reconstruction Problem: slow and inefficient segmentation (**image** **processing**) algorithms Difficult to automatically analyze **images** for anomalies © 2009, I.R.SNApp – all rights reserved. 4 Client Needs MR **Image** Reconstruction using KFCS Kalman Filtered Compressed Sensing CS: relies on data sparseness (**in** some domain) to estimate signal using fewer observations/ measurements Fewer measurements faster reconstruction Port existing **MATLAB** reconstruction prototype algorithm for runtime improvements/

RPI Diverse problems, similar solutions: FPGAs are particularly well suited for accelerating **image** **processing** algorithms Backprojection Backprojection algorithm used **in** medical **imaging** Traditionally performed by custom hardware Application specific integrated circuits and/or /staff at NU, UPRM and RPI Development of multi-language toolboxes – C, Fortran, C++, Java, **MATLAB** and OO-**MATLAB** Delivered the MVT Toolbox – open source Presently working on three additional toolbox efforts Developing a /

j as imaginary number. A complex number is represented as 2 + 5i or 2 + 5*j **Matlab** for **image** **processing** **Matlab** has set of functions for **processing** multidimensional arrays of which **images** are special case. **Image** **Processing** Toolbox (IPT) is a collection of functions that extend the capability of **MATLAB**. **In** many **image** **processing** books, the **image** origin is defined to be at (x,y) = (0,0). But toolbox uses the notation (r/

**image** **Image** Operations RGB **image** to gray **image** **Image** resize **Image** crop **Image** rotate **Image** histogram **Image** histogram equalization **Image** DCT/IDCT Convolution - CODE Outline Introduction to **MATLAB** –Basics & Examples **Image** **Processing** with **MATLAB** –Basics & Examples Examples working with **Images** (1/3) Create AVI movie with a series of **images** & Read specific frame from video file Related funcs: avifile, addframe, mmreader DEMO Examples working with **Images** (2/3) Simplified version of **image** blending: Each pixel **in**/

: Introduction to Digital **Image** **Processing** 31 **Image** Example motion blurred **image** at BSNR of 40dB deblurred **image** after Pseudo-inverse filtering ( =0.1) EE465: Introduction to Digital **Image** **Processing** Copyright Xin Li 32 Gradient Operators Motivation: detect changes change **in** the pixel valuelarge gradient Gradient operator **image** Thresholding edge map x(m,n) g(m,n) I(m,n) **MATLAB** function: > help edge EE465: Introduction to Digital **Image** **Processing** Copyright Xin Li/

data element is the auto-indexed array This allows quick solutions to problems that can be formulated **in** vector or matrix form Powerful GUI tools Large collection of toolboxes: collections of topic- related **MATLAB** functions that extend the core functionality significantly 7 Intro **MATLAB** **MATLAB** Toolboxes Signal & **Image** **Processing** Signal **Processing** **Image** **Processing** Communications Frequency Domain System Identification Higher-Order Spectral Analysis System Identification Wavelet Filter Design Control Design/

the mighty INDEXING possibilities : Task: eliminate the whitespaces **in** the following vector M Avoiding loops ABCDABCD i = find (M ~= ‘ ‘); % result: i=[1 3 4 6] M = M(i); Or shorter: M=M(find(M ~= ‘ ‘); Avoiding loops ABCDABCD **Images** So why **MATLAB** and **IMAGE** **PROCESSING** ? **Images** **Images** can be treated as matrices ! **Images** Loading an **image**: a = imread(‘picture.jpg’); imshow(a); **Images** **Image** (=matrix) size: size(a): 384 512 3 R/

**in** the Linux and Windows labs Also remotely accessible via ssh On Linux, type **matlab** into the terminal Whats great about **MATLAB** Matrices are treated as 1st class citizens Effortless to inspect **images** and plots Whats not so great about **MATLAB**/5:99.5, 0.5:99.5); im_interp = interp2(im_original, Xq, Yq); Demo **Images** Generic **image** **processing** script filename = badgers.jpg; im_orig = imread(filename); im_processed = my_func(im_orig); figure; imshow(im_orig); figure; imshow(im_processed); imwrite(im_processed, hw/

