# Ppt on isobars and isotopes of hydrogen

##### What is Earth Science?  Earth science: The study of ‘Earth Systems’. Astronomy: The study of objects beyond Earth. Meteorology: The study of the air surrounding.

formed on Earth from two water sources. 1) Volcanoes spewed out steam (evaporated water), which later cooled and condensed into liquid water. 2) Comets (balls of ice) crashed into Earth from outer space and melted. How did life form on Earth?  Miller-Urey experiment: mixed hydrogen, methane, and ammonia to simulate early atmosphere. Added sparks to simulate lightning. Soon, organic molecules were discovered, which could/

##### Lecture 1 & 2 © 2015 Calculate the mass defect and the binding energy per nucleon for a particular isotope.Calculate the mass defect and the binding.

binding energy per nucleon for a particular isotope.Calculate the mass defect and the binding energy per nucleon for a particular isotope. Define and apply the concepts of mass number, atomic number, and isotopes.Define and apply the concepts of mass number, atomic number, and isotopes. All of matter is composed of at least three fundamental particles (approximations): ParticleFig.SymMassChargeSize The mass of the proton and neutron are close, but they are about 1840 times/

##### Phenomenological properties of nuclei

very short isotopes τ > 30 s (with electron cooling), τ ≈ μs (without electron cooling). Similar device is at CERN (ISOLDE) Exploitation of reaction energy balance: Useful also in the case where mass spectroscopy is not working (neutral particles). Determination of neutron mass as example: 1) We measure energy of γ quantum essential for deuteron split: 2) Deuteron mass is: md = mn + mH - B 3) Masses of hydrogen and deuteron are/

##### CHAPTER 12 The Atomic Nucleus

times the number (Z) of protons. Hydrogen’s isotopes: Deuterium: Heavy hydrogen; has a neutron as well as a proton in its nucleus Tritium: Has two neutrons and one proton The nuclei of the deuterium and tritium atoms are called deuterons and tritons. Atoms with the /a given Z and A is called a nuclide. Z characterizes a chemical element. The dependence of the chemical properties on N is negligible. Nuclides with the same neutron number are called isotones and the same value of A are called isobars. 1. Fixed /

##### 1 SOHO, 171A Fe emission line The mass of a nucleus Energy generation in stars which nuclei are stable which nuclei exist in principle.

in a nuclear reaction (>0 if energy is released, <0 if energy is used) Example: The sun is powered by the fusion of hydrogen into helium: 4p  4 He + 2 e + + 2 e Mass difference dM released as energy dE = dM c 2/ isobaric chain odd A isobaric chain 20 Typical  decay half-lives: very near “stability” : occasionally Mio’s of years or longer more common within a few nuclei of stability: minutes - days most exotic nuclei that can be formed: ~ milliseconds 21 Proton or neutron decay: Usually, the protons and /

##### CHAPTER 12 The Atomic Nucleus

is +e times the number (Z) of protons. Hydrogen’s isotopes: Deuterium: Heavy hydrogen. Has a neutron as well as a proton in its nucleus. Tritium: Has two neutrons and one proton. The nuclei of the deuterium and tritium atoms are called deuterons and tritons. Atoms with the same Z, but different mass number A, are called isotopes. Nuclear Properties The symbol of an atomic nucleus is . where Z = atomic/

##### Waves Wave: A traveling disturbance consisting of coordinated vibrations that transmit energy with no net movement of the matter. Source: some kind of.

