Ppt on land transport

Transportation Resource Unit By: Amanda Conklin and Kelli Collins ED 417.

handlebars for steering and a saddle like seat Vocabulary Land: cars, trucks, and motorcycles are modes of transportation that use land for travel. Land: cars, trucks, and motorcycles are modes of transportation that use land for travel. Water: A body of water such /a reference book that students can use to answer common questions they might have about transportation. No mode of transportation via air, water or land is overlooked, and reader s may well learn some surprising facts about everyday vehicles they/


Land International Security and Commuters’ Advocacy Protocol Miguel FF. Oraa Philippines APEC LAND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND COMMUTERS’ ADVOCACY PROTOCOL.

Commuters’ Advocacy Protocol 4. Summary of responses to Survey 5. Consultations & Conferences 6. Symposium 7. Policy Guidelines on PLT-CSIS (Public Land Transportation Critical Strategic Infrastructure & Services) 8. Publication and dissemination of the Policy Guidelines Land International Security and Commuters’ Advocacy Protocol Land IS-CAP Symposium Purpose –Draw comments and suggestions on the PRELIMINARY DRAFT Protocol from member economies –FINAL DRAFT of the protocol/


Guidance for Estimating the Indirect Effects of Proposed Transportation Projects Presented by (Name of Presenter) for NCHRP Instructional Course.

Pilot Course Slide 178 Examples: Systems Planning Example 3 (Quantitative) –Conduct several runs of an integrated transportation-land use model calibrated for the study region –Map forecasts and notable features –Use findings to draft /Centers. –Impact on Jobs/Housing Balance. Promoting Regional Coordination –Controlling induced growth requires regional coordination on transportation and land use. Course Module 10 - Consequences/Mitigation Indirect Effects Assessment Pilot Course Slide 204 Case Study - /


Land-Use Planning. The Need for Planning  Between one-third and one-half of the world’s surface has been altered by humans.  Most land-use decisions.

activities led to polluted, undesirable waterways.  As roads and rail transport became more common, many left the waterway areas. Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted to housing. Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not as a non- /and calculate the cost of additional changes required to accommodate altered land use. Land-Use Planning Principles Plan for mixed uses in close proximity. Plan for a variety of transportation options. Set limits and require managed growth patterns with compact /


Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Human Space Flight Occupant Safety Telecon Telecon #4 – Terms & Definitions November 13th,

considered ‘early’? Hours, days? Depends on type of flight (orbital or suborbital)? Depends on circumstance (emergency, abort, ahead of schedule etc.) Office of Commercial Space Transportation Federal Aviation Administration 21 Landing Site: Definitions Landing Site (Supported) Designated Nominal Landing Site – A fully supported U.S. State department approved CONUS site with recovery forces on site. Crew extraction is within 1 hour. Return is within/


Energy Conservation in Transportation By Steve Bauer and Josh Basofin.

transit ridership Fund extensions to current transit lines or installation of new systems Encourage fuel efficiency POINT COUNTERPOINT “Western Europe stands as a testament to the effects of higher transportation costs on land use….It is no coincidence that European nations that exact high fuel taxes from motorists also have…limited sprawl and heavily patronized transit services.” We would need a considerable/


Transportation leadership you can trust. Modeling and Data at the Puget Sound Regional Council: (For a Few Dollars More…) COG/MPO Mini-Conference SANDAG.

Data Total Population Household population Group Quarters population Total Households Percent Multi-Family, Single Family Income quartiles Total Jobs By Sector Manufacturing WTCU (Wholesale, Transportation, Communications, Utilities) Retail FIRES (Finance, Insurance, Real Estate, Services) Government and Education Current Land Use Forecast Geography 219 Forecast Analysis Zones (FAZs) Built from 2000 Census Tracts Building Consensus for Models & Forecasts No longer adopt forecasts Boards/


The Department of Transportation has long recognized the potential of satellite navigation to improve both the safety and efficiency of the national transportation.

Surface GPS Augmentations The Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS) is being implemented for surface transportation (maritime and land). Current coverage consists mostly of the Coast Guard’s Maritime DGPS Service, which is now fully/standard. The Department is expanding the Coast Guard service nationwide for land transportation, primarily to support Positive Train Control (PTC), one of the National Transportation Safety Board’s “Most Wanted” safety initiatives. The stringent availability/


Choices for the Future A Presentation on the Willamette Valley Alternative Transportation Futures Project Transportation and Land Use Planning Applications.