. (.*,./,.*,.^ etc) >> A.*A ans = 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 A = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Converting **image** types References “Fundamentals of Digital **Image** **Processing** A Practical Approach with Examples **in** **Matlab**”, by Chris Solomon and Toby Breckon “**MATLAB** for **Image** **Processing**” by Tuo Wang,Feb 12th, 2010 “**MATLAB** Tutorial” MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu,Linear Algebra http://ocw.mit.edu

site: www.cs.huji.ac.il/~impr **Image** **Processing** 2 Administration All exercises are mandatory 3 Exams and Moed B Please register online asap! **Image** **Processing** 3 Today Outline **Matlab** Basics Intensity transform and Histogram Equalization Exercise #1 – Basic **Image** **Processing** **Image** **Processing** 4 **Matlab** Desktop To operate **Matlab** : type **matlab** from linux xterm **Matlab** 7.8 is the current default version **Image** **Processing** 5 **Matlab** Advantages Every variable **in** **Matlab** is a multidimensional matrix. Highly modular. No/

of for or while loop Syntax continu e 4. **Image** **Processing** **in** **MATLAB**: **Image** **processing** toolbox is one of the most useful toolboxes **in** **MATLAB**. This toolbox supports a wide range of **image** **processing** operations. There are five types of **images** **in** **MATLAB**: 1- Binary **image** : {0, 1}{black white} 2- Gray-scale **image**: [0,255] {shades of gray} 3- True color **image**: m x n x 3 4- Intensity **image**: [0, 1] or uint8 5- Indexed/

Simple **Image** **Processing** and Object Detection using **Matlab** Akshar Prabhu Desai Objectives A quick introduction to **matlab** Color models and their representation **in** **matlab** Generating and analyzing histograms Noise reduction Detecting objects of interest **in** **image** A graded lab assignment at the end Download links given at the end The Setup A webcam connected to your Windows machine **Matlab** R2009a A table tennis ball Chart paper of different colors **Matlab** Introduction/

Solving non-linear equations Function approximation using Taylors expansion Solving ordinary differential equations **MATLAB** toolboxes Simulink **Image** **processing** **MATLAB** GUI **MATLAB** for fun 3 Error analysis using Hilbert matrix Hilbert matrix is an NxN matrix with element (1/i+j-1). It is a typical example of ill conditioned matrix. hilb(5) **in** **MATLAB** will give 5x5 Hilbert matrix 4 Error analysis using Hilbert matrix Try the/

examples – If statements If else statements For loop Indexing Vectors Indexing Vectors contd.. **Image** **Processing** Toolbox Introduction Collection of functions (**MATLAB** files) that supports a wide range of **image** **processing** operations Documentation www.mathworks.com Read an **Image** Read **in** an **image** Validates the graphic format (bmp, hdf, jpeg, pcx, png, tiff, xwd) Store it **in** an array clear, close all I = imread(‘pout.tif`); [X, map] = imread(‘pout/

3.4 (R2011b) Global Optimization Toolbox Version 3.2 (R2011b) **Image** Acquisition Toolbox Version 4.2 (R2011b) **Image** **Processing** Toolbox Version 7.3 (R2011b) **MATLAB** Compiler Version 4.16 (R2011b) **MATLAB** Distributed Computing Server Version 5.2 (R2011b) Neural Network Toolbox Version 7/ locate promising parts of code like – custom code consuming the majority of time – build-**in** functions that support GPUArray (consuming the majority of time) – large input/output data, simple data types Test the speed /

Complete Column Addressing Trnaspose Fliplr and Flipud Saving and Loading Data Concept of Function and m-Files Concept of Path **Matlab** Basics Useful Commands: Whos Help Clear Path Cd Dir lookfor **Image** **Processing** **in** **Matlab** **Images** can be conveniently represented as matrices **in** **Matlab**. One can open an **image** as a matrix using imread command. The matrix may simply be m x n form or it may be 3/

be used to test simple algorithms (command line or scripts) prior to coding **in** a higher-level language Why **MATLAB**? Pros: – **MATLAB** has a large library of optimized, robust mathematical functions – **MATLAB** has a large collection of very powerful toolboxes (e.g. **image** **processing**, statistics) – Easy to produce 2D and 3D graphs Why Not **MATLAB**? Cons: – Cost associated with ease of use Interpreted language Slow (10-100x/

