# Ppt on ideal gas law examples

##### Ideal Gas Laws Law of Combining Volumes Gay Lussac At a given temperature and pressure the volumes of all gases that react with one another are in the.

. 22.4 L = 1 mole Not At STP Chemical reactions happen in MOLES. If you know how much gas - change it to moles Use the Ideal Gas Law n = PV/RT If you want to find how much gas - use moles to figure out volume V = nRT/P Example #1 HCl(g) can be formed by the following reaction 2NaCl(aq) + H 2 SO 4 (aq/

##### 3.2 – Modeling a gas mole The mole (symbol “mol”) is the amount of substance that contains the same number of particles (atoms/molecules) as 0.012 kg.

] Average kinetic energy of ideal gas Where k B = 1.38  10 -23 J K -1. Application of the "Kinetic Molecular Theory" to the Gas Laws Microscopic justification of the laws Pressure Law (Gay-Lussac’s Law) Effect of a pressure increase at a constant volume Macroscopically: at constant volume the pressure of a gas is proportional to its temperature: PV = NkT → P = (const) T example: a closed jar/

##### X Unit 14 – GAS LAWS. Properties of Gases Gas properties are affected by certain variables. Those variables are: 1. V = volume of the gas (L) 2. T = temperature.

a pressure of 2.4 atm? PV = nRT The Ideal Gas Law  Once you calculate the moles of gas you can convert this to a mass (in grams, kilograms, etc.) using what?  You may also be given the amount of gas in grams and have to convert it to moles in order to plug into the ideal gas law Example #12 What is the volume occupied by 36.0/

##### Chapter 5 The Gas Laws.

3 you can determine the fourth. An Empirical Equation - based on experimental evidence. Ideal Gas Law A hypothetical substance - the ideal gas Think of it as a limit. Gases only approach ideal behavior at low pressure (< 1 atm) and high temperature. Use the laws anyway, unless told to do otherwise. They give good estimates. Examples A 47.3 L container containing 1.62 mol of He is heated/

##### The Gas Laws Describe HOW gases behave.

(L kPa) (K mol) The Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT We now have a new way to count moles of a gas. By measuring T, P, and V. We aren’t restricted to STP. n = PV/RT Nothing is required to change, No 1’s and 2’s Example How many moles of air are there /reactions happen in MOLES. If you know how much gas - change it to moles Use the Ideal Gas Law n = PV/RT If you want to find how much gas - use moles to figure out volume V = nRT/P Use the equation in place of 22.4 L Example HCl(g) can be formed by the following /

##### Combined and ideal gas laws Gases have mass Gases diffuse Gases expand to fill containers Gases exert pressure Gases are compressible Pressure & temperature.

R = 62.4 LmmHg molK If pressure is given in kPa R = 8.314 LkPa molK If pressure is given in atm Ideal Gas Constant Using the Ideal Gas Law What volume does 9.45g of C 2 H 2 occupy at STP? What volume does 9.45g of C 2 H 2 /and argon are placed in a porous container and allowed to escape, which gas will escape faster and how much faster? Grahams Law Example Calc. Rate of effusion of A = = Rate of effusion of B MBMB MBMB MAMA MAMA Grahams Law Example Calc. Rate of effusion of He = = Rate of effusion of Ar/

##### How Do Gases Behave?.

Ideal Gas Law? Combining Boyle’s Law, Charles’ law & Avogadro’s Law we derive the Ideal Gas Law: P V = n R T P = Pressure (atm) V = Volume (L) n = # moles (mol) R = Gas Constant (0.0821 L atm /mol K) T = Temperature (K) Ideal gas law calculations are favored at low pressures and high temperatures Let’ Try It! Example/C and 1 atm) 1 mole of gas occuppies 22.42 L. If not at STP, use the ideal gas law to calculate moles of reactant or volume of product. Examples Consider the following reaction: Suppose you heat/