: A Project of the Willamette Valley Livability Forum Integrated Statewide Computer Model Analytical tool to help understand complex interactions among Oregon’s economy, land use patterns, and transportation system Alternative Transportation Futures: A Project of the Willamette Valley Livability Forum Scope of Integrated Model Designed to address the policy concerns in Oregon such as the effects of:Designed to address the /


Institute of Transportation Studies Planning for Growth: Demographics, Employment, Housing, and Resources The TransportationLand Use – Environment Connection.

too often not well integrated This year we examine four additional, critical topics Institute of Transportation Studies The TransportationLand Use – Environment Connection Symposium 17 years dedicated to linking three critical areas of public / –Public and private sectors –Markets and regulation –Local and global –Development and conservation –Transportation, land use, and environment Institute of Transportation Studies Our Game Plan: This session Global economic changes, local effects –The future of /


Transportation, Land Use and Development Willamette University January 14, 2015 Frank Angelo, Principal Angelo Planning Group.

Redundancy – alternative routes, freight  Accessibility – interstate freeway and port access  Competitive Factors – operating cost  System Safety – hazardous conditions Relationship to Economic Development National Freight Network - US Department of Transportation Land Use and Transportation Planning Role  Locating employment and residential areas – jobs / housing balance  Getting people to work  Getting goods to markets  Providing alternative modes for work trips  Identifying and prioritizing/


Splash Contents Chapter Introduction Transport Systems in Plants 7.1Adaptations for Life on Land 7.2Water Transport 7.3Nutrient Transport Transport Systems.

cuticle and have increased surface area. –Lignin, a hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of the cell walls, supports trees and other large vascular plants. Transport Systems in Plants 7.1 Adaptations for Life on Land (cont.) –The phloem, which distributes organic nutrients throughout the plant, consists of elongated cells arranged into tubes filled with streaming cytoplasm. 7.1 Adaptations for/


CHAPTER 4 PRINCIPAL STAGES IN THE URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS.

travel patterns in the area under consideration must be collected;  The future distribution of land use and population dispersion must be considered;  Adequacy of existing transportation facilities must be determined and spare capacity estimated. 4.2.3 SUBDIVISION OF AREA INTO/. Traffic zones are therefore the basic unit of analysis for the transport planning process. Trip data should be coded to traffic zones, and socio-economic and land-use data should be inventoried on a zonal basis. The zonal system/


Transportation Planning Section, Transportation Development Division May the Force Be With You: Understanding Market Forces and How They are Relevant.

evaluate “Where will the growth go and what are the effects?” Example from “Integrated Planning and Connected Models” Gordon Garry, SACOG, 5 th Oregon Symposium on Integrating Land Use and Transport Model, June 2008 Transportation Planning Section, Transportation Development Division Example Case Study – Placer Vineyards (Sacramento, CA Area) 5200 acre site on edge of UGB Three alternative proposals –“Blueprint” higher density alternative with 21/


CIVIL AVIATION BUREAU of JAPAN Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Air Traffic Management Center (ATMC) Air Traffic Management Center.

with the situation,.e.g. DEP Interval from particular APs. Civil Aviation Bureau of Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 19 The ATS Routes around Prohibited Area —— : Unusable ATS route —— : Usable ATS route/・・・・ : Vectoring tracks Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Plant Within 20km : Prohibited Area Civil Aviation Bureau of Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 20 The communication tools for CDM in the disaster  For Airlines and ATC facilities CDM conference system/


U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipelines and Informed Planning Alliance (PIPA) Steve Fischer.

and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Transmission pipeline risks increase as population density increases. Illustrated: Growth Along Pipeline in Washington State U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Required DOT and FERC to study land use practices, zoning ordinances, and preservation of environmental resources relative to transmission pipeline ROW and maintenance. Pipeline Safety Improvement Act 2002 (PSIA) U.S/


Existing Future Land Use Map Adopted July 22, 2002 In March 2008, City voters rejected proposed revisions to the Zoning Ordinance which were intended to.