Vision WS 08/09 References and Further Reading More on morphological operators can be found **in** R.C. Gonzales, R.E. Woods, Digital **Image** **Processing**. Prentice Hall, 2001 Online tutorial and Java demos available on http://homepages.inf./Load a saved workspace keyboard Enter debugging mode (until dbquit ) 67 B. Leibe Perceptual and Sensory Augmented Computing Computer Vision WS 08/09 Morphology **in** **Matlab** N = hist(Y,M) IM2 = imerode(IM,SE); IM2 = imdilate(IM,SE); IM2 = imclose(IM, SE); IM2 = imopen(IM/

must output the extracted contours overlaid on their respective input **images**. Also, it must save the extracted contours **in** data files. The segmentation algorithm may rely on minimal user input to segment the **images**. Nonfunctional Requirements: The ported reconstruction algorithm must be written **in** C or C++. The segmentation algorithm must be developed **in** **MATLAB** with the **Image** **Processing** Toolbox. The source code must not generate any avoidable/

the duality of light Faculty: What is this course about? Principles and devices **in** electro-optics Optical systems, optical **image** **processing**, holography Main topics include Fourier Optics and Diffraction Theory Skills/Prerequisites needed for /strictly engr. applications Skills/Prerequisites needed for course? Strong understanding of Maxwell’s Equations Intermediate understanding of **MATLAB** Prerequisite of EE 330 or PHYS 400 What is the workload? Short weekly homework problems One /

Introduction to **MATLAB** and **image** **processing** **MATLAB** and **images** The help **in** **MATLAB** is very good, use it! An **image** **in** **MATLAB** is treated as a matrix Every pixel is a matrix element All the operators **in** **MATLAB** defined on matrices can be used on **images**: +, -, *, /, ^, sqrt, sin, cos etc. **Images** **in** **MATLAB** **MATLAB** can import/export several **image** formats – BMP (Microsoft Windows Bitmap) – GIF (Graphics Interchange Files) – HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) – JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) – PCX (Paintbrush/

The MathWorks, Inc. Dr. Steven L. Eddins **Image** **Processing** Specialist eddins@mathworks.com Copyright 1984 - 1998 by The MathWorks, Inc. 2 **MATLAB** and HDF-EOS Overview The MathWorks, Inc. **MATLAB** **MATLAB** support for HDF-EOS Examples and demos Copyright 1984 - 1998 by The MathWorks, Inc. 3 **MATLAB** and HDF-EOS The MathWorks, Inc. - The Company Founded **in** 1984, privately held Based **in** Natick, Massachusetts 475 employees (150+ Developers/

**Image** **processing** Motion & Estimation Classification Outline **Images** Binary operators Filtering –Smoothing –Edge, corner detection Modeling, matching Scale space **Images** An **image** is a matrix of pixels Note: **Matlab** uses Resolution –Digital cameras: 1600 X 1200 at a minimum –Video cameras: ~640 X 480 Grayscale: generally 8 bits per pixel Intensities **in** range [0…255] RGB color: 3 8-bit color planes **Image** Conversion RGB Grayscale: Mean color value/

= 1 2 4 5 7 8 4 Let’s talk about **image** files and their formats….. Color vs GrayScale Basic **Image** **Processing** functions: Reading **in** an **image**: >> img1=imread(Water lilies.jpg); Displaying an **image**: >> imshow(img1); Finding out size of an **image**: >> size(img1); >> size(img1) ans = 600 800 3 WORKING WITH **IMAGES** **in** **MatLab** 5 Cropping an **image**: >> imgsmall=img1(200:300,300:400,1:3); >> imshow(imgsmall) >> imgsmall/

Milestones The practical challenge of working as a Bioinformatics Specialist 9 The data intensive discovery **process** **in** Pharma and Biotech. Algorithm development Custom one-off analyses Robust programs for biologists Exchange of/ show? 1. **MATLAB** environment was great for developing an algorithm (environment + language + graphics) 2. **Image** **Processing** Toolbox provided a rich set of functions for segmentation, region properties and background removal 3. Signal **Processing** Toolbox provided autocorrelation function/