##### Chapter 5 The Gas Laws.

not depend on the path. Given 3 you can determine the fourth. An Empirical Equation - based on experimental evidence. Ideal Gas Law A hypothetical substance - the ideal gas Think of it as a limit. Gases only approach ideal behavior at low pressure (< 1 atm) and high temperature. Examples A 47.3 L container containing 1.62 mol of He is heated until the pressure reaches 1.85/

##### The Gas Laws Chapter 10.

3 you can determine the fourth. An Empirical Equation - based on experimental evidence. Ideal Gas Law A hypothetical substance - the ideal gas Think of it as a limit. Gases only approach ideal behavior at low pressure (< 1 atm) and high temperature. Use the laws anyway, unless told to do otherwise. They give good estimates. Examples A 47.3 L container containing 1.62 mol of He is heated/

##### Thermodynamics.

the system. In each case, determine the change in internal energy of the system. The First Law of Thermodynamics (b) The First Law of Thermodynamics Example 2 An Ideal Gas The temperature of three moles of a monatomic ideal gas is reduced from 540K to 350K as 5500J of heat flows into the gas. Find (a) the change in internal energy and (b) the work done by the/

##### Thermodynamics AP Physics Chapter 15.

and raises P to 3 atm. 15.2 15.2 Thermodynamic Processes & the First Law Example 4: First law in a Cyclic Process An ideal monatomic gas is confined in a cylinder by a movable piston. The gas starts at A with P = 101.3 kPa, V = .005 m3 and T/Isothermal Expansion (Pave = 172.2 kPa) 15.2 15.2 Thermodynamic Processes & the First Law Example 4: First law in a Cyclic Process An ideal monatomic gas is confined in a cylinder by a movable piston. The gas starts at A with P = 101.3 kPa, V = .005 m3 and T =/

##### Gases Chapter 14.

to Kelvin Tk = Tc+273 Tk = 273 Molar Mass Problem Use density form of ideal gas law M = DRT/P Substitute known values: M = (1.40 g/L)(0.0821 L*atm/mol*K)(273K) 1 atm M = 31.4 g/mol Gas Stoichiometry Chapter 14, Section 4 Gas Stoichiometry – Volume only Example: 2C4H10(g) + 13 O2(g) → 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g) Remember: Avogadro/

##### Chapter 5 Gases.

ml flask. If the sample had a mass of 0.118 g at a pressure of 550.0 Torr, what is the molecular weight of the gas? Plan: Use the Ideal gas law to calculate n, then calculate the molar mass. Solution: 1mm Hg 1 Torr 1.00 atm 760 mm Hg P = 550.0 Torr x / = 0.293 PXe = XXe PTotal = 0.293 (2.00 atm) = 0.586 atm for Xe Relative Humidity Pressure of Water in Air Rel Hum = x 100% Example : the partial pressure of water at 15oC is 6.54 mm Hg, what is the Relative Humidity? Rel Hum =(6.54 mm Hg/ 12.788 mm Hg )x100% =/

##### Chapter 5 Gases A Gas- Uniformly fills any container

1 atm, the volume of the gas is given by ideal gas law, V = nRT / P = (1 mol x 0.08206 L.atm.mol-1.K-1 x 273K) / (1 atm) = 22.42 L  Molar Volume of an ideal gas at STP A Mole of Any Gas Occupies a Volume of Approximately 22.4 L at STP Example: A sample of N2 gas has a volume of 1. 75/

##### Gas Laws.

? V = 1.00 L P = 1.50 atm T = 100 oC convert to K = 373 K n = ? Remember R = 0.0821 The Ideal Gas Law Example #1 How many moles of a gas at 100 oC does it take to fill a 1.00 L flask to a pressure of 1.50 atm? Solve for n: n = PV/RT (1/n = PV/RT (1.50 atm)(1.00 L) (0.0821 atm-L/mol-K)(373K) = 0.0490 mol The Ideal Gas Law Example #2 What is the volume occupied by 9.45g of C2H2 at STP? The Ideal Gas Law Example #2 What is the volume occupied by 9.45g of C2H2 at STP? First change grams to moles: 9.45g x 1 mol/