the city budget and, ultimately, the ability of residents to afford living here. Issues & Priorities: Transportation and Land Use - Residential & Non-Residential Development Transportation and Economic Development Transportation and the Environment Transportation and Health LEBANON MASTER PLAN 2030: COMMUNITY CONVERSATIONS KEY POINTS TRANSPORTATION Vision & Purpose: The City of Lebanon’s transportation systems shall be balanced and integrated to improve mobility, enhance resident’s quality of life, improve/


Considering land use as a transport policy tool: A London perspective Isabel Dedring, Transport for London IMPACTS Vienna, 13-14 March 2006.

per km Borough boundary 20 Topics for discussion Context: Why consider land use? Land use as a transport policy tool Barriers? Questions for discussion 21 Barriers to joined-up land use and transport policy 1.Institutional barriers 2.Professional silos 3.Lack of data on land use/ transport relationship 4.Limited mechanisms for considering land use in transport appraisals (and vice versa) 5.Partial devolution only – central Government and/


10 Urbanization CHAPTER. Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization For the first time in history, there are now more urban residents than rural residents.

.S. population is urban Factors that contribute to the rise of urbanization include population growth and industrialization. Most cities are located near a transportation route such as a large body of water, railroad, or highway. Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization Did You Know? Since 1950, the world’s urban population has more than quadrupled. According to U.N. projections, it/


Department of Transport Budget 2003/04 to 2005/06 Presentation to Select Committee on Public Services (NCOP) 16 April 2003.

Post access roads 2005: Poverty Relief allocation of R100m per year discontinued Programme Expenditure Trends Excluding Rail, Bus, Roads 0 50 100 150 200 250 2000200120022003200420052006 Administration Land Transport Transport Policy & Regulation Public Transport & Planning R million Land Transport: 2002: Additional expenditure on NATIS (R21m), DLTC’s (R15m) and RTMC (R3m) 2003: Rollovers for AARTO (R17m) and RSR (R6,6m) Increases for Safety promotions (R27m) 2004/


September 2005Urban Planning Carleton University 1 Land Use-Transportation Interaction, Urban Activity System Analysis Concepts & Methods.

standards to the projected levels of growth or decline. Total space = (growth or decline in activity) x (unit requirementspace requirement standard) September 2005Urban Planning Carleton University 22 The Land Use-Transportation Model Population modelEconomic model Land use model Trip generation model Trip distribution model Modal split model Traffic assignment Model evaluation Calibration Phase on Base Yr. Data Origin destination data socio-economic data/


Splash Contents Chapter Introduction Transport Systems in Plants 7.1Adaptations for Life on Land 7.2Water Transport 7.3Nutrient Transport Transport Systems.

cuticle and have increased surface area. –Lignin, a hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of the cell walls, supports trees and other large vascular plants. Transport Systems in Plants 7.1 Adaptations for Life on Land (cont.) –The phloem, which distributes organic nutrients throughout the plant, consists of elongated cells arranged into tubes filled with streaming cytoplasm. 7.1 Adaptations for/


The Seasonality and Partitioning of Atmospheric Heat Transport in a Myriad of Different Climate States I. Introduction II. A simple energy balance model.

a Myriad of Different Climate States I. Introduction II. A simple energy balance model for the seasonal cycle of energy fluxes III. Dynamical heat transport partitioning IV. Atmospheric heat transport in aquaplanet simulations V. Atmospheric Heat Transport in Simulations with Land-Ocean Contrast and Topography VI. Conclusions I.Introduction a. The energy budget framework b. The dynamical framework II. A simple energy balance model/


Unit 5 Agriculture Importance of AG Importance of AG Everyone dependent on foodEveryone dependent on food AG occupies more land area than any other econ.

in high demand located near market (i.e. highly perishable items, bulky heavy items….dairy, fruits, veggies). These generate higher prices and farmers can afford more expensive land nearest market Products w/ intensive land use, high transportation costs, and in high demand located near market (i.e. highly perishable items, bulky heavy items….dairy, fruits, veggies). These generate higher prices and farmers can/


Department of Transport National Council of Provinces MTEF 2004/05 to 2006/07 9 June 2004.

and administration services 13,3 Total4 709,9 Outputs: Transport Planning Department of Transport Sub ProgrammeOutput R million 2004/05 Land Transport Planning Transport services and infrastructure based on approved transport plans 23,3 Land Transport Promotion Implementation of the National Land Transport Transition Act 47,6 Transport Planning Administration and Information A national transport register of all road-based public transport operations Manage financial and administration services 12,5 Total83/


VITAL The Victorian Integrated Travel, Activities & Land-Use Toolkit an initiative of The Transport Research Centre.

