Ppt on hard gelatin capsule processing

DISOVER THE SCIENCE OF : ~MICRO ENCAPSULATION~ GROUP- 9 ( BITO )

high viscosity, economical Generally hydrophilic / hydrophobic polymers /a combination of both are used for microencapsulation process. Gelatin polyvinyl alcohol ethyl cellulose cellulose acetate phthalate etc are used. The film thickness can be varied considerably/ appears as a free flowing powder. The powder is suitable for formulation as: compressed tablets hard gelatin capsules suspensions and other dosage forms. Release Mechanisms Mechanisms of drug release from microspheres are Degradation controlled/


SEMINAR ON PLASTICIZERS BY NAGARAJU.J M.PHARM 1 ST SEMESTER, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES WARANGAL.

may be internally plasticized by chemically modifying the polymer or monomer so that flexibility polymer is increased. The process by which Tg of rigid polyvinylchloride is lowered through copolymerization, is called internal plasticization. EXTERNAL PLASTICIZERS : /USED IN CAPSULE MANUFACTURE  The most common plasticizers used in manufacturing of hard and soft gelatin capsules polyvinyl alcohols, sorbital and propylene glycols.  The amount and choice of the plasticizer help to detemine the hardness of /


AFAMS Interpret a Prescription Order (Dari) EO 003.03.

(Dari) EO 003.03 AFAMS Purpose of Lesson (Dari) AFAMS Proper interpretation and processing of prescription is important in pharmacy practice. It requires skills and knowledge in order to/contents. The two main types of capsules are: hard-shelled capsules, which are normally used for dry, powdered ingredients, soft-shelled capsules, primarily used for oils and for active ingredients that are dissolved or suspended in oil. Soft gelatin capsule (Insert Dari) Hard gelatin capsule (Insert Dari) AFAMS Oral Dosage /


Encapsulation https://store.theartofservice.com/the-encapsulation-toolkit.html.

store.theartofservice.com/the-encapsulation-toolkit.html Cell encapsulation - Gelatin 1 environments, and easy processability make this polymer a good choice for tissue engineering / and demonstrated subsequent release of the therapeutic antibody from the capsules. The capsules containing the hybridoma cells were used in pre-clinical studies /toolkit.html ATA over Ethernet - ATA encapsulation 1 SATA (and older PATA) hard drives use the Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) protocol to issue commands, such /


Reference documentation. Industrial drugs technology according GMP. Lecture 1.

given rules guarantee quality of released production, rational carrying out of technical processes, preservation of the equipment, exception of an opportunity of occurrence of /capsules production: 1. Preparing of gelatin solutions. 2. Preparing of gelatin shells. 3. Hard-gelatin capsule filling. 4. Packing and labeling. 1. Preparing of gelatin solutions. 2. Preparing and filling of soft-gelatin capsules. 3. Packing and labeling. Obtaining of gelatin solutions with stage of swelling 1. Swelling of gelatin/


MODULE 5 Pharmaceutics.

for: Limulus Antibiotic Lysate Lyophilized Antibiotic Lysate Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Lyophilized Amoebocyte Lysate 27. The normal moisture content of hard gelatine capsules: 2 -5% 20 – 24% 12 – 16% 25 – 30% Violative prescription Impossible prescription Erroneous prescription /waxed paper , which is waterproof. Spheronization Moist heating Slugging Dry heating Spray chilling 51. This process is a form of pelletization, which refers to the formation of spherical particles from wet granulation Spheronization/


COMPOUNDING CHAPTER 8. CHAPTER OUTLINE Compounding Regulations Stability & Beyond-Use Dates Compounding considerations Equipment Using a Balance Volumetric.

MIXING SOLIDS AND SEMISOLIDS Mortar and Pestle  Glass – mixing liquids and semisolids  Wedgwood  Porcelain Trituration  The process of grinding powders to reduce the particle size. for triturating crystals and large particles Image copyright Perspective Press and Morton Publishing/ re-transmitted without express written permission from the publisher. CAPULES Hard gelatin capsules consist of a body and a cap which fits firmly over the body of the capsule. 8 sizes available for human use Sizes Volume (ml) /


Compounding Chapter 9. Compounding Extemporaneous Compounding is the on-demand preparation of a drug product according to a physician’s prescription,

of the other. That mixture is then mixed with an equal amount of the larger amount powder. This process is repeated until the mixture is completed TECHNIQUE FOR WEIGHING PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS Weighing of the product is one of the most essential parts / soluble bases. Mold Suppository box Capsules Sizes Volume ml 0001.37 000.95 00.68 10.50 20.37 30.30 40.20 50.13 Hard gelatin capsules consist of a body and a cap which fits firmly over the body of the capsule. Hard gelatin capsules consist of a body and a/