##### Chapter 11 Gases 2006, Prentice Hall.

that relates the volume of a gas to the temperature, pressure and number of moles. Universal gas constant R = 0.0821 L atm/mol K IDEAL GAS LAW This relationship is called the Ideal Gas Law, and commonly written as: P V = n R T Temp. in K Pressure in atm Number of moles Volume in Liters Example 1: A sample of H2 gas has a volume of 8.56/

##### The Ideal Gas Law Bringing It All Together. Objectives When you complete this presentation, you will be able to state the ideal gas law derive the ideal.

can determine the number of mols, n, of a gas by using pressure, volume, and temperature measurements and the ideal gas law. n = PV/RT The molar mass, M, is the mass, m, divided by the number of mols. M =m/n Putting the two equations together M = m/(PV/RT) = mRT/PV Example 5 – Finding M At 301 K and 0.974 atm, 1/

##### It’s a Gas.

all has to do with the amount of air pressing down on us. Boyle’s Law Boyle’s Law: 18. Variables = ? 19. Constant = ? 20. Formula = ? 21. Examples of system Gas Laws Studies of the behavior of gases played a major role in the development of physical sciences/atm) (L)atm) (kPa) (mm Hg) L) R = (mol) (K) ! Charles Law Boyles Law Combined Gas Law Ideal Gas Law V1 T1 = V2 P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 P1 V1 P2 V2 = T1 T2 Combined Gas Law Ideal Gas Law P V = n RT Used with only ONE SET OF CONDITIONS When to Use PV = nRT /

##### Behavior of Gases Chapter 10 & 12.

Step 4: Convert moles of NH3 to liters of NH3 using the ideal gas law. PV = nRT: (1.02atm) (V) = (0.246mol)(0.0821 L • atm) (304K) mole • K V = 6.02 L of NH3 Example 2: Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas produced at 0 Example 2: Calculate the volume of hydrogen gas produced at 0.0°C and 1.00 atm of pressure by reacting/

##### Department of Physics Shanghai Normal University

Law of Thermodynamics The equation of the state of the Ideal gas Ideal gas: the gas which follows the Boyle’s law, the Gay-Lussac’s law, the charles’ law, and the Aavogadro’s law The equation of the state: the function connecting the macroscopic quantities of the ideal gas in equilibrium state. The Equilibrium State, the Zero Law/ move irregularly thermally. for example: oxygen molecules under the normal temperature and normal pressure. 12-2 The Microscopic Model of Matter, the law of Statistics . . ./

##### Warm-Up What does the motion of gas molecules look like?

conversion factor: 1mol/22.4L or 22.4L/1mol If not at STP, use the ideal gas law to calculate moles or volume of a substance. Can double check using ideal gas law Section 4 Example Quicklime (CaO) is produced by the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. Calculate the volume/ STP conditions & stoichiometry: At STP 1mol = 22.4L 1.52mol x (22.4L/1mol) = 34.1L CO2 Can double check using ideal gas law Gas Density and Molar Mass Recall: D = m/V Let mmolar stand for molar mass mmolar = m/n so n = m/mmolar PV /

##### Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases, Gas Laws, Ideal Gases, Partial Pressures, Graham’s Law of Effusion.

use in calculations, P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2 Example: pressure cooker A Gay-Lussac’s Law Calculation The gas in a used aerosol can is at a pressure of 103 kPa at /Gas Deviation from Ideal Behavior Ideal Gas Law is useful, but all real gases fail to obey it to some degree. At high pressures, real gases do not behave ideally. The deviation from ideal behavior is small at lower pressures (below 10 atm). Deviations from Ideal Gas Law, Cont. As temperature increases, a gas acts more ideally. The deviations from ideal/

