Ppt on human chromosomes

Question of the Day Feb 18 Normal human zygote cells contain

Dolly the Sheep http://faculty.coloradomtn.edu/gcornwall/Starr%20Concepts%20Animations%20and%20videos/chapter8/videos_animations/cloning.html Chapter 14: The Human Genome 14-1 Human Heredity How many chromosomes does an adult human cell contain? Autosomes – any chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes. Sex Chromosomes – X and Y chromosomes that determine sex of individual. Normal Individuals represented as Males  46, XY Females  46, XX 22 pairs of homologous/


Human Genetics Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance.

females, XY in males Each ovum contains an , while a sperm may contain The SRY gene on the Y chromosome codes for the X chromosome has genes for many traits Sex-linked Inheritance A gene located on either sex chromosome is called a In humans, sex-linked usually refers to a gene on the If gene is on Sons will inherit from Females don/


Sex Determination in Humans

.12 (b) Two duct systems (Wolffian and Müllerian) are present in the early embryo. They enter different developmental pathways in the presence and absence of a Y chromosome. Uterus Ovary Chapter 7 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Penis Vagina Stepped Art Testis Fig. 7-12b, p.167 Appearance of structures that will give rise to external/


Ch 11 Complex Patterns of Inheritance

pigment in cooler conditions Affects the cats Phenotype only 19. Twin Studies Focuses on identical twins Identical twins have the same inherited traits. Influenced by environment 11.3 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Main Idea – Chromosomes can be studied using a karyotype. Normal Female Karyotype www. miscarriage. com. au/. /karyotype_normal Normal Female Karyotype www.miscarriage.com.au/.../karyotype_normal.jpg Normal Male Karyotype www. contexo/


Discover Biology FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 13 Chromosomes and Human Genetics © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Anu Singh-Cundy Michael L. Cain.

be affected by how close or far apart they are on the chromosome and whether it is a sex chromosome or an autosome Autosomes Differ from Sex Chromosomes Chromosomes that determine sex are called sex chromosomes; all other chromosomes are called autosomes In humans, males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes Human males have only one copy of each gene that is unique/


CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

to 60 years in the developed world with proper health care. Down syndrome Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans occurring in about 1 per 1000 babies born each year.  It is named afterJohn Langdon Down, the British doctor/ year of life. Trisomy 8 Trisomy 8, also known as Warkany syndrome 2, is a human chromosomal disorder caused by having three copies (trisomy) of chromosome 8. It can appear with or without mosaicism. Characteristics Complete trisomy 8 causes severe effects on/


University of California accessed 07.04.08 Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles.

form bivalents during prophase I of meiosis_ author unknown address unknown accessed unknown B. Homologous Chromosomes 2. Diploid cells (2n) have two sets of homologous chromosomes a. humans body cells (46) b. 23 homologous pairs (numbered 1-23) c. one set/ address unknown accessed unknown author unknown address unknown accessed unknown Click 3. Haploid cells (n) have one set of chromosomes a. human sex cells (23) 4. When two sex cells (gametes) are joined (fertilization) a zygote is formed_ author unknown/


The Nature of Sex Ricki Lewis Klug and Cummings. Platypus Sex Chromosome Platypus - Echidna Platypus - Echidna Earliest type of mammal duck like bill,

factor)testis determining factortestis determining factor TSPY (testis-specific protein) TSPY (testis-specific protein)testis UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome) UTY (ubiquitously transcribed TPR gene on Y chromosome) ZFY (zinc finger protein) ZFY (zinc finger protein) Human Chromosome LaunchPad http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/launchpad/chromY.sht ml http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/launchpad/chromY.sht ml/


Chromosomes and Human Inheritance Chapter 12. Impacts, Issues: Strange Genes, Tortured Minds  Exceptional creativity often accompanies neurobiological.

disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, chronic depression, and bipolar disorder Examples: Lincoln, Woolf, and Picasso 12.1 Human Chromosomes  In humans, two sex chromosomes are the basis of sex – human males have XY sex chromosomes, females have XX  All other human chromosomes are autosomes – chromosomes that are the same in males and females Sex Determination in Humans  Sex of a child is determined by the father Eggs have an X/


Cytogenetics: Karyotypes and Chromosome Aberrations Chapter 6.

