Ppt on layers of the atmosphere

Key Considerations in Linking Permafrost, Ecosystems and Run-off William J. Gutowski, Jr. Dept. of Geological & Atmospheric Sciences Iowa State University.

cover, freeze/thaw of soil and water bodies 3.Mix of hydrological landscapes (unorganized flow  major rivers) Are the fluxes (couplings) well modeled? Ecosystems Permafrost Surface Water (snow cover, albedo) (ponding, wet soil) (water availability, nutrients) Atmosphere Issue: Resolution of Observations Borehole Locations Issue: Horizontal Resolution of Model Borehole Locations ~ 0.5˚ grid Great Bear Lake Mackenzie River Issue: Vertical Resolution of Model Active Layer Depth Over Permafrost/


1.Which gases in Earth’s atmosphere are breathable? 2.How does the ozone layer protect our planet? All the gases in Earth’s atmosphere are breathable.

in Earth’s atmosphere are breathable? 2.How does the ozone layer protect our planet? All the gases in Earth’s atmosphere are breathable. However, some may be harmful to the biosphere (smog, other air pollution). The ozone layer protects our planet by absorbing most of the UV radiation from the sun. However, some UV rays still penetrate through to the surface and are harmful to the biosphere. STRUCTURE & FEATURES OF ATMOSPHERE Why do we/


Earth’s Unique Atmosphere 1. Magnetic Field: a layer of electrical charges that protects Earth from solar winds and cosmic rays Caused by: the liquid.

charges that protects Earth from solar winds and cosmic rays Caused by: the liquid metal in Earth’s outer core Earth’s Unique Atmosphere 2. Ozone Layer: A layer of O 3 molecules that reflects UV radiation Ozone  Good Ozone: Found in the stratosphere Keeps out harmful UV radiation  Bad Ozone: Found in the troposphere Causes pollution and harms lung tissue Ozone Depletion  Humans are releasing CFC/


Atmosphere The Atmosphere The atmosphere is a mixture of gases and dust that surrounds a planet. Earth’s atmosphere is divided into FOUR layers.

5 min Layers of Atmosphere Troposphere All weather and life – are found in this layer. It is a layer of mixing and changing gases. TROPO = change or mixing Stratosphere The gases found here are layered. The OZONE layer is located in this layer. It protects life on Earth from harmful UV radiation from the sun. STRATO = layer Mesosphere The middle layer of the atmosphere. Coldest layer Layer where meteors burn up Meso = middle Coldest Thermosphere The outermost and the hottest layer “Northern lights/


Earth’s Atmosphere ew/assetGuid/795D88AC-CDC6-4538- 9A46-8AE2D4D222BB.

Atmosphere http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/vi ew/assetGuid/795D88AC-CDC6-4538- 9A46-8AE2D4D222BB Troposphere  Lowest layer 6-10 miles high  We live in this layer  6-10 miles from Earth  Weather, wind, clouds, Jet stream Jet stream Stratosphere  10-30 miles high  Includes ozone layer/.html Convection  Convection is the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the heated material.  Convection Currents are what causes weather Resource/Exploration Five Layers : http://earthguide.ucsd.edu//


Current state of ECHAM5/NEMO coupled model Wonsun Park, Noel Keenlyside, Mojib Latif (IFM-GEOMAR) René Redler (NEC C&C Research Laboratories) DRAKKAR meeting.

meeting 25-26 January 2007, Grenoble, France Outline Overview of the coupled model 500-yr long simulations Current state Summary and outlook Overview of KCM Kiel Climate Model (KCM): ECHAM5/NEMO coupled /of atmosphere forcing to ENSO spectra –Still low MOC, cold bias over North Atlantic YR2007: Constructing higher resolution model –ECHAM5 T63L31/T106L31 coupled to ORCA05 DRAKKAR configuration, OASIS4 –Standalone ECHAM5, NEMO, and coupled model experiments following scientific interests Thanks Mixed layer/


N cycling in the world’s oceans. Nitrogen N is an essential nutrient for all living organisms (nucleic acids and amino acids) N has many oxidation states,

denitrification: 150 Tg N/yr Atmospheric deposition: 86 Tg N//: The Usual Suspect Diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, are broadly distributed in nutrient poor oceanic waters, but their contribution to the marine/of Nitrogen (Inspired by Codispoti 2001and Liu 1979) NO 3 Chlorophyll Large detritus Organic matter N2N2 NH 4 NO 3 Water column Sediment Phytoplankton NH 4 Mineralization Uptake Nitrification Grazing Mortality Zooplankton Susp. particles Aerobic mineralization Denitrification N2N2 Fixation Mix Layer/


Assimilation of Aqua Ocean Chlorophyll Data in a Global Three-Dimensional Model Watson Gregg NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office.