Polymorphs, Solvates and Phase Relationships: Some Perspectives Joel Bernstein Ben-Gurion University of the Negev DIVERSITY AMIDST SIMILARITY: A Multidisciplinary.

of disappearing or elusive polymorphs is the apparent loss of control over the process: we did the experiment last week and got the result, and now / “This is why all of us at Abbott have been working extremely hard throughout the summer, often around the clock, and sometimes never going home/solution approved Abbott Laboratories Receives U.S. FDA Approval for Reformulated Norvir (ritonavir) Capsule New Soft-Gelatin Capsules Offer Non-Refrigerated, Twice-Daily Treatment Option ABBOTT PARK, Ill., June 30,/


Polymer Gel Actuators: Fundamentals 1

of reinforcing carbon black particles or through the hard regions of two-phase polyurethane elastomers. It may be possible to build similar energy-absorbing mechanisms into gels. Theoretical discussion of gel fracture has focused on gelatin gels, which are important in food. / of cationic polymer into a solution of anionic polymer or by dripping alginate into calcium . This process results in a thick-walled capsule with a nonuniform structure. There is no way of simply mixing the two components so that a/


Incompatibility Nahla S Barakat, PhD Professor of Pharmaceutics

camphor, menthol and thymol are mixed together, a liquid mixture i.e. eutectic mixture is formed and this process is known as liquefaction. 2. Exit of crystalline water: By mixing hydrated crystals and dry crystals, crystalline /capsules. Supply 10 capsules. Rx Chloral hydrate 250 mg Prepare capsules. Supply 10 capsules. Label: Take the capsules at night time. Comment: Chloral hydrate is hygroscopic in nature. It will absorb moisture and soften the hard gelatin capsule shells and the shape of the capsule/


PHARMACEUTICS- IV (PHT 414 ) Dr. Shahid Jamil SALMAN BIN ABDUL AZIZ UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACY L9-10110/9/2015 Factors Affecting Drug Absorption (Dosage.

Formulation tested are un coated tab, plain coated, enteric coated, buccal, sub lingual, hard gelatin capsule un coated tab, plain coated, enteric coated, buccal, sub lingual, hard gelatin capsule For un coated tab and capsules the time is 30 mins. where as for coated tab it is 2 hrs. /given solvent i.e. … mass transfer from the solid surface to the liquid phase. Dissolution time: Dissolution is a process in which a solid substance solubilise in a given solvent i.e. … mass transfer from the solid surface to /


Pharmacokinetics I Drug administration and absorption Prof. Hanan Hagar Pharmacology Department.

only in intestine CapsulesHard gelatin capsules: (contain powder)  Soft gelatin capsules: (contain liquid) Syrup (e.g. Cough syrups) Suspension (mixture of solid in liquids e.g. antibiotics). Tablets Hard- gelatin capsule Spansule Soft- gelatin capsule DisadvantagesAdvantages not suitable /& distributionElimination The transport of drugs across membranes occurs through one or more of the following processes: 1. Simple diffusion = passive diffusion. 2. Active transport. 3. Facilitated diffusion. 4/


Pharmacokinetics I Drug administration and absorption Prof. Hanan Hagar Pharmacology Department.

only in intestine CapsulesHard gelatin capsules: (contain powder)  Soft gelatin capsules: (contain liquid) Syrup (e.g. Cough syrups) Suspension (mixture of solid in liquids e.g. antibiotics). Tablets Hard- gelatin capsule Spansule Soft- gelatin capsule DisadvantagesAdvantages not suitable /distributionElimination The transport of drugs across cell membrane occurs through one or more of the following processes: 1. Simple diffusion = passive diffusion. 2. Active transport. 3. Facilitated diffusion. /


DRUG – FOOD - HERB INTERACTIONS Department of Pharmacy, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Wilkinson Oloyede Thomas, PhD,RPh.

the risk of lithium toxicity; excessive salt reduces the drugs efficacy MAO InhibitorsFoods high in tyramine (aged cheeses, processed meats, legumes, wine, beer, among others) can bring on a hypertensive crisis. TricyclicsMany foods, especially legumes/ before administering. n Immediate Release tablets and Hard Gelatin Capsules: Crush immediate release tablets into a fine powder with a crushing device. For an immediate- release hard gelatin capsule, open the capsule and crush the contents into a fine powder/


DEPT OF PHARMACEUTICS16/13/2016. 2 CONTENTS  Definition  Significance  General Considerations  GMP Considerations  Product Considerations  Advantages.