Centromere p Stalk Long arm (q) q q 31721 Human Chromosomes  Replicated chromosomes at metaphase consist of sister chromatids joined by a single centromere Types of Chromosomes  Sex chromosomes  In humans, the X and Y chromosomes are involved in sex determination.  These have different sizes and shapes  Autosomes  Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes  In humans, chromosomes 1 to 22 are autosomes  Human chromosomes are analyzed by construction of karyotypes  Karyotype - A complete/


PowerLecture: Chapter 21 Chromosomes and Human Genetics.

articles.  InfoTrac: Geographic Distribution of Disease Mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population Supports Genetic Drift over Selection. Neil Risch et al. American Journal of Human Genetics, April 2003. Section 6 Inheritance of Genes on the X Chromosome  X-linked recessive inheritance. X-linked recessive inheritance is demonstrated by the following: X-linked recessive inheritance is demonstrated by the following: The mutated gene/


Chromosomes and Human Genetics. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance A time to review A gene – a unit of information about a heritable trait – found at.

and many other animals In butterflies, moths, birds, and certain fishes the sex chromosomes are identical in males and not identical in females Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes Human X and Y Chromosomes Y is a lot shorter – almost like it is a remnant of the X/ of SRY triggers the formation of ovaries which make estrogen which governs the development of the female sexual traits The human X chromosome carries 2,062 genes Distribution of body fat and hair Most genes deal with nonsexual traits – which can be /


Chapter 5 Human Chromosomes and Chromosome Behavior.

classified according to the relative position of their centromeres In metacentric it is located in middle of chromosome In submetacentric — closer to one end of chromosome In acrocentric — near one end of chromosome Chromosomes with no centromere, or with two centromeres, are genetically unstable 5 Human Chromosomes Each chromosome in karyotype is divided into two regions (arms) separated by the centromere p = short arm (petit); q = long/


Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and.

-Linked Traits Hemophilia Another recessive sex-linked disorder characterized by delayed clotting of the blood. Very rare in females because she would need to have both X chromosomes with the recessive trait. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Polygenic Traits  Polygenic traits arise from the interaction of multiple pairs of genes. This is really how height, eye color and fingerprints are inherited. 11/


BPS 594 Pharmacogenomics and Molecular Pharmacology Genes and Genetics Debra A. Tonetti, Ph.D. COP 453 Human Molecular Genetics, Strachan.

G-banded prometaphase karyogram (karyotype) of mitotic chromosomes from lymphocytes of a normal female Male Human Chromosomes Imaged by DNA Hybridization During Mitosis Chromosome “Painting” Each chromosome is “painted” a different color by hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes labeled with a fluorescent dye. The display of the 46 chromosomes at mitosis is called the human karyotype The banding patterns of human chromosomes are unique as visualized by Giemsa staining/


Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and.

of inheritance patterns of large families and twins give insight into complex human inheritance. Chromosomes and Human Heredity (Section 11.3) MAIN IDEA: Chromosomes can be studied using karyotypes. Chromosomes and Human Heredity (Section 11.3) Objectives Distinguish normal karyotypes from those with/D. Turner’s syndrome What condition occurs when a person’s cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter 11 11.3 Formative Questions A. 1 and 2 are siblings B. 1 and /


Lecture 2-3 Genetics Dr. Heba Al-Fares 1. Contents of this lecture Chromosome structure Classification of chromosomes Chromosomal aberrations 2.

. For example, humans have 46 total chromosomes. These chromosomes come in two varieties: Sex chromosomes: These chromosomes determine gender. Human cells contain two sex chromosomes. If you’re female, you have two X chromosomes, and if you’re male, you have an X and a Y chromosome. Autosomal chromosomes: Autosomal simply refers to non-sex chromosomes. So, sticking with the human example, humans have 44 autosomal chromosomes. 16 Counting out chromosome numbers In humans, chromosomes come in/


Dog Breeds. Question of the Day Feb 11 Normal human zygote cells contain Normal human zygote cells contain A. 23 chromosomes A. 23 chromosomes B. 44 chromosomes.