##### APPLICATIONS OF THE FIRST LAW

states of an ideal gas that are permitted by the ideal gas law. It is called the thermodynamic surface for that gas. Any changes in the gas’ state variables simply reflects movement on this surface. The following diagram illustrates this surface and on it are examples of isobaric, / Note: QH and QC here are MAGNITUDES of heat, and are therefore always positive. Example: Suppose that the working fluid is an ideal gas. From the first law we have that dU=Q- W. The incremental work done is related to pressure /

##### Properties of Gas and Vapours

where = V/n is the molar volume of the gas Any gas is presented by the above equation is known as an ideal gas or perfect gas 1 mol of ideal gas at 0oC and 1 atm occupies 22.415 L, whether the gas is argon, nitrogen, or any other single species or mixture of gases Example Application of Ideal Gas Law Propane at 120oC and 1 bar absolute passes through a/

##### Chapter 5 Gases.

ml flask. If the sample had a mass of 0.118 g at a pressure of 550.0 Torr, what is the molecular weight of the gas? Plan: Use the Ideal gas law to calculate n, then calculate the molar mass. Solution: 1mm Hg 1 Torr 1.00 atm 760 mm Hg P = 550.0 Torr x x/= 0.293 PXe = XXe PTotal = 0.293 (2.00 atm) = 0.586 atm for Xe Relative Humidity Pressure of Water in Air Rel Hum = x 100% Example : the partial pressure of water at 15oC is 6.54 mm Hg, what is the Relative Humidity? Rel Hum =(6.54 mm Hg/ 12.788 mm Hg )x100% =/

Canadian Edition ©2013 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. Chapter 5 Molar Mass and the Ideal Gas Law Easy to manipulate the ideal gas law to include the molar mass: Chemistry, 2nd Canadian Edition ©2013 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. Chapter 5 Chemistry, 2nd Canadian Edition ©2013 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. Example 2 - 15 Calcium Carbide (CaC2) is a hard, gray-black solid that has a melting/

##### 1 Chapter 12 The Behavior of Gases. 2 Section 12.1 The Properties of Gases u OBJECTIVES: Describe the properties of gas particles.

a new way to count moles (amount of matter), by measuring T, P, and V. We aren’t restricted to STP conditions P x V R x T The Ideal Gas Law n = Examples u How many moles of air are there in a 2.0 L bottle at 19 ºC and 747 mm Hg? u What is the pressure exerted by 1.8/ g of H 2 gas in a 4.3 L balloon at 27 ºC? u Samples 12-5, 12-6 on pages 342 and 343 6. Ideal Gas Law #2 u P x V/

##### The Gaseous Phase The three phases of matter, solids, liquids and gases, have different characteristics. A gas expands to fill any container it occupies.

= P i T i = P f T f P i T f T i = P f P f = 3.6 atm Molar Mass and Gas Density The ideal gas law, P V = n R T can be used to determine the molar mass of gaseous compounds. The number of moles of a compound = mass of/ in the container. Dalton’s law states that the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in the mixture. For example, consider a mixture of two gases A and B in a closed container Assuming that the pressure is low enough, A and B obey the ideal gas equation. The fact that A/

##### The Gas Laws Dr. Molecular Hazlett Mandeville High School.

get the following: P 1 V 1 / n 1 T 1 = P 2 V 2 / n 2 T 2 Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law was first written in 1834 by Emil Clapeyron. To "derive" the Ideal Gas Law, write each of the six gas laws as follows: PV = k 1 V / T = k 2 P / T = k 3 V / n = / found in reference sources – Vary by gas type – For example: Molar Volume Molar volume is the volume occupied by one mole of ideal gas at STP. Its value is 22.414 L/mol for any gas! – 1 mole = 6.022 x 10 23 particles – 1 mole of gas at STP will fit into 11 inch/

##### Chapter 15 Thermodynamics. MFMcGrawChap15d-Thermo-Revised 5/5/102 Chapter 15: Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics Thermodynamic processes Thermodynamic.