Day of Year Chlorophyll (mg m -3 ) Statistically positively correlated (P < 0.05) all 12 basins Gregg, W.W., 2002. Tracking the SeaWiFS record with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans/assimilation results promising Need further analysis new methodologies Awaiting new SeaWiFS data Proceed on incorporation of MODIS/GMAO products Atmospheric Forcing Data Radiative Model Layer Depths Circulation Model Biogeochemical Model Advection/ Diffusion Winds, SST Winds, ozone, rel. /


Tropical Atlantic SST in coupled models; sensitivity to vertical mixing Wilco Hazeleger Rein Haarsma KNMI Oceanographic Research The Netherlands.

mean temperature at the equator Atmospheric vertical motion SPEEDO (between 50W and 20E) ControlEnhanced ocean vertical mixing Zonal velocity averaged between 50E and 20W in SPEEDO Enhanced ocean wind mixing efficiency minus Control Summary and conclusions The reversed zonal gradient of Tropical Atlantic SST in coupled models is generated by a too strong entrainment at the base of the mixed layer If the depth over which the air/sea momentum/


The Atmosphere: One component of the climate system Composition / Structure Radiative transfer Vertical and latitudinal heat transport Atmospheric circulation.

The Atmosphere: One component of the climate system Composition / Structure Radiative transfer Vertical and latitudinal heat transport Atmospheric circulation Climate modeling Suggested further reading: Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (Academic Press, 1994) Atmospheric layers Typical Vertical Profiles pressure temperature Solstice surface temperatures Annual range Sea surface temperature Atmospheric composition Atmospheric layers Evolution of halogenated gases Growth of CO 2 and CH 4 Atmospheric mass /


Composition Earth Science / Mr. Bimber

waves, like light. This is called radiation. Radiation from the sun is called insolation (short for INcoming SOLar radiATION ) Earth radiates some heat out to space. Heat flows through the atmosphere Temperature changes differently in each layer. The air is heated: At ground level In the Ozone layer By friction with solar wind Heat in the Atmosphere The balance and flow of heat energy in the atmosphere Causes weather Protects life on earth


Atmosphere Layers. Layers of the Atmosphere exosph ere 0 to about15 km 15 km to about 50 km 50 km to about 100 km 100 km to about 500 km Above about 500.

about 100 km 100 km to about 500 km Above about 500 km Tardy Students Make Things Exciting Approximate Altitude Mnemonic Layers of the Atmosphere exosph ere 0 to about15 km 15 km to about 50 km 50 km to about 100 km 100 km / Make Things Exciting Approximate Altitude Mnemonic Troposphere Densest layer Air gets colder and thinner as altitude increases Most of the water vapor, weather, and life on Earth occur here Greenhouse effect: o Sunlight radiates off the surface and is trapped Most airplanes fly here /


JAN LENAERTS SNOWDRIFT CLIMATE Snowdrift climate of Greenland and Antarctica Jan Lenaerts Michiel van den Broeke Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research,

CLIMATE Snowdrift climate of Greenland and Antarctica Jan Lenaerts Michiel van den Broeke Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht /of describing snowdrift climate on large ice sheets Model evaluation focuses on wind speed climate and snowdrift frequency (in-situ and from space) Snowdrift sublimation is a significant contributor to the ice sheet SMB, mainly on Antarctica and in winter Snowdrift erosion is locally important Snowdrift increases near-surface humidity and impacts top snow layer/


 How are we affected by our atmosphere?  How is our atmosphere affected by us?