. Karyotyping 3. Karyotyping 4. Review and Homework 4. Review and Homework –Complete Lab and Discussion Questions Chapter 14: The Human Genome Genome 14-1: Human Heredity How many chromosomes does an adult human cell contain? Autosomes – any chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes. Sex Chromosomes – X and Y chromosomes that determine sex of individual. Normal Individuals represented as Males  46, XY Females  46, XX Solve a Punnett Square/


Human Genome Chapter 14 Sections 1-3. 14-1 Human Heredity Karyotype – a picture of chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs. Humans have 46 chromosomes:

to flow. –Tissues are damaged and severe weakness. –Linked to malaria in Africa. –Only 1 DNA base is changed in the allele. –Codominant allele. 14-2 Human Chromosomes Chormosomes # 21 and # 22 The smallest chromosomes. The first 2 chromosomes to have their sequence identified. #21 - 32 million DNA base pairs, 225 genes, responsible for ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease). #22 – 43 million DNA base/


Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and.

gets one less. Random which is fertilized.  Down syndrome, also called trisomy 21 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Section 3 Nondisjunction in sex chromosomes –XX =normalXY= normal –X0=TurnersXXY=Klinefelters –XXX=nearly normalXYY=nearly normal OY=fatal before/s syndrome What condition occurs when a person’s cells have an extra copy of chromosome 21? Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized /


Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Section 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 3: Chromosomes and.

of DNA associated with proteins.  Serves a protective function for the structure of the chromosome Chromosomes and Human Heredity Section 3 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Nondisjunction  Cell division during which sister chromatids fail to separate properly  Down syndrome, also called trisomy 21 Chromosomes and Human Heredity Section 3 Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized/


Chapter 14 The Human Genome Biology I. Humans are difficult to study -produce few offspring -mature slowly with long reproductive cycle -controlled breeding.

the photograph and group them together in pairs Biologists then cut out the chromosomes from the photograph and group them together in pairs Karyotype- picture of chromosomes arranged in pairs Karyotype- picture of chromosomes arranged in pairs Human Chromosomes Human body cells have 46 chromosomes Human body cells have 46 chromosomes 2 of the 46 are sex chromosomes which determine an individual’s sex 2 of the 46 are sex/


Ch. 14 The Human Genome. Ch. 14 Outline  14-1: Human Heredity Human Chromosomes Human Traits Human Genes From Gene to Molecule.

Genome Ch. 14 Outline  14-1: Human Heredity Human Chromosomes Human Traits Human Genes From Gene to Molecule Ch. 14 Outline  14-2: Human Chromosomes Human Genes and Chromosomes Sex-linked Genes X-Chromosome Inactivation Chromosomal Disorders  14-3: Human Molecular Genetics Human DNA Analysis The Human Genome Project Gene Therapy Ethical Issues in Human Genetics Human Chromosomes  Karyotypes:  A Picture of chromosomes arranged in rows is a karyotype Human ChromosomesHumans have 23 pairs (46 total/


Human Chromosomes We have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs. 44 of them are called autosomes and are numbered 1 through 22. Chromosome 1 is the longest, 22 is.

Human Chromosomes We have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs. 44 of them are called autosomes and are numbered 1 through 22. Chromosome 1 is the longest, 22 is the shortest. The other 2 chromosomes are the sex chromosomes: the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. Males have and X and a Y; females have 2 X’s: XY vs. XX. Sex Determination The basic rule: if the Y chromosome/being carriers. Fig. 17.14 Diagram of a human X chromosome showing the location of the fragile site responsible for fragile X syndrome Peter/


Genetics and Human Behavior Abu-isliah nabhan Consultant psychiatrist Genetics and Human Behavior Abu-isliah nabhan Consultant psychiatrist.

.000 and 50.000 genes of which over 20.000 have been identified Over 5.000 genetic disorders transmitted through single mutated gene have been characterized Maps of human genomes permitted localization to chromosomal regions of over 400 of disease genes Linkage Analysis or Positional Cloning Mapping genes essentially involves correlating the inheritance the trait with the inheritance of molecular markers scattered/


1 GENES, GENOMES, CHROMOSOMES & PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE Unit 4 – Outcome 1 Chapter 9.

9.1 Diploid number of species. 188: Prokaryotic Chromosomes 189-190: Eukaryotic Structures 6 7 HUMAN CHROMOSOMES the 46 human chromosomes in a human male can be arranged into 23 pairs. These have 22 ‘matched’ pairs (homologous chromosomes) and one (in males) an ‘odd’ pair consisting of an X and Y chromosome (XY). in a human female the odd matched sex chromosomes are those of two X’s (XX). a/


CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Section A: Relating Mendelism to Chromosomes 1.Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior.

aneuploid condition, Down syndrome, is due to three copies of chromosome 21. It affects one in 700 children born in the United States. Although chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome, it severely alters an individual’s phenotype in specific ways. /occurs once in every 5000 births, produces phenotypic, but immature females. Structural alterations of chromosomes can also cause human disorders. Deletions, even in a heterozygous state, cause severe physical and mental problems. One syndrome, cri du/


Chapter 12 Chromosomes & Human Inheritance OCC BIO-114.

appearance and genetic composition different appearance and genetic composition XX= female XX= female XY= male XY= male Humans: Humans: Autosomes = # 1-22 Autosomes = # 1-22 Sex chromosome = #23 Sex chromosome = #23 sex chromosome carried by sperm determines sex of offspring ( X or Y sperm) sex chromosome carried by sperm determines sex of offspring ( X or Y sperm) Sex-Linkage In 1910, Thomas Hunt Morgan - Studied inheritance/


End Show Slide 1 of 25 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 14–2 Human Chromosomes 14-2 Human Chromosomes.

Hall 14–2 Human Chromosomes 14-2 Human Chromosomes End Show 14–2 Human Chromosomes Slide 2 of 25 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Human Genes and Chromosomes Only about 2% of the DNA in your chromosomes function as genes! The average human gene is made / higher frequency of some birth defects Down Syndrome Karyotype End Show 14–2 Human Chromosomes Slide 14 of 25 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chromosomal Disorders Sex Chromosome Disorders In females, nondisjunction can lead to Turner’s syndrome. A female /


The nucleosome: the fundamental unit of chromosomal packaging of DNA with histones DNA does not coil smoothly DNA does not coil smoothly Base sequences.

– highly deleterious Trisomies – highly deleterious Trisomy 18 – Edwards syndrome Trisomy 18 – Edwards syndrome Trisomy 13 – Patau syndrome Trisomy 13 – Patau syndrome Trisomy 21 – Down syndrome Trisomy 21 – Down syndrome Humans tolerate X chromosome aneuploidy because X inactivation compensates for dosage Fig. 13.27 Meiotic nondisjunction Meiotic nondisjunction Failure of two sister chromatids to separate during meiotic anaphase Failure of two sister chromatids/


PowerLecture: Chapter 21 Chromosomes and Human Genetics.

articles.  InfoTrac: Geographic Distribution of Disease Mutations in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population Supports Genetic Drift over Selection. Neil Risch et al. American Journal of Human Genetics, April 2003. Section 6 Inheritance of Genes on the X Chromosome  X-linked recessive inheritance. X-linked recessive inheritance is demonstrated by the following: X-linked recessive inheritance is demonstrated by the following: The mutated gene/


Chromosomal Inheritance Chapter 12. 2 Drosophila Chromosomes.

Chapter 12 2 Drosophila Chromosomes Chromosomal Inheritance 3Outline X-Linked Alleles  Human X-Linked Disorders Gene Linkage  Crossing-Over  Chromosome Map Changes in Chromosome Number Changes in Chromosome Structure  Human Syndromes Chromosomal Inheritance 4 Humans are diploid (2 chromosomes of each type)  Humans have 23 different kinds of chromosomes  Arranged in 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes  Total of 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) per cell One of the chromosome pairs determines the sex/


Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 12 Inheritance Patterns & Human Genetics Developed By: R.

and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 12 Chromosomes Genes reside on chromosomes. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance How many chromosomes does a human cell have? 23 pairs or 46 How many chromosomes does a sex cell have? 23 What are genes?/ Sex Linked Traits; con’t Examples: –Eye color in fruit flies –Hemophilia in humans - Unable to clot blood (recessive trait on the X chromosome) –Color Blindness in humans - Unable to see red and green –PROBLEM: If a man with hemophilia married/


CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section A: Relating Mendelism.

of aneuploidy. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings One aneuploid condition, Down syndrome, is due to three copies of chromosome 21. It affects one in 700 children born in the United States. Although chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome, it severely alters an individual’s phenotype in specific ways. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 15/