, “Vital Signs” people to help subscribers use VITAL people to make sure that subscribers become repeat subscribers to VITAL VITAL The Victorian Integrated Travel, Activities & Land-Use Toolkit History of Travel Surveys in Melbourne 1964 - Melbourne Transport Study – Wilbur Smith & Associates – 28,000 households, personal interview 1972 - MTS Update – 3,500 households in 10 LGAs 1978-79 - MoT Survey – Kinhill / Roy Morgan/


Transportation and Transportation Systems 30 Foundations of Technology Standard 18 Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and.

, information, materials, finances, and time. These parts work together to relocate people and goods. Transportation People use four environments, or “modes,” for transportation. Transportation systems have been developed for land, water, air, and space. Transportation Land Transportation Humans can move over land with ease. The earliest transportation systems were designed to move people over land. Land transportation systems move people and goods on the surface of the earth from place to place/


This educational module presents an introduction to the planning concepts associated with public education land use and transportation in the United States.

site, has implications for school families, communities and public agencies. School siting is a topic that involves a number of planning professions, including education facility planners, school transportation planners, land use planners, municipal and regional transportation planners, and real estate development professionals. Overview | School Siting | School Travel Costs | Cost Calculator | Resources School Siting: Concept While policy and planning research have evaluated elements of/


Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Land-Use Planning Chapter 12 14 th Edition A Study of Interrelationships.

have a right to use it as they wish. 49 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Summary Waterways served as transportation corridors that allowed for the exploration of new land and for the transport of goods. Urban centers began as small towns located near water. Several factors resulted in the shift of the population from rural to urban. Unregulated/


Chapter 12 Land-Use Planning. Outline  12.1 The Need for Planning  12.2 Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use  12.3 Factors That Contribute to Sprawl.

still being sold to mining interests at ridiculously low prices. 12.8 Federal Government Land-Use Issues Conflict over recreational use of land 12.8 Federal Government Land-Use Issues U.S. federal recreational lands Summary  Waterways served as transportation corridors that allowed for the exploration of new land and for the transport of goods.  Urban centers began as small towns located near water.  Several factors resulted/


ILUTE Urban Land Use Models: An Overview E.J. Miller Bahen-Tanenbaum Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering Director, Urban Transportation Research & Advancement.

would be the impact of the proposed congestion pricing scheme on Manhattan’s economic activity system and travel patterns? ILUTE Land Use Models Formal models which try to capture the transportation - land use interaction are usually referred to as land use models, integrated land use - transportation models, or integrated urban models. Such models have existed since the early 1960’s. Histrocially, they have had mixed success/


PLANNING FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AND LAND-USE Module 3, Lesson 5.

for municipalities;  Pilot programs. TCRP Report 102 Potential Government Support for TOD Regional  Promote regional coordination for transportation and land-use planning;  Provide financial incentives;  Setting regional visions and policy goals. Local:  Zoning (reduced parking/ of the American Planning Association 76(3), 265 - 294. Polzin, S. 1999. Transportation/Land-use Relationship: Public Transit’s Impact on Land Use. ASCE Journal of Urban Planning and Development, December 1999, pp. 135-151. /


County-wide Urban Transportation Design Standards

be general enough to apply to all of the County’s urban activity centers and revitalization areas, and to other areas of the County that match the land-use and density applicability criteria. Department of Transportation 9 Recommended Process – Continued The Design Standards would reference the County’s comprehensive plan and Comprehensive Plan overlays, or would include special appendices for specific information/


© International Road Transport Union (IRU) 2008 IRU New Eurasian Land Transport Initiative - NELTI Igor Rounov, Head of the IRU Permanent Delegation to.