…… Venus’ surface measured by radar: Microwave oven: Water molecules have are electric dipoles. Oxygen, negative Hydrogen, positive Water molecules rotate. When heated, they rotate more vigorously. If we apply a changing electric /Isobars: Nuclei with same A (roughly same mass), but different Z (element) and N Notation for nuclei and particles: Examples:Carbon: Z A Two different isotopes of Carbon Proton:Neutron:Electron: Several remarks about nuclei We say that nuclei are “made of” nucleons – protons and/

##### Atoms, Molecules, Ions, and Inorganic Nomenclature Brown, LeMay Ch 2 AP Chemistry Monta Vista High School.

.486 x 10 -4 amu 6 Atomic number: number of p + (determines the element) Mass number: sum of p + and n (determines the isotope) Isotopes: atoms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons Isobars: atoms of different elements with same atomic mass but different atomic number./the polyatomic ion. If two elements are present, name both, then the polyatomic ion (e.g. NaHCO 3 is sodium hydrogen carbonate). It is an acid (must be aqueous). Does the acid contain a polyatomic ion? NOYES Does the acid end /

##### Julian Chela-Flores Julian Chela-Flores The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italia and Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados,

sulfate ( SO 4 -2 ) of seawater to form hydrogen sulfide H 2 S : of seawater to form hydrogen sulfide H 2 S : The sulfur isotopes are divided between biogenic minerals and sulfate minerals  Dissolved sulfate on evaporation forms sulfate minerals depleted of 32 S by 20 per mil. /analyzers  32 S is isobaric (same m/z) with 16 O 2. There would not have sufficient resolution with the current design to identify the contributions from S and its interference with the O 2 at m/z 32 and 34.  The instrument/

##### Making Gold : Nuclear Alchemy Prof. Paddy Regan Department of Physics University of Surrey Guildford, GU2 7XH

and competition between coulomb repulsion and strong nuclear force interactions The result is that only certain combinations of Z and N give rise to stable configurations (about 300 in total). Other non-stable types can ‘radioactively decay’ (about 7,000 predicted). 10 Radioactive species in the body Isotope/) SN1987a before and after !! 36 For a give fixed A (isobar), we have different combinations of Z and N. e./, as is 207 Pb and 208 Pb). Summary What’s made where and how. –Hydrogen to Helium (in the /

##### The Atom. What’s Inside an Atom? An atom is made up of a team of three players: protons, neutrons, and electrons They each have a charge, mass, and.

. Ex, C 6 12 Structure of the Nucleus Nomenclature Isotopes: Nuclides of the same atomic number. O O O Isotones: Nuclides having the same number of neutrons but different atomic number Fe Co Cu Isobars: Nuclides with the same no. of nucleons that is the same mass no. but different no. of protons Cu Zn Isomers: Nuclides having the same number of protons and neutrons but differing in energy/

##### 12.1Discovery of the Neutron 12.2Nuclear Properties 12.3The Deuteron 12.4Nuclear Forces 12.5Nuclear Stability 12.6Radioactive Decay 12.7Alpha, Beta, and.

is +e times the number (Z) of protons. Hydrogen’s isotopes:  Deuterium: Heavy hydrogen; has a neutron as well as a proton in its nucleus  Tritium: Has two neutrons and one proton The nuclei of the deuterium and tritium atoms are called deuterons and tritons. Atoms with the same Z, but different mass number A, are called isotopes. Nuclear Properties The symbol of an atomic nucleus is. where Z = atomic/

##### Cosmic Alchemy: How Are We Made ? Prof. Paddy Regan FInstP Department of Physics University of Surrey Guildford, GU2 7XH

fallout 24 From NRPB-Average Radiation Dose in UK NRPB is now HPA-RPD 25 Radioactive species in the body Isotope Average amount by weightActivity U-Uranium 90μg 1.1Bq Th-Thorium 30 μg 0.11Bq 40 K 17mg 4/ISOBAR FOR A=125 125 In : Z=49 125 Sn : Z=50; 125 Sb : Z=51; n → p +  - + Figure Wiescher, Regan & Aprahamian, Physics World Feb. 2002, page 33-38 Slow-neutron capture process allows formation of elements from A~56 to A=209 (Bi)... terminates at 209 Bi...why? Summary What’s made where and how. –Hydrogen/