 How are we affected by our atmosphere?  How is our atmosphere affected by us? Absorption of electromagnetic radiation Layer heights are NOT TO SCALE Where our stuff is…  Certain gases trap heat energy from the sun in earth’s atmosphere  They act like a greenhouse, keeping earth warm  Natural greenhouse effect keeps earth warm and habitable  Major natural greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, nitric oxide/


A DEPLOYABLE MODULAR WIND PROFILER RADAR FOR LOWER ATMOSPHERE APPLICATIONS William Brown, Steve Cohn, Brad Lindseth National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado, USA With help from: Jim Jordan, Dan Law, Warner Ecklund NOAA 9 th ISTP L’Aquila, Italy. 3-7 September 2012 NCAR : Earth Observing Laboratory Operates a wide range of instruments and aircraft for the scientific community Available by request to National Science Foundation Current radar wind profilers Four LAP3000 profilers 915 MHz 400W (+ 1290MHz) Boundary layer only/


Atmospheric boundary layers and turbulence I Wind loading and structural response Lecture 6 Dr. J.D. Holmes.

h = zero-plane displacement z h is about 0.75 times the average height of the roughness Atmospheric boundary layers and turbulence logarithmic law applied to two different heights or with zero-plane displacement : Atmospheric boundary layers and turbulence Surface drag coefficient : Non-dimensional surface shear stress : from logarithmic law : Atmospheric boundary layers and turbulence Terrain types : Atmospheric boundary layers and turbulence Power law  = changes with terrain roughness and height range/


Retrieval of Ozone Profiles from GOME (and SCIAMACHY, and OMI, and GOME2 ) Roeland van Oss Ronald van der A and Johan de Haan, Robert Voors, Robert Spurr.

d(absorption)/dX d(scattering)/dX dI/dX LIDORTA: improving speed Minimum number of streams (angular resolution) -allowing analytic solutions Minimum number of atmospheric layers -40 layers required -Separate single scattering with 40 layers -LIDORTA only for multiple scattered: 20 layers enough Minimum number of calls to LIDORTA (number of wavelengths) -Sparse sampling for slow varying parts of spectrum (< 310 nm) Optimal Estimation.. Following Rodgers (2000) Level 1 improvements Wavelength/


Surface Currents. Origin of Currents Ocean surface currents are wind driven Ocean surface currents are wind driven Air movement due to less dense air.

Hemisphere: – Winds are deflected to the right – Travel clockwise around high P – Winds are deflected to the left – Travel counter-clockwise around / More tropical-subtropical forms Low oxygen level preserve layers Low oxygen level preserve layers www.sakura.cc.tsukuba.ac.jp (c) /atmospheric pressure changesMay result from atmospheric pressure changes – Thermocline deepens – Trade winds weaken – Upwelling ceases along western S. America El Niño Impact Leads to death of cold-water organismsLeads to death of/


Diurnal Cycle of the Atmospheric Mixed Layer during DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE Kaustav Chakravarty Richard H. Johnson Paul E. Ciesielski Colorado State University.

Diurnal Cycle of the Atmospheric Mixed Layer during DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE Kaustav Chakravarty Richard H. Johnson Paul E. Ciesielski Colorado State University J. L. Davison University of Louisville Third Symposium on Prediction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Processes, Prediction and Impact; AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, 5 January 2015 Acknowledgments: NSF Grant AGS-1360237 and DOE Grant DE- SC0008582  Two sounding quadrilaterals  This study: 3-/


4STAR: Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun- Tracking Atmospheric Research Results from Test-flight Series PNNLNASA AmesNASA GSFC B. SchmidS. DunaganS. Sinyuk.

wavelengths H 2 O horizontally and vertically resolved Meet the family…4STAR(2012- AATS-6(1985-2001) AATS-14(1996- 4STAR Integration on PNNL/Battelle G-1 Anticipated 4STAR data products: Solar Direct Beam Atmospheric Transmittance Aerosol Optical Depth and Ångstrom exponent Aerosol Extinction/ Jose local 2 flights in April 2011: Pasco - Eastern WA, Idaho max alt 5.7 km Vertical profile of optical depth (normalized to top of layer) 13 (nm) 9/28/2010 SJC ~10 am Final flight series (late Aug 2011) 14 max alt 5/


The Giant Planets – “Gas Giants” Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Mostly H and H compounds under very high pressure in interior + small rocky core.