(IRU) 2008 NELTI – Business Community Position IRU Caravans NELTI – Business Community Position IRU Caravans Beijing – Brussels Caravan, 2005 Black Sea Ring Highway Caravan, 2007 © International Road Transport Union (IRU) 2008 New Eurasian Land Transport Initiative New Eurasian Land Transport Initiative I.NELTI involves commercial freight operations. II.Duration of the project: from 3 to 6 months. III.The results of the project will be presented/


Central Indiana Suburban Transportation & Mobility Study (CISTMS) Central Indiana Suburban Transportation & Mobility Study (CISTMS) Sponsored by INDOT.

corridor needs (4 corridors) Evaluate potential benefits of outer belt for I-465 and other corridor facilities Define land use/transportation relationships Model & evaluate North-South Statewide Mobility Corridor (E) and I-69 routing through Marion County /corridor needs (4 corridors) Evaluate potential benefits of outer belt for I-465 and other corridor facilities Define land use/transportation relationships Model & evaluate North-South Statewide Mobility Corridor (E) and I-69 routing through Marion County /


The Troop Carrier Story

in SW Pacific Flies supplies to Java and Mindanao Gunn makes trips to Bataan, lands on Quezon Avenue in Manila in attempt to rescue family Far East Air Force Air Transport Command established in Australia, February 1942 21st Transport Squadron organized All transport aircraft in Australia assigned, including three Ferry Command B-24As “Bamboo Fleet” set up on Mindanao to fly supplies to Bataan/


Research of Law and Regulatory Environment for Transit Transportation Purev NARANTSETSEG 11 March 2008 Ulaanbaatar.

officials and policemen have taking unofficial fees, payments, dues and bribe. –The provision on tariffs with extra discounts in transit transportation and services are not implemented. (5th article 3) Transit transportation through territory of China –Land locked countries have not discounts in transit transportation through railway. –The opportunity to use sea ports and storages is not implemented. (7 th article 1 ) –Law and regulatory/


Importance of Industrial Land in the Central Bay Area and Consequences of the Loss of That Land MTC GOODS MOVEMENT/LAND USE PROJECT Linda Hausrath Hausrath.

:Staff from - MTC- East Bay EDA - Caltrans- Alameda Co. CMA - ABAG- West CC Co. Transp. - Joint Policy Committee Advisory Comm. - Bay Area Council- Santa Clara VTA METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION 3 Focus on Industrial Land Use Along Key Goods Movement Corridors in Central Bay Area ___________________________________________ East Bay I-80/880 Corridor Richmond to Fremont North Peninsula US 101 Corridor San Mateo Co/


Jackson Community Comprehensive Plan – Big Picture Planning for Natural Resources Keeping it Green: Conserving Your Future Through Land Use Planning Presented.

growth toward existing communities Take advantage of compact development design Take advantage of compact development design Plan Chapters Physical setting Physical setting Demographics Demographics The economy The economy Land use Land use Housing Housing Transportation Transportation Water, sewer, fire protection Water, sewer, fire protection Local planning and zoning Local planning and zoning Issues, goals, policies and actions Issues, goals, policies and actions The plan/


Transportation Planning Capacity Building Indiana MPO Conference October 15-17, 2003.

case studies Public involvement evaluation case studies Dynamics of on-street parking (with NYU) Talking Freight Series Planning Studies: Flex funding, Transit Operators Transportation and Land Use Scan Technical Resources The Peer Programs Forum for sharing ideas & noteworthy practices. Strengthens transportation planning practices. Builds relationships & reinforces cooperation between agencies. Designed to meet specific needs of a region, State, or locality. Peer Program Services/


Topic 4 – Transportation Terminals

T1 Distance B – Ports and Rail Terminals 1. Port Sites 2. Port Functions 3. Rail Terminals 1. Port Sites Ports Convergence between two domains of freight circulation: Land and maritime domains. Facilitates convergence between land transport and maritime systems. Handle the largest amounts of freight, more than any other types of terminals combined. Infrastructures to accommodate transshipment activities. Administration: Submitted to authorities. Regulating/


HOW DO LAND USE TRENDS AFFECT CBA OUTCOME? Peter Almström Svante Berglund Maria Börjesson Daniel Jonsson 27 november 2009, 1.