##### Nuclear Medicine 4103 Section I Basic Chemistry. Structure of The Atom Nucleus: contains Protons (+) and Neutrons (0) Electron (-) orbiting the nucleus.

is unstable, the radioactive properties will differ. An isotope may be stable or unstable. Isotone: same number of neutrons, no other similarities. Isobar: 2 atoms with same mass number, different atomic number, different chemical properties. Same number of protons and neutrons. No interest in NM. Isomer: One of 2 or more nuclides that has the same mass number and atomic number as the others but exists for/

##### Eco-friendly Refrigerants. History Of Refrigeration Refrigeration relates to the cooling of air or liquids, thus providing lower temperature to preserve.

cascade system Small to medium air-conditioning system and industrial cooling In household refrigerators and in large industrial cooling Frozen food ice-cream display cases and warehouses and food freezing plants. An excellent general low temp refrigerant 1.0 1.07 0.8 0.34 What is Ozone Layer Ozone is an isotope of oxygen with three atoms instead of normal two. It is naturally occurring gas/

##### Challenges and Evaluation in Physics

eV) is more than the ionization energy of hydrogen atom in the ground state. This photon causes ionization of hydrogen atom and the emitted electrons has a kinetic energy of 16 – 13.6 = 2.4eV. The detector, therefore, detects a photon of energy 10.2eV and an electron having a kinetic energy of 2.4eV. Electronic Devices Electronic Devices Pure semiconductors (intrinsic) and controlled impure semiconductors (extrinsic) Remember: A bulk/

##### One of the most practical nuclear reactions results from the compound nucleus that results from A>230 nuclei absorbing neutrons. Often split into two medium.

Radioactive decay fragments25 MeV This 200 MeV is distributed approximately as: 235 U Isobars off the valley of stability (dark squares on preceding slide)  -decay to a more stable state.  and  decays can leave a daughter in an excited nuclear state 187 W 1/ (  t ) and fission (  f ) cross sections of 235 U. 1 b = 10 -24 cm 2 238 U has a threshold for fission (n,f) at a neutron energy of 1MeV. The difference between these two isotopes of uranium is explained by the presence of the pairing term in the/

##### The texts were not checked by a native speaker. All comments, suggestions and improvements are welcome and the authors will be very thankful for discovered.

formed, the ice has lower density and it swims on water. Due to the polarity of the molecule and ability of formation of hydrogen bridges water represents the ideal solvent for ionic and polar compounds. Basic Med. Chem.Liquids and gases 2015/201619Solution (dispersion system, macroscopically/number), is the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of 6 12 C, stabile isotope, containing six protons and six neutrons); N A =(6.0221415 ± 0.0000010)·10 23 mol -1 Basic Med. Chem.Liquids and gases 2015/201637 Ideal Gas/

##### 11 OBJ 1 – Radioactivity & Radioactive Decay 2 Chart of the Nuclides General Layout – Each nuclide occupies a square in a grid where Atomic number (Z)

and Symbols Same element names and symbols as used on the Periodic Table of the Elements – Atomic Weights and Abundances Isotopic masses in AMUs are given for – Stable isotopes – Certain long-lived, naturally occurring radioactive isotopes – Nuclides particle decay becomes a prominent mode (>10%) 7 Chart of the Nuclides – Isotopic/H 2 0 Concrete Plastic – Hazard – Internal – Target Organ – Living tissue Hydrogenous 23 Energy Transfer Mechanisms Ionization – Removing bound e - from electrically neutral atom /

##### Unit I: Physics Associated with Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation Part A: Atomic Structure and Radiation’s Interaction with Matter Lecture 1 CLRS 321 Nuclear.