The Human Genome and Human Evolution Y Chromosome Dr Derakhshandeh, PhD.

are no longer present cannot be copied substances may be present: –inhibit both purification and amplification 25 The first two human Y chromosome marker studies appeared in 1985 (Casanova et al. 1985; Lucotte and Ngo 1985)Casanova et al. 1985Lucotte and Ngo 1985/) Nature Genet. 35, 247-251 86 1.6-Mb deletion (1) Polymorphism for a 1.6-Mb deletion of the human Y chromosome persists through balance between: – recurrent mutation –and haploid selection Repping et al. (2003) Nature Genet. 35, 247-251 87 AZF /


Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Human Chromosomes Objectives 14.1 Human Chromosomes - -Identify the types of human chromosomes in a karotype. -Describe.

(or gender). Females have two copies of the X chromosome. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Human Chromosomes Autosomal Chromosomes The remaining 44 human chromosomes are known as autosomal chromosomes, or autosomes. The complete human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, including 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Human Chromosomes Dominant vs Recessive Alleles Many human traits follow a pattern of simple dominance. A trait/


CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section A: Relating Mendelism.

of aneuploidy. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings One aneuploid condition, Down syndrome, is due to three copies of chromosome 21. It affects one in 700 children born in the United States. Although chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome, it severely alters an individual’s phenotype in specific ways. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 15/


Chromosomal Inheritance 1 Ch. 12 Outline – Chromosomal Inheritance X-Linked Alleles  Human X-Linked Disorders Gene Linkage  Crossing-Over  Chromosome.

Linkage  Crossing-Over  Chromosome Map Changes in Chromosome Number Changes in Chromosome Structure  Human Syndromes Chromosomal Inheritance 2 Humans are diploid (2 chromosomes of each type)  Humans have 23 different kinds of chromosomes  Arranged in 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes  Total of 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) per cell One of the chromosome pairs determines the sex of an individual (The sex chromosomes) The other 22 pairs of chromosomes are autosomes Autosomal chromosomes are numbered from/


Human Heredity Chapter 14-1, 14-2, 14-3. Human Chromosomes Humans have 46 Chromosomes- 23 pairs Karyotype – a picture of arranged chromosomes. The picture.

human chromosomes are known as sex chromosomes, because they determine an individuals sex. Females have two copies of an X chromosome (XX). Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome(XY). The remaining 44 chromosomes are known as autosomal chromosomes, or autosomes. Human Chromosomes Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Human Chromosomes All human egg cells carry a single X chromosome/ does not express the trait. End Show 14–2 Human Chromosomes Slide 14 of 25 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Recessive Allele/


Chapter 14 Human Heredity. 14.1 Human Chromosomes.

all sperm cells carry an X chromosome and half carry a Y chromosome. Male determines sex Human X chromosome = more than 1200 genes Human Y chromosome = much smaller, contains only about 140 genes Karyotypes Karyotype Autosomal Chromosomes – the remaining 44 human chromosomes are autosomes. Complete human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, including 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes. Transmission of Human Traits Dominant and Recessive Alleles – many human traits follow a pattern of simple/


Chapter Intro-page 308 What You’ll Learn You will compare the inheritance of recessive and dominant traits in humans. You will analyze the inheritance.

’s age can also affect gene function. 12.3 Section Objectives – page 323 Section Objectives: Identify codominance, multiple allelic, sex-linked and polygenic patterns of inheritance in humans. Distinguish among conditions that result from extra autosomal or sex chromosomes. Section 12.3 Summary – pages 323 - 329 Remember that in codominance, the phenotypes of both homozygotes are produced in the heterozygote. Codominance in/


Chromosomal Inheritance Chapter 12. Drosophila Chromosomes.