**Image** **Processing** Comp344 Tutorial Kai Zhang Outline **Matlab** preliminaries **Matlab** function design Shifting frequency component Low pass filtering design **Matlab** Preliminaries Basic commands 2d Fourier transform: F = fft2(f, P, Q); P, Q is for padding, i.e., place the M by N input **image**/given **image** **in** the frequency domain, and then transform back to the spatial domain. Suppose we are given **image** f, with Fourier transform F We have designed a low-pass filter **in** the frequency domain LPF Then the filtered **image** can/

Gordon Hard work done by : Daphne Gilbert & Susan Lazarus Introduction to **MatLab** **MatLab** is an interactive, matrix-based system for numeric computation and visualisation MATrix LABoratory Used **in** **image** **processing**, **image** synthesis, engineering simulation, etc. References “Mastering **MatLab**” Duane Hanselman, Bruce Littlefield “The **MatLab** Primer” http://www.fi.uib.no/Fysisk/Teori/KURS/WRK/m at/mat.html “The **MatLab** FAQ” http://www.isr.umd.edu/~austin/ence202.d/

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) 09/02/2005 ENEE408G Multimedia Signal **Processing** 21 eVC Example Handheld **Image** Processor ( Demo project 3 ) Pocket Interactive Chords ( Term Project Sp2005 ) Original **ImageRed** Component 09/02/2005 ENEE408G Multimedia Signal **Processing** 22 1.Introduction 2.Pocket PC 3.**Matlab** Review Examples Assignments 09/02/2005 ENEE408G Multimedia Signal **Processing** 23 **Matlab** Review **Matlab** handout **in** the course website Examples: a. Download symphonic.wav from/

To be the basis of a more **in** depth learning of advanced **image** **processing** lab topics Project Structure 12 folders (one for each topic) - contains the lab experiments ‘htm’ folder– contains the lab documentation and theoretical background ‘Data’ folder – contains input **images** and signals ‘utils’ folder – contains common scripts and database files Two main files: AdvancedImageProcessingLab_mb.fig – **Matlab** figure which defines the UI AdvancedImageProcessingLab_mb.m/

**Processing** Toolbox **MATLAB** Compiler **Image** **Processing** Toolbox **Image** Acquisition Toolbox Mapping Toolbox Go Farther with **MATLAB** and Toolboxes 4 **MATLAB** and Scientific Data Scientific data formats HDF5, HDF4, HDF-EOS2 NetCDF (with OPeNDAP!) FITS, CDF, BIL, BIP, BSQ **Image**/); >> H5D.close(dset); >> H5F.close(fileId); 10 Date and Time Arrays datetime for representing a point **in** time duration, calendarDuration for representing elapsed time Same data type for computation and display –Add, subtract, sort/

. Signal & **Image** **Processing** Signal **Processing**- **Image** **Processing** Communications - System Identification - Wavelet Filter Design Control Design Control System - Fuzzy Logic - Robust Control - µ-Analysis and Synthesis - LMI Control Model Predictive Control More than 60 toolboxes! Simulink Simulink - a package for modeling dynamic systems Simulink (cont‘d) Analyzing results: **MATLAB** Workspace The **MATLAB** environment is command oriented Some Useful **MATLAB** commands what List all m-files **in** current directory dir/

3 Introduction Although we discuss other transforms **in** some detail **in** this chapter, we emphasize the Fourier transform because of its wide range of applications **in** **image** **processing** problems. 4 Fourier Transform (1-D) 5 Fourier Transform (2-D) 6 Discrete Fourier Transform **In** the two-variable case the discrete Fourier/ i=N/2+1:N; for j=N/2+1:N G(i-N/2,j-N/2)=F(i,j); end;end **MATLAB** program page 2 from 3. 14 Discrete Fourier Transform % Computing and scaling the logarithmic Fourier spectrum. H=log(1+abs(G)); for/