hydrogen’s spectral emissions (the Balmer Series) and offered an explanation for the specific wavelengths of visible light. Bohr’s model attributed the distinct wavelengths apparent in the Balmer Series to “quantum leaps” between varying energy states of/ Waterstram-Rich, Nuclear Medicine and Pet/CT: Technology and Techniques, 6th Ed. (St. Louis: Mosby 2004), Fig. 2-5, p 43. Isotope: Same element, different forms. Isotones: Different elements, same number of neutrons Isobars: Different elements, same atomic /

##### Unit I: Physics Associated with Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation Part A: Atomic Structure and Radiation’s Interaction with Matter Lecture 1 CLRS 321 Nuclear.

hydrogen’s spectral emissions (the Balmer Series) and offered an explanation for the specific wavelengths of visible light. Bohr’s model attributed the distinct wavelengths apparent in the Balmer Series to “quantum leaps” between varying energy states of/ Waterstram-Rich, Nuclear Medicine and Pet/CT: Technology and Techniques, 6th Ed. (St. Louis: Mosby 2004), Fig. 2-5, p 43. Isotope: Same element, different forms. Isotones: Different elements, same number of neutrons Isobars: Different elements, same atomic /

##### Hydrocarbon. A hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.organic compound The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally.

Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.organic compound The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains. The "self-bonding" or catenation of carbon allows hydrocarbon to form more complex molecules. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocarbon Crude Oil crude/

##### ASY-EOS experiment P. Russotto* for the ASY-EOS collaboration *LNS-INFN and Univ. of Catania, Italy 20.38 16/06/11.

(for E n >400MeV) No 1,2,3 H isotopic discriminations Adapted from P.Pawloski, IWM2007 Large Area Neutron Detector (LAND) neutron and Hydrogen detection Th.Blaich et al.,NIM A314 136-154 (1992)/isobaric analogue states and masses, isospin diffusion, n/p ratios, 3 H/ 3 He ratio…). Viceversa, more extended data sets and consistency checks (  - /  + ) are needed in order to arrive at firm conclusions at supra-saturation densities Neutron-proton elliptic flow is a promising observable ……“a good constraint” of/

##### Introduction A more general title for this course might be “Radiation Detector Physics” Goals are to understand the physics, detection, and applications.

A = Z+N Nuclides with the same Z == isotopes Nuclides with the same N == isotones Nuclides with the same A == isobars Identical nuclides with different energy states == isomers Metastable excited state (T1/2>10-9s) Table of Nuclides Plot of Z vs N for all nuclides Detailed information for ~/the nucleus B(Z,N) = {ZMH + NMn - M(Z,N)} M(Z,N) is the mass of the neutral atom MH is the mass of the hydrogen atom One can also define proton, neutron, and alpha separation energies Sp = B(Z,N) - B(Z-1,N) Sn = B(Z,N) -/

##### EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW

to the sun, the higher the velocity of its revolution Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in the fusion / billion years Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its stable daughter product Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Geologic/

##### EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For the End Of Course Earth Science Test.

of Low pressure (gradients) Cold Fronts—cold air invades warm air; rain and thunderstorms Warm Fronts—warm air invades cold air; steady rain Isotherms—lines of equal temperature (like contours) Isobars—lines of equal pressure (like contours) Pressure is reported by inches of/, the higher the velocity of its revolution Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in/ Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its /

##### EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For the End Of Course Earth Science Test.

of Low pressure (gradients) Cold Fronts—cold air invades warm air; rain and thunderstorms Warm Fronts—warm air invades cold air; steady rain Isotherms—lines of equal temperature (like contours) Isobars—lines of equal pressure (like contours) Pressure is reported by inches of/, the higher the velocity of its revolution Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in/ Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its /

##### Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For Earth Science.

The closer the planet is to the sun, the higher the velocity of its revolution Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in the fusion process Our sun’s life cycle/oldest rocks—up to 4.5 billion years Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its stable daughter product Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Geologic Time We break down Geologic/

##### Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For Earth Science.