Atmosphere and Interior From models based on Hydrostatic equilibrium Increasing temp and pressure inwards Rocky core – 10 – 20 Mearth Magnetosphere Ring System 4 Galilean satellites Io Europa Ganymede Callisto These are terrestrial planets Io - most active surface in solar system Europa Smooth young surface, layer of/2005 Atmosphere and Interior Rings 274,000 km across, < 1 km thick Thousands of narrow ringlets, individual particles of frozen gas, mostly H 2 O What formed the rings -- Roche lobe Atmosphere, /


High Altitude Free Fall: Theoretical Analysis of Physical Hazards Impacting Human Subjects V. Rygalov, Ph.D., J. Jurist, Ph.D., Space Studies Students.

mph) Notables: He started to flat spin right before the transonic transition, approximately between 20–22 km G-Forces felt during flat spin, less than 2 Gz 5 Challenges of Stratosphere Primary Life Support –Supplementary oxygen Altered pressure environments/ to sub-sonic altitudes happen within dense atmospheric layers, this transition could provide safety concerns - velocity profile at transition is getting steeper with initial fall altitudes - altitude of second transition is approaching to certain limit /


Institute for Atmospheric Science SCHOOL OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS Tethered Soundings & Profiling Cathryn Birch Ian Brooks.

winds –C T 2, z/L, turbulent dissipation –Vertical resolution 10 m –10-min averaged data Measures the scattering of sound waves by atmospheric turbulence UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS Institute for Atmospheric Science SCHOOL OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT Turbulence properties : C T 2 Measurements from Africa Inversion Entrainment zone well mixed layer Stable BL A: UTC: 12:00 B: UTC: 10:00 C: UTC: 20:00 A C/


Chapter 7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture Geosystems 6e An Introduction to Physical Geography Robert W. Christopherson Charles E. Thomsen.

Stable and unstable atmospheric conditions Involves a parcel of air and its surrounding environment in the atmosphere Stable atmosphere: A parcel of air is discouraged from rising Kind of weather normally associated? Unstable atmosphere: A parcel of air is encouraged to rise Kind of weather normally associated? Examples of Stability Figure 7.20 Unstable Atmosphere Parcel of air is encouraged to rise Examples of Stability Figure 7.20 Stable Atmosphere Parcel of air is discouraged from/


THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE OCEAN EVAPORATION WIND PRECIP.

Surface B In summary we see that at Station A they are Are under the influence of higher pressure then Station B. Pressure=Force/Area Quick Look Equations Pressure=Force/AreaDensity=Mass/Volume1bar=1000mb=100,000Pa1013.25mb=101,325Pa 1mb=0.02953in Hg 33.865mb=1in Hg Atmospheric Layers TROPOSPHERE(Weather Layer) 0KM 10KM 50KM STRATOSPHERE Tropopause MESOSPHERE STRATOPAUSE 85KMMESOPAUSE THERMOSPHERE 20C0C-20C-40C-60C


Recent Advances: -model-data evaluation protocols (beginning to build ocean version of C-LAMP) (Doney et al., JMS, in press; Doney et al., DSR II, in press)

NH summer biomass & productivity) -mixed layer depth biases -coupled ocean-atm. model has weak SH ventilation and low anthropogenic CO 2 uptake -major issue for coupled spin-up is the slow equilibration time-scale for ocean CO /slow processes (geochemistry) -improving iron biogeochemistry atmospheric iron (e.g. dust, atmospheric processing, combustion iron sources) add revise sediment sources and scavenging rates -preliminary analysis of 21st century coupled runs shifts in plankton community structure/


Climate Models.

computer time. ½ x ½ degree resolution requires 720x 360 surface boxes=259,200 surface boxes And 50 layers in the atmosphere results in 12.6Million total model boxes. Couple to an Ocean Model, Biosphere model, soil model …. Each calculation time step may represent 10 minutes of real life. The above is yet ot be accomplished for climate prediction. Predicted warming is largest at high NH latitudes/


Unit 4.2: Atmospheric Composition and Weather

, but b/c atoms are so far apart, does not feel hot! Also in this layer: Auroras, space station (ISS) Composition of the Atmosphere: Major components: Nitrogen gas (N2): ~78% Oxygen gas (O2): ~21% Argon gas (Ar): >1% **Carbon dioxide (CO2): 0.036% Absorbs heat radiated from Earth to heat atmosphere Variable components: Water vapor (H2O) Aerosols Absorbs Earth’s heat and solar energy When/