2009, 1 Background • CBA - number of assumptions about input factors • population, land-use, economic growth, vehicle characteristics, fuel prices and public transport ticket prices • Induces uncertainty in the outcome. • Assumed influence on relative ranking/ 1995; Rodier and Johnstson 2002). 27 november 2009, 24 Model characteristics • Transport model • Lutrans (Land use Transport Model) is a simplified version of the national transport model Sampers. • Simplified with regard to the number of trip types 2 /


What is the role of the transportation planner? An overview of transportation opportunities for all planners Employment outlook for urban and regional.

costs and funding Practicality Bold ideas / “just a plan” Engineering feasibility Major Difference: Transportation based on planned Land Use Land Use has limited consideration of transportation A New Paradigm  Link land use with transportation:  Land use arrangement to reduce peak hour auto trips  Site design to support bicycling/walking/transit  Combine land-use planning with transportation planning (regional, community, and site specific)  Increased cooperation among all parties involved in/


SCATTER WORKSHOP, Brussels, November 9th 2004 KARI LAUTSO / LT CONSULTANTS SCATTER SPRAWLING CITIES AND TRANSPORT: FROM EVALUATION TO RECOMMENDATIONS Lic.

costs Economic index: total savings €/inhabitant (NPV) SCATTER WORKSHOP, Brussels, November 9th 2004 KARI LAUTSO / LT CONSULTANTS TOOLS for calculating the indicator values ( from PROPOLIS) Ecomic calculations GIS Illustration Land use and transport models Evaluation SCATTER WORKSHOP, Brussels, November 9th 2004 KARI LAUTSO / LT CONSULTANTS The evaluation process Weights of the themes Weights of the indicators Alternative scenarios The environmental index SCATTER/


NC 73 Transportation/ Land Use Study 1 NC 73 TRANSPORTATION/LAND USE CORRIDOR STUDY American Planning Association Conference March 20, 2005.

73 through a Council of Planning. 3Better position for receiving NCDOT funding. NC 73 Transportation/ Land Use Study 13 PROJECT COMPONENTS Land Use/Transportation and Environmental Inventory Existing and Projected Conditions and Deficiencies Alternative Scenario Development Development of Corridor/ of a Council of Planning between NCDOT and 8 local governments, MPO’s/RPO. NC 73 Transportation/ Land Use Study 14 COUNCIL OF PLANNING Meets quarterly to discuss growth issues along the Corridor Tracks growth and/


L OCAL P UBLIC A GENCIES & T ITLE VI N ONDISCRIMINATION R ESPONSIBILITIES Southern Transportation Civil Rights Executive Council (STCREC) Training Symposium.

of real property, structures or improvements thereon, or interest therein from the United States. (GRANTING CLAUSE) NOW, THEREFORE, the Department of Transportation, as authorized by law, and upon the condition that the (Name of Recipient) will accept title to the lands and maintain the project constructed thereon, in accordance with (Name of Appropriate Legislative Authority), the Regulations for the Administration of (Name/


Alternative Transportation in Parks & Public Lands SAFETEA-LU Section 5320 administered by FTA in consultation with DOI and DOA. TEA-21 Section 3039 Study.

80225–0287. Forest Service: Ellen LaFayette elafayette@fs.fed.us tel: 703–605–4509, fax: 703–605–1542 mail: 1400 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20250–1101 Alternative Transportation in Parks & Public Lands Fish and Wildlife Service: Nathan Caldwell, Nathan_caldwell@fws.govNathan_caldwell@fws.gov tel:703–358–2376, fax: 703–358–2517 mail: 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 634 Arlington VA 22203/


BURGESS Model Urban Land Use Model.

class residents to move away from their place of work. The decline of the CBD and the emergence of suburban business centres Increasing level of public intervention Transport innovation Criticisms Use for understanding residential pattern better than commercial and industrial land uses Contributions It was the first attempt to analyse the internal morphology of town Burgess model has invaluable contribution for residential/


Evolution of Land Plants Artist’s rendering of Carboniferous forest in a tropical river delta. Most of the plants depicted here were nonseed tracheophytes.

Silurian-Devonian explosion Carboniferous (lycopods, seed ferns, and horsetails abundant) Angiosperms abundant Gymnosperms abundant 20 410 360 270 140 460 First evidence of land plants Protecting and transporting Embryos: Evolution of seed and pollination All land plants have life cycles with alternation of generations. Relationship between gametophyte and sporophyte varies among lineages in terms of size, dependence, dominance in life cycle Mosses: sporophyte/


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