The closer the planet is to the sun, the higher the velocity of its revolution Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in the fusion process Our sun’s life cycle/oldest rocks—up to 4.5 billion years Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its stable daughter product Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Geologic Time We break down Geologic/

##### EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For the End Of Course Earth Science Test.

of Low pressure (gradients) Cold Fronts—cold air invades warm air; rain and thunderstorms Warm Fronts—warm air invades cold air; steady rain Isotherms—lines of equal temperature (like contours) Isobars—lines of equal pressure (like contours) Pressure is reported by inches of/, the higher the velocity of its revolution Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in/ Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its /

##### Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For Earth Science.

The closer the planet is to the sun, the higher the velocity of its revolution Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in the fusion process Our sun’s life cycle/oldest rocks—up to 4.5 billion years Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its stable daughter product Joshua and Jennifer Mosser, Briar Woods High School Geologic Time We break down Geologic/

##### EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For the EOC Earth Science Test 2006 Jennifer and Josh Mosser, Briar Woods High School.

of Low pressure (gradients) Cold Fronts—cold air invades warm air; rain and thunderstorms Warm Fronts—warm air invades cold air; steady rain Isotherms—lines of equal temperature (like contours) Isobars—lines of equal pressure (like contours) Pressure is reported by inches of/ the higher the velocity of its revolution Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in/ Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its /

##### EARTH SCIENCE NC Final REVIEW Concepts and Topics Earth Science.

the higher the velocity of its revolution Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in/ Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its /of Low pressure (gradients) Cold Fronts—cold air invades warm air; rain and thunderstorms Warm Fronts—warm air invades cold air; steady rain Isotherms—lines of equal temperature (like contours) Isobars—lines of equal pressure (like contours) Pressure is reported by inches of/

##### EARTH SCIENCE SOL REVIEW Concepts and Topics For the EOC Earth Science Test 2006.

of Low pressure (gradients) Cold Fronts—cold air invades warm air; rain and thunderstorms Warm Fronts—warm air invades cold air; steady rain Isotherms—lines of equal temperature (like contours) Isobars—lines of equal pressure (like contours) Pressure is reported by inches of/ the higher the velocity of its revolution Stars and the Sun * The sun is made of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is converted to helium in/ Half-life is the amount of time it takes for 50% of a radioactive parent isotope to break down into its /

##### Introduction to Amber The theory and practice of biomolecular simulations using the Amber suite of programs Dr. Vladislav Vassiliev NCI National Facility,

of all systems whose thermodynamic state is characterized by a fixed number of atoms, N, a fixed volume, V, and a fixed temperature, T. Isobaric-Isothermal Ensemble (NPT): This ensemble is characterized by a fixed number of atoms, N, a fixed pressure, P, and/ motion. Both equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects can be estimated/hydrogen bond analysis and dihedral angle tracking using ptraj Demo of Ptraj Commands How to use AMBERs ptraj analysis program to analyse a peptide simulation and gather a range of/

##### The FLUKA Code: Design, Physics and Applications.

of activation and residual dose Decay , produced and transported “on line”  Screening and Coulomb corrections accounted fo r  +/- spectra  Complete database for  lines and  spectra covering down to 0.1% branching Time evolution of induced radioactivity calculated analytically  Fully coupled build-up and decay (Bateman equations)  Up to 4 different decay channels per isotope/ MeV Dominance of the  (1232) resonance and of the N* resonances  reactions treated in the framework of the isobar model  /

##### 1.Depict the direction of the magnetic field lines due to a circular current carrying loop? 2.How would a biconvex lens appear when placed in a trough.

figure. If now the resistances of the arm BC and CD are interchanged, to obtain the balance condition, another carbon resistor is connected in place of R. What would now be the sequence of colour bands of the carbon resistor? 29. (a) Using Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, derive the expression for the total energy of the electron in the stationery states of the atom. (b) If electron/