Transport of Air Pollutants

is why temperature goes up Pressure is the wieght of the atmosphere above it – therefore at 7000 feet there is less atmosphere pressing down. Important to understand soundings as they use pressure as an axis Atmospheric stability When air overhead is cold compared /air pools) Deeper inversions can be caused by large-scale subsidence of air. As air moves toward ground, compressed and heated. Can lead to a capping inversion layer 3000 to 6000 feet off ground Differentiate between Fairbanks type inversions and/


Ranjeet S Sokhi, Nutthida Kitwiroon and Lia Fragkou Atmospheric Science Research Group (ASRG) University of Hertfordshire Modelling of Urban Air Quality.

a few reacting chemical species Single- or two-layer models No numerical differentiation required for mean conc n s Particle approach not tied to windfield grid Better representation of point sources Source attribution…. Comparison of Approaches Numerical meteorological model Developed by the Pennsylvania State University Developed by the Pennsylvania State University and the University Corporation for Atmospheric and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Research (UCAR) Mesoscale and/


Boundary Layer Meteorology Lecture 17: Oceanic and Lacustrine Boundary Layers Similarities and differences between Atmospheric and Oceanic/Lacustrine Boundary.

used in a very similar way Etc. Differences between Oceanic and Atmospheric Boundary Layers Presence of Salinity (but note analog of ocean density, virtual temperature) Boundary at top, not bottom Free-slip, versus no-slip boundary Wave-induced measurement difficulties (and general lack of data, though this will improve in the next few years, due to migrating remote buoys). Wave-induced TKE generation Langmuir circulations Ocean/


An examination of atmospheric lids during COPS Andrew Russell and Geraint Vaughan Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Manchester 6 th COPS Workshop.

th COPS Workshop 27 th -29 th February 2008 andrew.russell-2@manchester.ac.uk Why study lids? Inhibition of convection Allow CAPE to accumulate Where do they come from? Is there more to lids than meets the eye? i.e. fractal structure of atmospheric layers 6 th COPS Workshop 27 th -29 th February 2008 andrew.russell-2@manchester.ac.uk Research priorities Boundary/


Ozone depletion Eimantė Kupčiūnaitė IVa. What is it? Ozone depletion is ozone decrease and hole formation in a layer of earths atmosphere, which contains.

depletion is ozone decrease and hole formation in a layer of earths atmosphere, which contains high levels of ozone. DO NOT USE: FREON HALONS METHYL-BROMIDE /VARIOUS SOLVENTS AND PESTICIDES. Finding solution http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9ztDSbSrFI Video http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer http://www.sopf.org/fear_ozonedepletion.aspx http://www.personal.psu.edu/afr3/blogs/siowfa12/2012/11/the-sky- is-falling-the/


Layers of the Atmosphere Name Class Period. Thermosphere Upper level of the atmosphere Extremely high temperature Doesn’t feel hot because of so few air.

Layers of the Atmosphere Name Class Period Thermosphere Upper level of the atmosphere Extremely high temperature Doesn’t feel hot because of so few air molecules Auroras occur here (Northern Lights) Some sattellites orbit here Thermosphere Mesosphere Air is thin Friction between meteors and air molecules burn up most meteors Trail of burning meteors is a shooting star Mesosphere Meteor Northern Lights - Auroras Stratosphere Temperature increase from bottom to top/


Layers of the Atmosphere Notes. Scientists divide Earth’s atmosphere into four main layers classified according to changes in temperature. These layers.

Layers of the Atmosphere Notes Scientists divide Earth’s atmosphere into four main layers classified according to changes in temperature. These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere. Troposphere “tropo” means turning or changing Layer where weather occurs, planes fly, and mountains are Most dense layer As altitude increases, temperature decreases Troposphere Shallowest layer Varies from 16km above the equator to less than 9km above the N & S poles Top of /


Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry Measurements-I John Ortega National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO, USA National Center for Atmospheric.

km -1 Dry: 10 Wet: 4 Average: 6-8 Free troposphere – layer of the atmosphere that is not affected by the surface and winds are geostrophic (parallel to isobars) Boundary layerlayer below which is affected by the surface; affected by vertical motion due to radiative heating. How does the boundary layer change with different times of day? Planetary Boundary Layer Winds are geostrophic Parallel to isobars Surface (friction) influences, vertical motion/


Leonard Yang, Daniel Gesling, Anna Sheng.  Lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere  Greek word Tropos=“mixing”  Friction; air & earth’s surface  11km.