are the temperature and pressure at point C? From the graph: P c = 98.0 kPa Using the ideal gas law MFMcGrawChap15d-Thermo-Revised 5/5/1020 Example continued: (b) What is the change in internal energy of the gas as it is taken from point A to B? This is an isochoric process so W = 0 and  U = Q. MFMcGrawChap15d-Thermo-Revised 5/5/

##### ThermodynamicsM. D. Eastin Second Law of Thermodynamics If we need thermodynamic energy to develop thunderstorms, how much “bang for your buck” can we.

changes are a function of the initial and final temperatures ThermodynamicsM. D. Eastin Combining the First and Second Laws Example: Air parcels rising through a cloud Most air parcels moving through the atmosphere experience an increase in entropy due/J/kgK ΔS = 38.3 J/kg K After some simplifications, using ideal gas law, and integrating from p 1 to p 2 ThermodynamicsM. D. Eastin Consequences of the Second Law Entropy and Potential Temperature: Recall the definition of potential temperature: Valid for /

##### The Gas Laws u The gas laws describe HOW gases behave. u They can be predicted by theory. u The amount of change can be calculated with mathematical.

u There are attractive forces; otherwise, there would be no liquids. The Ideal Gas Law u P V = n R T u Pressure times volume equals the number of moles (n) times the ideal gas constant (R) times the temperature in Kelvin. The Ideal Gas Law u R = 0.0821 (L atm)/(mol K) u R =/ 8.314 (L kPa)/(mol K) u R = 62.4 (L mm Hg)/(mol K) u The one you choose depends on the unit for pressure! Example u How/

##### Chapter 9 Gases. Gases and Gas Pressure Gases – constituent atoms and molecules that have little attraction for one another Gases – constituent atoms.

R = 0.082058 K mol L atm The Ideal Gas Law = 22.414 LV = P nRT = What is the volume of 1 mol of gas at STP? (1 atm) (1 mol)0.082058 K mol L atm (273.15 K) Example A helium gas cylinder of the sort used to fill balloons have/Waals equation b a Correction for intermolecular attractions. Correction for molecular volume. examples Assume that you have 0.500 mol of N 2 in a volume of 0.600L at 300K. Calculate the pressure in the atmosphere using both the ideal gas law and the van der Waals equation. For N2, a = 1./

##### Dr. Mihelcic Honors Chemistry Unit 8 – GAS LAWS. Importance of Gases  Airbags fill with N 2 gas in an accident.  Gas is generated by the decomposition.

imploding? IDEAL GAS LAW P = pressure V = volume n = # of moles R = Ideal gas constant T = temperature (in Kelvin) P V = n R T Gas Law Constant (R) R: Universal or ideal gas constant Can be in different units, depending on units used in the equation!  0.082058 L atm/mol K  62.364 L torr/mol K  8.3145 J/mol K Sample Problem Example 5.4 Example 5.4/

##### Chapter 5 The Gas Laws. Pressure  Force per unit area.  Gas molecules fill container.  Molecules move around and hit sides.  Collisions are the force.

moles  At Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP, 0ºC and 1 atm) 1 mole of gas occuppies 22.42 L.  If not at STP, use the ideal gas law to calculate moles of reactant or volume of product. Examples  Mercury can be achieved by the following reaction  What volume of oxygen gas can be produced from 4.10 g of mercury (II) oxide at STP?  At/

##### Chapter 13 States of Matter. Kinetic Theory as Applied to Gases 1.The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with an insignificant.

x 10 3 kPa) (685 L) mol · K (8.31L · kPa) (621K) n = 251 mol He Sample Problem Using Ideal Gas Law A child’s lungs can hold 2.20 L. How many grams of air do her lungs hold at a pressure of 102 kPa and a/ Solvent – the dissolving medium Solute Solute – the dissolved particles Solvents and Solutes Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. They are also stable mixtures. Example: salt (NaCl) does not settle out of the solution when allowed to stand. (provided other conditions, like temperature remain constant) Solute/

##### Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

state to the final state. Entropy of an Ideal Gas  Consider an arbitrary reversible quasi-static process in which a system consisting of an ideal gas adsorbs an amount of heat dQ rev.  According to the first law, dQ rev is related to dE int and/What are possible macrostates and what are their probabilities? What are possible macrostates and what are their probabilities? Entropy, Marble Example, Results The most ordered are the least likely The most ordered are the least likely The most disorder is the most/

##### © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5 Gases. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Gas  Gases are composed of particles that are moving around very fast.

molar mass of an unknown substance is to heat a weighed sample until it becomes a gas; measure the temperature, pressure, and volume; and use the ideal gas law. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mixtures of Gases  Many gas samples are not pure, but are mixtures of gases.  Dry air, for example, is a mixture containing nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, and a few other gases in/

##### Gas Laws Remember that gas has mass Pressure Pressure is the amount of force applied to an area. Atmospheric pressure is the weight of air per unit of.

invent Avogadro’s number! It was named after him 50 years after his death Ideal Gas Law If PV = k AndV = bT AndV = an ThenPV = nT x constant PV = nRT Ideal Gas Law Ideal Gas Law is an Equation of State –Given any three, you can determine the fourth –/= K fp x molality The more you add, the lower it gets. This will only work until you reach saturation. Examples Examples“Salting” roads in winter Making ice cream antifreeze Ionic vs. covalent substances Ionic substances have a greater effect per mole than /

##### © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 10 Gases Dr. Subhash C. Goel South Georgia College Douglas, GA Lecture Presentation.

absolute zero. If you plot volume vs. temperature for any gas at constant pressure, the points will all fall on a straight line. Tro, Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach18 Example 3: A gas has a volume of 2.57 L at 0.00 °C/ P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + … Tro, Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach38 The partial pressure of each gas in a mixture can be calculated using the ideal gas law. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemistry, The Central Science, 12th Edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.;/

##### The GAS LAWS Gases have mass Gases diffuse Gases expand to fill containers Gases exert pressure Gases are compressible Pressure & temperature are dependent.

V = n (T/P) = kn V and n are directly related. twice as many molecules Avogadro’s Law Example : 5.00 L of a gas is known to contain 0.965 mol. If the amount of gas is increased to 1.80 mol, what new volume will result (at an unchanged temperature and pressure)? 5.00 L/ in mmHg R = 62.4 LmmHg molK If pressure is given in kPa R = 8.31 LkPa molK If pressure is given in atm Ideal Gas Constant Using the Ideal Gas Law What volume does 9.45g of C 2 H 2 occupy at STP? What volume does 9.45g of C 2 H 2 occupy at STP/

##### 1 Chapter 5 The Gas Laws. 2 5.1 Pressure n Force per unit area. n Gas molecules fill container. n Molecules move around and hit sides. n Collisions are.

An Empirical Equation - based on experimental evidence. 19 Ideal Gas Law n A hypothetical substance - the ideal gas. n Gases only approach ideal behavior at low pressure (< 1 atm) and high temperature. n Low temperatures and high pressures cause gases to deviate from ideal. n Use the laws anyway, unless told to do otherwise. They give good estimates. 20 Examples n A 47.3 L container containing 1.62/

##### Gases Chapter 12 pp. 470-508. General properties & kinetic theory Gases are made up of particles that have (relatively) large amounts of energy. A gas.

1 If the number of moles of gas are constant in a problem, then we have the combined gas law… P 1 V 1 T 2 = P 2 V 2 T 1 Example #5 1. Assuming that the gas behaves ideally, how many moles of hydrogen gas are in a sample of H 2 /where a corrects for intermolecular forces and b corrects for molecular volume Example #6 You want to store 165g of CO 2 gas in a 12.5L tank at room temperature (25ºC). Calculate the pressure the gas would have using (a) the ideal gas law and (b) the van der Waals equation. (For CO 2/

##### Pressure and Force Pressure (P) is defined as the force per unit area on a surface. Gas pressure is caused by collisions of the gas molecules with each.