##### Introduction to Amber The theory and practice of biomolecular simulations using the Amber suite of programs Dr. Vladislav Vassiliev NCI National Facility,

of all systems whose thermodynamic state is characterized by a fixed number of atoms, N, a fixed volume, V, and a fixed temperature, T. Isobaric-Isothermal Ensemble (NPT): This ensemble is characterized by a fixed number of atoms, N, a fixed pressure, P, and/. Both equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects can be/hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Estimation of Binding Energies in Non-Covalent complexes Protein-ligand complex Evaluating Free Energies of Binding using Amber Evaluating Free Energies of/

##### Considerations for the implementation of experiments Manfred Grieser Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik workshop, CERN, 14 th February 2014.

low ion numbers: horizontal tune an isomeric state of 187 Ta. ref. M. W. Reed, PRL 105, 172501 (2010) determined by electron cooling hydrogen target stored ion beam A X q+ reactions A/and cooling Laser Spectroscopy of rare Isotopes II nuclear life time  n ≥ cooling time of multi-turn injected ion beam T cool in the velocity range 0.03<ß<0.16 development of/ Isomers can be measured with Schottky noise analyses Example of 30 th Schottky spectra for A=184 and A=187 isobars and isomers. ref. M.W. Reed et al. /

##### The FLUKA Code: Design, Physics and Applications

of activation and residual dose Decay b, g, produced and transported “on line” Screening and Coulomb corrections accounted for b+/- spectra Complete database for g lines and b spectra covering down to 0.1% branching Time evolution of induced radioactivity calculated analytically Fully coupled build-up and decay (Bateman equations) Up to 4 different decay channels per isotope/at 170 MeV Dominance of the D(1232) resonance and of the N* resonances  reactions treated in the framework of the isobar model  all /

##### The Atom Lab # 2. What’s Inside an Atom? An atom is made up of a team of three players: protons, neutrons, and electrons They each have a charge, mass,

these excited states are referred to as isomeric states and decay to the ground state Nomenclature Isotopes: Nuclides of the same atomic number. O O O Isotones: Nuclides having the same number of neutrons but different atomic number Fe Co Cu Isobars: Nuclides with the same no. of nucleons that is the same mass no. but different no. of protons Cu Zn Isomers: Nuclides having the same/

##### Topics in Contemporary Physics Basic concepts 6 Luis Roberto Flores Castillo Chinese University of Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR January 28, 2015.

–Statistical properties The connection between spin and statistics is a deep result from QFT. L. R. Flores CastilloCUHK January 28, 2015 Addition of Angular Momenta Angular momentum states represented by ‘kets’: Example: an electron in a hydrogen atom occupying: –orbital state | 3/CastilloCUHK January 28, 2015 Flavor symmetries Drawing an analogy with spin, Heisenberg introduced the isospin I (for ‘isotopic’ spin; better term: ‘isobaric’ spin) I is not a vector in ordinary space (no corresp. to x, y, z);/

##### The physics of the FLUKA code: hadronic models Paola R. Sala, Giuseppe Battistoni, INFN Milan, Italy Alfredo Ferrari CERN HSS06.

700 MeV  + N   ’ +  ” + N’opens at 170 MeV Dominance of the  resonance and of the N* resonances  reactions treated in the framework of the isobar model  all reactions proceed through an intermediate state containing at least one resonance Resonance energies, widths, / the production of specific isotopes may be influenced by additional problems which have little or no impact on the emitted particle spectra (Sensitive to details of evaporation, Nuclear structure effects, Lack of spin-parity /

##### Atomic Mass Spectrometry Nearly all elements in the periodic table can be determined by mass spectrometry Nearly all elements in the periodic table can.