Yang, Daniel Gesling, Anna Sheng  Lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere  Greek word Tropos=“mixing”  Friction; air & earth’s surface  11km ML, 12km TR, 7km Poles http://images.google.com/imgres?q=la yers+of+the+atmosphere&hl=en&bi w=1440&bih=689&gbv=/.edu/classes/met130/notes/chapter8/gr aphics/trop_hgt.free.gif  “Temperature In The Atmosphere” National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) 2000 - 2010. © 2011 National Earth Science Teachers Association. 15 September 2011. http://www./


California Weather Climate vs. Weather Climate: Climate: Long term average conditionsWeather: The conditions day to day.

000 Feet 0+10+20-10-20-30-40-50-60 Troposphere; lowest layer Temperature: Pressure: Jet Stream Winter vs. Summer in California Winter: Jet /“Pineapple Express” (Atmospheric Rivers) “Pineapple Express” (Atmospheric Rivers) Winter Jet toward CA WARM : From West or SW WARM : From West or SW “Pineapple Express” (Atmospheric Rivers) “Pineapple Express” (Atmospheric Rivers) DRY Summers/Weather Prediction Summary  Varying amounts of Sunlight create the jet stream and weather  A few storms per year determine most/


MDSS Lab Prototype: Program Update and Highlights Bill Mahoney National Center For Atmospheric Research (NCAR) MDSS Stakeholder Meeting Boulder, CO 20.

and Highlights Bill Mahoney National Center For Atmospheric Research (NCAR) MDSS Stakeholder Meeting Boulder,/F Temperature at 1000 ft AGL = 60 o F All models have great difficulty with shallow layers! Impacts: Road frost Fog Road Temperatures 11 Early Morning Fog Case 14 November 2004 Low clouds/ peaks and valleys. Resolving Complex Terrain 15 Resolving Complex Terrain Standard NWS models cannot resolve details of the rugged terrain. T254 ~30 mile grid resolution T170 ~60 mile grid resolution WRF Terrain ~6/


Weather & Atmosphere Animations Weather & Atmosphere Review Games For Classroom use by Mary E. Massey, Pamela Lesley and Jeanette Johnson.

Games For Classroom use by Mary E. Massey, Pamela Lesley and Jeanette Johnson Created by Pamela Lesley Earth’s atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet and makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things. Earth’s atmosphere is divided into several different atmospheric layers extending from Earth’s surface outward: Exosphere-where satellites and space shuttles are Ionosphere-negative/positively charged ions bounce Thermosphere/


4STAR: Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research Development and Results from First Test-flights A collaboration involving: PNNL:

, and J. Redemann NASA GSFC: B. Holben 4STAR: Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research AERONET-like capability Ground-based direct beam + sky scanning yields column- integrated properties: AOD Size/capability: AOD at 13 wavelengths H 2 O horizontally and vertically resolved Meet the family…4STAR(2012- AATS-6(1985-2001) AATS-14(1996- 4STAR /19 9/28/2010; SJC t/o ~10 am Vertical profile of optical depth (normalized to top of layer) 20 (nm) 9/28/2010 SJC ~10 am Key Technological/


Earth Tube Air Cooler. Project Features It enables transfer of heat from ambient layer to deeper layer of soil and vice-versa It is an eco-friendly cooling.

system is 60% less than conventional AC of 5 stars rating. It requires very maintenance and work and able to work for long ti me. Category -Energy It is a very innovative and new concept, it is a subterranean cooling system that maintains temperature in human comfort zone without using any refrigerant either the outside atmospheric temperature is 0 C or 50 C/


OBJ: Explain the relationship between atmospheric layer characteristics, altitude and temperature? DN: HW check-Layers of the Atmosphere Booklet Complete.

on written lab report. ACT: Given lab problem SWBAT construct a college style lab report about the layers of the atmosphere with 70% accuracy. HW: Complete College Style Lab report (including lab write-up, graph, all questions, ALQ quiz scantron; due tomorrow). COLLEGE STYLE LAB REPORT Problem: Why was the lab done? State as a question. Hypothesis: educated guess Materials: equipment used Procedure: Steps taken to/


The Giant Planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune Chapter 8.