Gas Laws The Combined Gas Law, continued Substitute the given values of P 1, T 1, and T 2 into the equation to obtain the final volume, P 2 : Recall that one mole of a substance contains a number of particles equal to Avogadro’s constant (6.022 × 10 23 ). example/ 11 Section 3 Gas Volumes and the Ideal Gas Law The Ideal Gas Law, continued The Ideal Gas Constant, continued Numerical Values of the Gas Constant Section 3 Gas Volumes and the Ideal Gas Law Chapter 11 The Ideal Gas Law, continued Sample Problem/

##### 1 Gases Key Points States or Phases of Matter –Gas Compressible, variable volume and pressure Expands into available space Rapid mixing No collective structure.

piston if V, n, and T are known Temperature of a system if P, V, and n are known Volume of gas if P, n, and T are known –Lots of examples in text and homework –These are linear relationships, no exponents 41 Ideal Gas Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT –Simplifies to Boyle’s Law when n and T are constant PV = nRT = constant “k” –Simplifies to Charles/

##### 2 CHAPTER 12 GASES The Gas Laws u Describe HOW gases behave. u Can be predicted by the theory. u Amount of change can be calculated with mathematical.

4 L = 1 mole u For example How many liters of O 2 at STP are required to produce 20.3 g of H 2 O? Not At STP u Chemical reactions happen in MOLES. u If you know how much gas - change it to moles u Use the Ideal Gas Law n = PV/RT u If you/ want to find how much gas - use moles to figure out volume V = nRT/P Example #1 u HCl(g) can be formed by the following reaction u 2NaCl(aq/

##### GAS LAWS. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT GASES  KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. The volume of gas particles is so small that they do not contribute to the volume in a.

.  You have the same number moles. CONVERTING THE IDEAL GAS LAW  We start with the ideal gas law  PV = nRT  We look at the assumptions of each law to see what must remain constant  If the condition remains constant, we can remove it from the ideal gas law  We set the equation equal to the gas constant (R) to get the other gas lawsEXAMPLES ON THE BOARD STOICHIOMETRY REVISITED  With gases, we sometimes/

##### Unit 14 Gas Laws. Properties of Gases Gas properties can be modeled using math. Model depends on— 1.V = volume of the gas (L) 2.T = temperature (Kelvin,

temperature changes from 20 o C to 15 o C? Examples with Combined Gas Law A certain sample of gas has a volume of 0.452 L measured at 87 o C and 0.620 atm. What is its volume at 1 atm and 0 o C? The Ideal Gas Law P, V, T, and n The Combined Gas Law  Takes into account P, T, and V but not/

##### Chapter 11 Gas Laws. Objectives Describe the properties of gases Describe the Kinetic Molecular Theory, Ideal Gases Explain air pressure and barometers.

58,60,62 Objectives Perform gas stoichiometry calculations Describe volume ratios Relate gas temperature to Kinetic Energy Perform calculations using Grahams Law of Effusion Describe the dependence of gas variables Gas Stoichiometry We can perform stoichiometry with gases Must use the ideal gas law –Use the ideal gas law to find moles –Use at beginning or the end –Perform normal stoichiometry Balanced equation Mole ratios Molar masses Example 4.55 grams of/

##### AP Physics Chapter 10 Temperature. Chapter 10: Temperature 10.1Temperature and Heat 10.2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Scales 10.3Gas Laws and.

1 x 10 -3 m 3. ideal gas constant is also known as the universal gas constant 10.3 Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature Example 10.4: A gas has a volume of 0.20 m 3/Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature Example 10.5: An ideal gas in a container of volume 1000 cm 3 (one liter) at 20.0°C has a pressure of 1.00 x 10 4 N/m 2. Determine the number of gas molecules and the number of moles of gas in the container. 10.3 Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature: Check for Understanding 1. The temperature used in the ideal gas law/