Atomic mass of Hydrogen Atomic mass of Hydrogen 1.00794 amu 1.00794 amu 1amu = 1 dalton (Da) What about isotopes? Atomic mass of Carbon Atomic mass of Carbon 12.000 amu for 12 C but 13.3355 for 13 C 12.000 amu for 12 C but 13.3355 for 13 C Atomic mass of Chlorine Atomic mass of Chlorine 34.9688 amu for 35 Cl and 36.9659/

##### 复旦大学核科学与技术系 沈皓 Introduction to Nuclear Technology.

for their masses. Large number of stable isotopes and isotones with Z & N = 50 and 82. The heavies stable nuclide 209 Bi 83 has 126 neutrons. O 8, Ca 20, Ni 28, Sn 50 and Pb 82 have relative high abundance. The binding energy ( BE ) of a nuclide is the energy released when the atom is synthesized from the appropriate numbers of hydrogen atoms and neutrons. Z H + N/

##### LOGO Atomic Structure Moh. Suwandi, S.Pt.,M.Pd SMA MAARIF NU PANDAAN RINTISAN SEKOLAH KATEGORI MANDIRI 2010.

electrons in an atom is produced by the forces of attraction between the electrons and nucleus ( coulomb force ) - - - 4. Bohr’s Atomic Model The weaknesses of Rutherford’s atomic theory in explaining the line spectrum of hydrogen atom was succesfully corerected by a Danish physicist, /.Explain the weaknesses of Bohr’s atomic theory 3.Determine the number of protons, electrons and neutrons for 16 8 O, and 19 9 F, 39 19 K, 207 82 Pb, 238 92 U 4.Classify the following atoms into isotope, isobar or isotone 16 8/

##### Nuclides1 Introduction to Nuclides the big bang The big bang theory www.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/nuctek/universe.html Einstein-Wheeler: "Matter tells.

the stability of carbon isotopes. Half life 9 C127. ms 10 C19.3 s 11 C20.3 m 12 Cstable 13 Cstable 14 C5730. y 15 C2.45 s 16 C 0.75 s Nuclides17 Stable and Radioactive Nuclides binding energy The binding energy ( BE ) of a nuclide is the energy released when the atom is synthesized from the appropriate numbers of hydrogen atoms and neutrons. Z/

##### Prepared by: R.RAJENDRAN, M.A., M.Sc., M.Ed., N.IYNGARAN, M.Sc., M.Ed., M.Phil., 12 TH STANDARD PHYSICS NUCLEAR PHYSICS.

3.8 X 10 26 c) 3.8 X 10 22 d) 3.8 X 10 24 89 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 88. In sun, hydrogen and helium are in a state called ------ a) photosphere b) chromosphere c) thermosphere d) plasma. 90 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 89. In proton – /6 × 10 −13 m 102 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 102. The nuclei 13 Al 27 and 14 Si 28 are example of (a) isotopes (b) isobars (c) isotones (d) isomers 103 CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER 103. The mass defect of a certain nucleus is found to be 0.03 amu. Its binding energy is (a) 27/

##### Chapter 29 Nuclear Physics. General Physics Nuclear Physics Sections 1–4.

used to determine Z General Physics More Properties The nuclei of all atoms of a particular element must contain the same number of protons They may contain varying numbers of neutrons Isotopes of an element have the same Z but differing N and A values Example: See Appendix B – An Abbreviated Table of Isotopes RadioactiveStable Radioactive General Physics Charge and Mass The proton has a single positive charge, +e e/

##### Advanced Analytical Chemistry – CHM 6157® Y. CAIFlorida International University Updated on 9/14/2006Chapter 3ICPMS-2 2.Interferences in ICPMS 2.1Mass.

Isotopes with odd masses are free from overlap, while with even masses are not.  No isobaric peak interferences below 36 m/z. Isobaric overlaps are exactly predictable! Advanced Analytical Chemistry – CHM 6157® Y. CAIFlorida International University Updated on 9/13/2006Chapter 3ICPMS 2.1.2Polyatomic Polyatomic ion interferences result from interactions between species in the plasma and species in matrix or atmosphere. Argon, hydrogen and/ either as a result of incomplete dissociation of the sample matrix or/