The Giant Planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune Chapter 8 Jovian Planets: Basics Distance: 5-30 AU –Much farther from Sun than/differing cloud composition –Saturn’s clouds deeper; less visible Clouds on Uranus & Neptune –composed of methane (CH 4 ) produces blue-green color Atmospheric Structure Temperature and pressure increase inward –Different molecules condense at different altitudes Form cloud layers Winds and Weather Cloud Bands –alternating E-W wind patterns –Light zones indicate upwelling –Dark/


Chapter 20 Air Pollution. Atmosphere Structure

/images/content/124546main_ozone-in-layers.jpg Primary and Secondary Pollutants http://www.pepa.com.hk/problems/air_pollution/images/pic1.jpg Carbon Dioxide: Pollutant? At a high enough concentration, any chemical can be considered a pollutant We are increasing the concentration of CO 2 in our atmosphere The troposphere is warming and there is evidence that the additional CO 2 is contributing to the warming. Photochemical Smog http/


LAYERS of the Atmosphere -notes-. Troposphere (Changing) (ball) 0-7miles (0-12 km) Weather We live here! Temp decreases (every half mile= 6.5 C) Tropopause=

LAYERS of the Atmosphere -notes- Troposphere (Changing) (ball) 0-7miles (0-12 km) Weather We live here! Temp decreases (every half mile= 6.5 C) Tropopause= top boundary -60C ice (Changing) (break) TROPOPAUSE 7mi Oh my word… I dropped my chips Stratosphere (layer) (ball) 7-30 miles (12-50 km) Ozone layer Airplanes fly here Temp increases Stratopause= top boundary (layer) (break) 7mi 30 m i Stratopause Mesosphere/


4 Layers of the atmosphere They are the troposphere, stratosphere mesosphere and thermosphere.

nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and other noble gasses Nitrogen is the most abundant - 78% Stratosphere Layer 2 This layer contains the ozone layer, which protects us from harmful UV radiation 17 km to 48 km Mesosphere Layer 3 Meteors burn up when reentering the atmosphere It’s elevation ranges from 48 to 100 km Thermosphere Layer 4 Highest layer of the atmosphere Northern Lights occur here (aurora borealis) Temperature in 1000’s/


Atmosphere layers 15.1. Thermosphere Extends from 80km out Air is thinnest in this layer and much less dense Temp rises the higher you go (molecules moving.

from 12-50 km above the Earth (2 nd layer) Contains ozone (O₃) layer which filters out harmful ultraviolet rays from Sun Ozone absorbs energy and converts it to heat As you get higher in the ozone layer the temperature rises In Stratosphere air is less dense than in the Troposphere Troposphere The layer of the atmosphere in which clouds and weather occur. Thinnest layer but contains most of the mass because gas molecules are/


I. Structure and Characteristics of the Atmosphere.

, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. 2.Oxygen was not part of atmosphere until a long time later a.The presence of newly formed green algae and plants released oxygen into the atmosphere. B. Composition of Atmosphere 1.Mostly made of nitrogen and oxygen a.Nitrogen = 78% b.Oxygen = 21% c.A few other gases are present in small amounts. C. 4 Layers 1.Troposphere 2.Stratosphere 3.Mesosphere 4.Thermosphere D/


Chapter 14 By: Vanessa LaTorre.  Atmosphere - thin envelope/layer of gas around Earth  Gases stretch 375 miles above sea level  Composed of gases known.

Chapter 14 By: Vanessa LaTorre  Atmosphere - thin envelope/layer of gas around Earth  Gases stretch 375 miles above sea level  Composed of gases known as air  Permanent gases – maintain constant level  Nitrogen, oxygen, argon, neon, helium, hydrogen, xenon  Variable gases – levels vary in atmosphere  Water vapor  Carbon dioxide  Methane  Ozone gas  Nitrous oxide  Chlorofluorocarbons  5 distinct layers:  Troposphere – closest to the Earth – 7 miles thick  Temperature decreases with/


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