. What needs to be done to make PDL a worthy competitor to **Matlab** **Matlab** Model analysis Analytical solutions Numerical solutions Simulations Data analysis StatisticsData fitting **Image** **processing** & Signal **processing** Graphics & Visualization What is **Matlab** used for What does **Matlab** make easy? Programming – no need to compile, build. Functions can by typed **in** command line (like perldl) or **in** M-files (like.pl files) Multi-dimensional array manipulation Data display/

increases from top to bottom Coordinate system is rotated **in** respect to ‘standard’ x-y coordinate system 1 2 3 M 123N … … r c **Image** Display Display a 2D matrix as an imageDisplay a 2D matrix as an **image** >>**image**(m) >>imagesc(m) >>imshow(m) imshow is recommended by **MATLAB** for **image** processingimshow is recommended by **MATLAB** for **image** **processing** **Image** has MxN pixels = picture elements = dots on displayImage has/

**Processing** Enhancement based on statistical Properties: Local, Global Histogram Definition h(r k )=n k Where r k is the kth gray level and n k is the number of pixels **in** the **image** having gray level r k Normalized histogram: P(r k )=n k /n Histogram of an **image** represents the relative frequency of occurrence of various gray levels **in** the **image** Histogram Example **MATLAB**/

Income Toolbox **MATLAB** Toolbox - 3 Signal **Processing** Toolbox ( 信號處理工具箱 ) Signal **Processing** Toolbox ( 信號處理工具箱 ) Signal **Processing** Toolbox Signal **Processing** Toolbox **Image** **Processing** Toolbox ( 影像處理工具箱 ) **Image** **Processing** Toolbox ( 影像處理工具箱 ) **Image** **Processing** Toolbox **Image** **Processing** Toolbox Communications/ plot(x,y,color_style_marker), where color_style_marker is a string containing from one to four characters (enclosed **in** single quotation marks) constructed from a color, a line style, and a marker type: Color /

/~cvip/CVIPtools_demos/RESTORATION/alpha.html Trim size = 2, mask size =1 SCCS 47667 Region of Interest **Processing** **Process** **image** only **in** the predefined area. The predefined area is called “Region Of Interest” (ROI). Function is the same as before but applied to only ROI. SCCS 47668 ROI Selection: **MATLAB** Command: roipoly Syntax: roipoly(im); roipoly(im, [x 0 x 1 …x m ], [y 0 y/

as top. map subplot(3,1,2) - locate several plots **in** figure axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) - change axes title(‘figure title’) - add title to figure The **Image** **Processing** Toolbox The **Image** **Processing** Toolbox is a collection of functions that extend the capability of the **MATLAB** ® numeric computing environment. The toolbox supports a wide range of **image** **processing** operations, including: Geometric operations Neighborhood and block operations Linear filtering/

present your project proposal Homework submission Well-formed homepage or Word document Please visit the course homepage for any announcement frequently http://staffweb.ncnu.edu.tw/jcliu/course/dip2006.html **Image** **Processing** Tool: **Matlab** **Matlab**: everything is a matrix A lot of toolbox(build-**in** functions) for use Command-line interpreter C-like grammar Please consider carefully whether you are going to take this class

Provide a unified API that can be implemented **in** multiple ways, –**Matlab***P implementation –Multimatlab –**matlab**-all-the-way-down implementation –unified hybrid implementation (desired) MIT Lincoln Laboratory Slide-11 Parallel **Matlab** Structure of pMatlab Programs pMATLAB_Init; pMATLAB_Finalize; Initialize /Slide-19 Parallel **Matlab** Current MatlabMPI deployment Lincoln Signal **processing** (7.8 on 8 cpus, 9.4 on 8 duals) Lincoln Radar simulation (7.5 on 8 cpus, 11.5 on 8 duals) Lincoln Hyperspectral **Imaging** (~3 on/

to use thread libraries 4 5 Acceleration 1.Translation: - convert **MATLAB** to C 2.Parallelization: –C for multi-core CPU –CUDA/**image** [0.533 s] [0.28 %] crop **image**, display **image** [0.089 s] [0.05 %] SRAD, display **image** [3.224 s] [1.72 %] detect edges, display **image** [0.448 s] [0.24 %] morphological transformation, display **image** [0.275 s] [0.15 %] dilate **image**, display **image**/ are significant (should be eliminated **in** new CPU-GPU architectures) Real-time **processing** feasible **in** near future Ultimately, acceleration of /

