colella Slides by R. Dennis Middlemist Chapter 8 Leadership.

1234567 89 Low ConcernHigh Concern 4,3 style 8, 7 style 2, 6 style The “best” leadership style 9,9 style Grid Training helps leaders move to a style high in both Concern for people Concern for production Contingency Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership effectiveness – Leader effectiveness depends on the interaction of Leader’s behavioral style Favorableness of the leadership situation – Leader style measured by the LPC (least preferred coworker/


CHAPTER 7 LEADERSHIP. The Nature of Leadership The process through which a person tries to get organization members to do something that the person desires.

with performance, and the clarification of paths, leaders may have to adopt various leadership styles Path Goal Theory (cont.) –Directive leadership –Supportive leadership –Participative leadership –Achievement-oriented leadership All four styles of leadership are used by individual leaders at various times Path Goal Theory (cont.) Evidence suggests that when subordinates are involved with ambiguous tasks, directive leadership can increase satisfaction and motivation With fairly unambiguous tasks directive/


Chapter 17 LEADERSHIP © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.17.1.

to accomplish a specific task – reflects the reality that it is followers who accept or reject the leader – based on two leadership dimensions task behaviours relationship behaviours 17.17 © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc. CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP (continued) Situational Leadership Theory (continued) – Four leadership styles defined by the two dimensions Telling - leader defines roles and tells people how to do their jobs Selling - leader is both/


CHAPTER 8 LEADERSHIP. Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to explain: –Primary leadership theories and how culture affects.

their subordinates to perform at high level and accomplish their assigned goals. –They are referred to as low-LPC as they describe their LPC in relatively negative terms. Leadership Theories Contingency theory (cont.) –The best leadership style is determined by three contingencies: Leader-member relationship - Includes the degree of confidence that followers have in their leader, the loyalty given to the leader, and the leader/


Chapter 6 - Contingency Theory Leadership Chapter 6 - Contingency Theory Northouse, 4 th edition.

are best and worst are based on empirically grounded generalizations PerspectivePerspective Chapter 6 - Contingency Theory DefinitionDefinition  Assessment based on: –Leadership Styles –Situational Variables Contingency Theory Approach Description  Effective leadership is contingent on matching a leader’s style to the right setting Chapter 6 - Contingency Theory Leadership Styles Leadership styles are described as:  Task-motivated (Low LPCs) –Leaders are concerned primarily with reaching a goal/


 Contingency Theories in Leadership CHAPTER 4 Anugrahayu Krisna 0131121051 ◦ Andika Adidharma 0131121309 ◦ Thea Samantha 0131121085 ◦ William 0131121110.

Putting The Behavioral And Contingency Leadership Theories Together  Prescriptive Leadership Model: Contingency Leadership Normative Leadership “They tell the user exactly which style to use in a given situation.”  Descriptive Leadership Model: Continuum Leadership Path-Goal Leadership “They identify contingency variables and leadership styles without specifying which style to use in a given situation.” Leadership Substitutes Theory  Substitutes for Leadership  Include characteristics of the subordinate/


Construction Leadership The Basics – Part 5 Leadership Styles.

are possible. * Personality & Organization Ralph V. Locurcio, P.E. Styles of Leadership McGregor – Theory X & Y Blake & Mouton – Managerial Grid Blanchard – Situational Leadership Ralph V. Locurcio, P.E. McGregor* – Theory of Leadership Two basic styles of leadershipTheory X – autocratic styleTheory Y – laissez faire style * The Human Side of Enterprise Ralph V. Locurcio, P.E. McGregor* – Theory X Leaders The “autocratic” or “industrial” style Leader assumes: 1.Humans dislike work & will avoid work/


Management 11e John Schermerhorn Chapter 13 Leading and Leadership Development.

1322 Study Question 3: What are the contingency theories of leadership?  House’s path-goal leadership theory  Effective leadership deals with the paths through which followers can achieve goals  Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal relationships:  Directive leadership  Supportive leadership  Achievement-oriented leadership  Participative leadership Management 11e Chapter 1323 Figure 13.6 Contingency relationships in the path-goal leadership theory Management 11e Chapter 1324 Study Question 3/


Leadership What is leadership? Leading people Influencing people Commanding people Guiding people.

within the institution Contingency TheoryUniversalManagementPrincipals Contingency View Appropriatemanagerial action depends on situation Situation A Situation B Situation C zTheories: 1.Managerial Grid, 2.Life cycle theory, 3.Fiedlers theory, 4.Transactional Vs Transformational, 5.Charismatic leadership, 1. Managerial Grid zA graphic depiction of a two dimensional view of leadership style has been developed by Blake and Mounton. zThey proposed a managerial grid based on the/


Participation and Leadership in Teams Chapter 10 Communicating for Results, 10th edition.

a dependence on leader –Members tend to display more discontent and even hostility Level of use is declining Leadership Styles or Three- Dimension Theory of Leadership Communicating for Results, 10th edition Democratic leader –Similar to human resources model, Theory Y, and open communicator style Leadership Styles or Three- Dimension Theory of Leadership Communicating for Results, 10th edition Advantages –Motivation –Initiative –Creativity Disadvantages –Tasks take longer to accomplish Level of use/


Leadership Across Cultures Unit # 3. The specific objectives of this chapter are: 1. DESCRIBE the basic philosophic foundation and styles of managerial.

, Y, and Z A manager who believes that workers seek opportunities to participate in management and are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing. Theory Z Manager Theory Y Manager Theory X Manager Foundation for Leadership Leadership Behaviors and Styles Participative Leadership Authoritarian Leadership Paternalistic Leadership The use of work-centered behavior designed to ensure task accomplishment. The use of work-centered behavior coupled with a protective employee centered concern/


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