Chapter 12 Drosophila Chromosomes Chromosomal Inheritance  Humans are diploid (2 chromosomes of each type)  Humans have 23 different kinds of chromosomes  Arranged in 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes  Total of 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) per cell  One of the chromosome pairs determines the sex of an individual (the sex chromosomes)  The other 22 pairs of chromosomes are autosomes.  Autosomal chromosomes are numbered from smallest (#1) to largest (#22)  The sex chromosomes are numbered/


Chapter 12 Objectives Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain the role of sex chromosomes in sex determination. Describe how an X- or.

or more of the nucleotides in a gene. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Chapter 12 Gene Mutations Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Homework Section 12.1Review Pg 240 #1-9 Section 2 Human Genetics Chapter 12 Objectives Analyze pedigrees to determine how genetic traits/ X-Linked Traits –The gene for colorblindness, an X-linked recessive gene, is found on the X chromosome. Section 2 Human Genetics Chapter 12 Genetic Traits and Disorders, continued Sex-influenced Trait –A sex-influenced trait, such as /


Click on a lesson name to select. Section 7.1: Chromosomes and Phenotipe Section7. 2: Complex Patterns of Inheritance Section 7.3: Chromosomes and Human.

influenced by environment. Complex Patterns of Inheritance  Karyotype—micrograph in which the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size. Chromosomes and Human Heredity Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Karyotype Studies  Images of chromosomes stained during metaphase  Chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph. Complex Inheritance and Human Heredity Telomeres  Telomere caps consist of DNA associated with proteins.  Serves a protective function for/


3.2 Chromosomes Essential idea: Chromosomes carry genes in a linear sequence that is shared by members of a species. The asian rice (Oryza sativa) genome.

of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Oryza sativa, Parascaris equorum. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Usain_Bolt_100_m_Daegu_2011.jpg Humans (Homo sapiens) 46 46 is the number of diploid chromosomes in each human cell. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hinohikari.jpg http://pic20.picturetrail.com/VOL176/4853602/20795519/357799225.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dog_%28Canis_lupus_fa miliaris%29_/


Chapter 3 covered normal cell division and chromosomal segregation Things don’t always go smoothly Nondisjunction is the process of failed chromosome and.

2n=8F,9M Muntiacus reevesi 2n=46 ~4.5 my A Robertsonian translocation in the human lineage – African apes – n=24 – Humans – n=23 – Where did the extra chromosome go? Chromosome Aberrations A Robertsonian translocation in the human lineage –Human chromosome 2 = ancestral ape chromosomes 12+13 –Predictions, if this is true, then… Chromosome Aberrations –Predictions, if this is true, then… –Telomeric DNA? Ijdo JW, Baldini A, Ward DC/


GENETICS & EVOLUTION: CHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE & MUTATION Chapter 2.2.

N O C D E F G H M N O P Q RA B P Q R Human Disorders Due to Chromosomal Alterations  Alterations of chromosome number and structure are associated with some serious disorders  Some types of aneuploidy appear to upset the /  Monosomy X, called Turner syndrome, produces X0 females, who are sterile; it is the only known viable monosomy in humans Changes in Sex Chromosome a. Turner syndromeb. Klinefelter syndrome Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a: /


Chromosomes. What Exactly is a chromosome? Chromosomes are the rod-shaped, filamentous bodies present in the nucleus, which become visible during.

include both metacentric and acrocentric, but no telocentric. All house mouse chromosomes are telocentric, while human chromosomes include both metacentric and acrocentric, but no telocentric. But what happens when things don’t go as planned…. Chromosomal abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities Either the : Either the : Incorrect number of chromosomes Called : NONDISJUNCTION chromosomes Called : NONDISJUNCTION (chromosomes don’t separate properly during meiosis) meiosis) OR STRUCTURALLY Problems with/


HEREDITY §Introduction §Genes §Proteins §Chromosomes §Too Many Chromosomes §Fertilization §Mitosis §Meiosis §Chromosomes in Pairs §Random Assortment.

carry only one of each pair, and therefore half the number of chromosomes of somatic cells. PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES (HOMOLOGUES) §This picture shows 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes. Since this is the karyotype of a human male, the last two chromosomes are NOT homologous; they are the sex chromosomes X and Y. A diagram of human chromosome 21. Both homologues are shown. The one from the mother is/


CHAPTER 15 CHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE. CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Section A: Relating Mendelism to Chromosomes 1.Mendelian inheritance.

aneuploid condition, Down syndrome, is due to three copies of chromosome 21. –It affects one in 700 children born in the United States. Although chromosome 21 is the smallest human chromosome, it severely alters an individual’s phenotype in specific ways./occurs once in every 5000 births, produces phenotypic, but immature females. Structural alterations of chromosomes can also cause human disorders. Deletions, even in a heterozygous state, cause severe physical and mental problems. One syndrome, cri du/


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