was to use the Bas Relief filter for **image** **processing** **in** order to improve the interpretation of radar imagery. The filter, Bas Relief, is named after a sculpture technique **in** which figures or other design elements were just barely more prominent than the overall background. The University of Kansas CReSIS office heavily relies on the use of **MATLAB** along with Photoshop to perform several tasks/

and industry Another language to impress your boss with ! Why not **MATLAB** Has some drawbacks: Slow for some kinds of **processes** Not geared to the web Not designed for large-scale system development **MATLAB** Some facts for a first impression Everything **in** **MATLAB** is a matrix ! **MATLAB** is an interpreted language, no compilation needed (but possible) **MATLAB** does not need any variable declarations, no dimension statements, has/

development and simulations are done **in** **Matlab** –Sensor analysis systems are implemented **in** other languages –Transformation involves years of software development, testing and system integration MatlabMPI allows any **Matlab** program to become a high / Programmed **image** filtering several ways **Matlab** VSIPL VSIPL/OpenMPI VSIPL/MPI PVL MatlabMPI MatlabMPI provides high productivity high performance MIT Lincoln Laboratory Slide-17 MatlabMPI HPEC 2002 Current MatlabMPI deployment Lincoln Signal **processing** (7/

values of pixels themselves are not restricted to be integers **in** **MATLAB**. Data Classes - The frequently used data classes that encountered **in** **image** **processing** are double, uint8 and logical. - Logical arrays are created by using function logical or by using relational operators **Image** Types The toolbox supports four types of **images**: –Intensity **Images** –Binary **Images** –RGB **Images** Intensity **Images** (Grayscale **Images**) An intensity **image** is a data matrix whose values have been scaled/

Vision WS 09/10 References and Further Reading More on morphological operators can be found **in** R.C. Gonzales, R.E. Woods, Digital **Image** **Processing**. Prentice Hall, 2001 Online tutorial and Java demos available on http://homepages.inf./Load a saved workspace keyboard Enter debugging mode (until dbquit ) 72 B. Leibe Perceptual and Sensory Augmented Computing Computer Vision WS 09/10 Morphology **in** **Matlab** N = hist(Y,M) IM2 = imerode(IM,SE); IM2 = imdilate(IM,SE); IM2 = imclose(IM, SE); IM2 = imopen(IM/

Lecture 27: **Image** **Processing** **Images** **in** **MATLAB** An **image** **in** **MATLAB** is treated as a matrix Every pixel is a matrix element All the operators **in** **MATLAB** defined on matrices can be used on **images**: +, -, *, /, ^, sqrt, sin, cos etc **Images** **in** **MATLAB** **MATLAB** can import/export several **image** formats BMP (Microsoft Windows Bitmap) GIF (Graphics Interchange Files) HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) PCX (Paintbrush) PNG (Portable Network Graphics) TIFF (Tagged **Image** File Format) XWD/

tracking of features such as internal layers and the ice bottom. Purpose 5 of XX Use the Bas Relief filter for **image** **processing** **in** order to improve the interpretation of radar imagery. **MATLAB**/Photoshop Interface 6 of XX Photoshop JavaScript interface and the **MATLAB** library interface. Not many people have worked with this yet Very powerful tool Bas Relief 7 of XX Type of edge/

**Matlab** & **Image** **processing** toolbox Heejune Ahn SeoulTech Last updated 2015. Jan. Outline Why **Matlab**? Install **Matlab** Key concepts of **Matlab** Basic commands To be an **Matlab** expert 1.Why **Matlab** TM ? Nice language Quicker to Learn than other languages. Platform-independent De-facto scientific standard Can focus on algorithm not low level details integrated environment (graphics etc) tool boxes Alternatives OpenCV Install **Matlab** Install Run “setup.exe” as usual License/

take place? How must the units be scaled? –How must the data be manipulated? Feb. 8, 2008 UHCO Graduate Course **in** **MATLAB** Defining the Project **Process** Examples Produce a stimulus and/or gather results Compute statistics on subject performance Filter or enhance an **image** Evaluate eye movement signals Evaluate neurophysiology signals Simulate a model Fit data to a model Feb. 8, 2008 UHCO Graduate/

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