distribution are flow ability, compressibility, uniformity of tablet weight, content uniformity, tablet hardness, tablet color uniformity.  Equipments :- * oscillating granulator a mechanical sieving device /gelatin capsules  Empty gelatin capsules have a recommended storage condition of 15-25 ºC temperature & humidity 35-65 % RH.  At high humidity – capsule swells make separation of the capsule parts difficult to interfere with the transport of the capsule through the process.  At low humidity – capsule/


15-1 CHAPTER 15 Gnathiferans and Smaller Lophotrochozoans.

to mouth Pair of protonephridia embedded in gelatinous parenchyma Pair of protonephridia embedded in gelatinous parenchyma Well-developed nerve ganglion on /initial embryo in a process called polyembryony Sometimes embryos proliferate asexually from the initial embryo in a process called polyembryony Cleavage / Freshwater ectoprocts undergo budding that produces statoblasts Hard, resistant capsules containing a mass of germinative cells Hard, resistant capsules containing a mass of germinative cells Phylum /


SALMAN BIN ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHARMACY Dr. Mohammad Khalid Anwer -

between mold temperature and mass temperature for trouble-free molding. Suppository hardness can be determined by the solids content at room temperature. Since/ heating The degree of heating The cooling process The cooling process The conditions during this process. The conditions during this process.  At temperatures below 36°C, negligible/, or as a spermatocide. Soft gelatin capsules filled with liquid or solid drugs used for vaginal use. Soft gelatin capsules filled with liquid or solid drugs used/


7. Tablets. Contents 1.Types of tablets 2.Compressed tablets 3.Chewable tablets 4.Molded tablets 5.Tablet coating 6.Impact of manufacturing changes on.

5) Gelatin-coated tablets A recent innovation is the gelatin- coated tablet. The innovator product, the gelcap, is a capsule-shaped compressed tablet that allows the coated product to be about one-third smaller than a capsule filled with/ include criteria for tablet weight, weight variation content uniformity, thickness tablet hardness tablet disintegration drug dissolution These factors must be controlled during production (in-process controls) and verified after the production of each batch to assure that/


1. 2 WHAT IS BIOPHARMACEUTICS? Biopharmaceutics can be defined as the study of how the physicochemical properties of drugs, dosage forms and routes of.

may increase the bioavailability of drugs that are susceptible to presystemic intestinal metabolism by interacting with the metabolic process. e.g. Grapefruit juice is capable of inhibiting the intestinal cytochrome P450 and thus, taken with drugs/dissolution than if the drug had been administered in other types of oral dosage forms, such as aqueous suspension, hard gelatin capsule or tablet. 114  A well formulated suspension is second to a solution (nonprecipitating) in terms of superior bioavailability/


PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Betsy C. Brantley Valencia College C H A P T E R © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. The Skeletal System 5.

-thirds of weight of bone Found in crystals Hard, inflexible, brittle Combination of collagen and calcified/ Maxilla Alveolar processes Mental protuberance Zygomatic arch Coronoid process Styloid process Condylar process Mastoid process Lambdoid suture /; matrix has more water than other cartilages Joint capsule or articular capsule – dense and fibrous; may be reinforced with / separating adjacent vertebrae Composed of fibrous pad with gelatinous core Bulging disc Stresses distort intervertebral disc and force/


Contents General principles of drug absorption

pharmaceutical adjuncts as fillers are enclosed in either a hard or a soft “shell”, generally composed of a form of gelatin. Drug material are released from capsules faster than from tablets. Suspensions are preparations of finely/There are four principal chemical reactions involved in the metabolism of drugs: oxidation reduction hydrolysis conjugation Other metabolic processes, including methylation, and acylation conjugation reactions, occur with certain drugs to foster elimination. Several examples of /


Basic information on pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems Martin Sterba, PharmD., PhD. Associate Professor Department of Pharmacology.

the physical form of the final pharmaceutical preparation –is a drug delivery system which is formed by technological processing (syn. drug formulation) –must reflect therapeutic intentions, route of administrations, dosing… Pharmaceutical preparation (PP) /Dosage forms for systemic administration – ORAL (p.o.) solid dosage forms 2. Capsules –API + excipients - enclosed in the hard/soft water soluble container made of gelatine. –Cannot be be divided –Can be compounded individually –Consist of cap and /


The Design of Dosage Form Drugs are administered as a mixture of active ingredient & Excipients. Excipients provide specialized pharmaceutical functions:

Capsules, Powder & Granules, Suspensions, Emulsions, Solutions. Tablets Sublingual, Lozenges, Chewable, Effervescent, Fast release, Sustained release, Enteric coated, Multilayer Tablet. Capsules Hard Gelatin Capsules Soft Elastic Gelatin Capsules Advantages of Suspensions & Emulsion in Comparison with Tablets & Capsules/of additives may decrease rate of drug dissolution: 1.……………..; 2.……………..; 3.……………..agents. Manufacturing process can affect: 1.Air ……………..on µized powder; 2.Static charge ……………..; 3.……………..& /


Dissolution Data in New and Generic Drug Regulatory Submissions: US FDA Perspective Vinod P. Shah, Ph. D. Pharmaceutical Consultant (Formerly with US FDA)

Specifications – 3 or more time points – Dissolution studies in alcohol Dissolution of Capsules Soft Gelatin and Hard Gelatin Capsules Dissolution – Gelatin Capsules Capsules – Pellicle formation due to cross linking Use and selection of enzyme (2/ Changes Stability – Slow down, – Increase in variability Quality problem – Chemical degradation, – Formulation change, – Manufacturing process, Ge latin cross linking – Nature of the drug, – Excipients (corn starch contains stabilizer), Storage conditions – Heat/


HUMAN BIOLOGY WHY? To learn about ourselves, our culture To learn the relationship between form & function Study the parts to understand the whole body.

) 1 Detect information about the environment 2 Process this information 3 Respond appropriately GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT/ membrane = Skin Cell wall = Suit of Armor Capsule = Velcro Suit Nucleus = “Brain” Flagella = /Supporting CT (cartilage/bone) TISSUE SUMMARY 3 CARTILAGE- Char: gelatinous, rigid matrix; has chondroblasts,chondrocytes…No blood vessels Types: / (collagen matrix) between vertebrae TISSUE SUMMARY 4 BONE- Char: hard, has blood vessels/nerves, osteoblasts,osteocytes Func: support, protection,/


PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS

.g.,Nu-Tab) Ethylcellulose Gelatin Liquid glucose Methylcellulose Povidone Pregelatinized starch Tablet and capsule diluent Definition:Inert filler to create desired bulk, flow properties, and compression characteristics of tablets and capsules Examples: Dibasic calcium phosphate/制软材 press 1%Magnesium stearate prilling 、 processing granule mix powder of sophora AIopecuroides L. Seed mix 制软材 press 1%Magnesium stearate table 1 the influence of different adhesives on tablet hardness formula 1 2 3 4 adhesive 10%/


Preparation in Pharmacy of Hospital Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics Faculty of Pharmacy Omer Al-Mukhtar University.

compounding area: Many pharmacies actively involved in compounding have dedicated a separate area in the pharmacy to this process. The ideal location is away from heavy foot traffic and is near a sink where there is enough/, Libya. Capsules Definition: Capsules are solid dosage forms in which the drugs is enclosed within a hard or soft soluble container or shell made form suitable gelatin. Hard gelatin capsules may be manually filled for extemporaneous compounding. Preparation of hard and soft capsules 1.As /


General pharmacology ( Pharmacokinetics; drug administration and absorption) Prof. Hanan Hagar Dr.Ishfaq Bukhari Pharmacology Department.

longer. Oral Dosage Forms (oral formulations) Tablets (enteric coated tablets) Capsules (hard and soft gelatin capsules) Syrup Suspension Emulsion Tablets Hard- gelatin capsule Spansule Soft- gelatin capsule DisadvantagesAdvantages Not for - irritant drugs - Frequent use  Rapid effect (/Absorption & distributionElimination The transport of drugs across membranes occurs through one or more of the following processes: 1. Simple diffusion = passive diffusion. 2. Active transport. 3. Facilitated diffusion. 4. /


Dosage Form Design: Pharmaceutical and Formulation Considerations Asso. Prof. Ma. Cristina C. Doria Faculty of Pharmacy.

into hard gelatin capsules to harden & capsules sealed Preformulation Studies 1. Physical Description - physical description particle size crystalline structure melting point solubility. Chemical properties: structure form reactivity - purity of the chemical substance for: identification and for evaluation of its chemical, physical, and biologic properties indication of: particle size and size range of the raw material along with the crystal structure. information in formulation processing attributable/


Course Code : PHR 212 Course Title : Pharmaceutical Technology I Course Teacher: Najneen Ahmed.1.

used in emulsions, topicals (creams and ointments), intramuscular injections and liquid-fill oral preparations (soft and hard gelatin capsules) when aqueous pH and solvent solubility and stability are unattainable. Aqueous methanol is widely used in /. in addition to melting point determination they can be used for quantification of various physical/chemical changes & transition processes e.g. crystallization, evaporation, sublimation etc.  An additional advantage is that the sample size required is only/


OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

DEVICES FOR USE IN ORAL CAVITY OSMOTIC DEVICE THAT DELIVER DRUG BELOW SATURATION MISCELLANEOUS DEVICES SPECIALIZED COATINGS PROCESSING AND PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN VITRO EVALUATION MARKET PRODUCTS REFERENCES INTRODUCTION Osmotic drug delivery uses the osmotic pressure /of liquid drug formulation and improve bioavailability of drugs. Another type of L-OROS system consists of a hard gelatin capsule containing a liquid drug layer, a barrier layer and a push layer surrounded by a semipermeable membrane./


الإسم : فهد جلعود سيف القحطاني رقم المنسوب : 4350182 التخصص : معيد بكلية الصيدلة – قسم الصيدلانيات استخدام الحاسب لتقديم و شرح محاضرة عن طريق برنامج.

drying Dry granulation / milling Direct compression Solid dosage processing Dosage forms – Quality factors Excipients Particle properties Processing routes Unit operations – Size reduction (milling) – Blending – Dry granulation (roll compaction) – Wet granulation – Drying – Tablet compaction – Coating Solid dosage forms Oral – Tablets Lozenges Chewable tablets Effervescent tablets Multi-layer tablets Modified release – Capsules Hard gelatin Soft gelatin – Powders Inhaled – Aerosol Metered dose inhalers Dry/


1. Classification of liquids:- LIQUIDS MONOPHASICBIPHASIC ORAL USE EXTERNAL USE PARENTERALSPECIAL USE Used in Oral cavity Used in other than oral cavity.

Nanopure) D)Combined Precipitation And Homogenization (Nanoedege) E)Emulsification-solvent evaporation technique 6 Precipitation technique The NANOEDGE process (is a registered trademark of Baxter International Inc. and its subsidiaries) relies on the precipitation of friable/ The bioavailability of the drug is therefore improved. SMEDDS offer numerous delivery options like filled hard gelatin capsules or soft gelatin capsules or can be formulated in to tablets whereas emulsions can only be given as an oral /


SUPPOSITORIES and INSERTS. SUPPOSITORIES Solid dosage forms intended for insertion into the body orifices where it; melt, soften dissolve and exert localized.

monopalmitate many commercial products employ varied combinations of these types of materials to achieve the desired hardness under conditions of shipment and storage and the desired quality of submitting to the temperature of/, the base and the other formulative ingredients are combined by thorough mixing, the friction of the process softening the base into a pastelike consistency. On a small scale, a mortar and pestle may/inserts are capsules of gelatin containing medication to be released intra-vaginally.


CAPA Central Administration of Pharmaceutical Affairs EDA The Egyptian Drug Authority NODCAR National Organization for Drug Control & Research The empowered.

of the active substance the pharmaceutical excipients the dosage form and its composition The manufacturing process the nature of the container-closure system, the properties of the packaging materials General /if justified), water content and hardness/friability. 2. Capsules Hard gelatin capsules: Appearance, assay and degradation, brittleness, dissolution (or disintegration, if justified), water content and level of microbial contamination. Soft gelatin capsules: Appearance, assay and degradation,/


2005.03.01 Dr. Pogány - WHO, Shanghai 1/56 Workshop on Quality Assurance and GMP of multisource HIV/AIDS medicines János Pogány, pharmacist, PhD, consultant.

- WHO, Shanghai 10/56 Quality of inactive ingredients  Both capsule manufacturers have provided assurance that gelatin used will be obtained only from BSE-free countries (BSE = / materials should include thickness and permeability coefficient. Development of a film-tablet manufacturing process Pilot scale experiments 2005.03.01 Dr. Pogány - WHO, Shanghai 43/(mg):700625556 Granules, LOD (%)0,90,8 Median diameter (μm)194186189 Tablets, hardness (kp)12.813.312.4 Friability (%)0.70.5 Disintegration time6’30’’7’/


CHAPTER 1 MICROBIOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH SCIENCES. What is Microbiology? Biology Bio Living organisms Logy Study of Microbiology Micro very small.

of Anthrax Discover that Bacillus anthracis produces spores, capable of resisting hard conditions Developed methods of fixing, staining and photographing bacteria Developed methods of/ structure Glycocalyx (slime layers and capsules) Glycocalyx A thick layer located outside their cell wall Slimy, gelatinous material produced by cell membrane and/to the various taxa according to international rules 3. Identification is the process of determining whether an isolate belongs to one taxa or unidentified species/


DIFFERENT METHODS OF ENCAPSULATION OF FLAVOURS AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY PRESENTED TO: Dr. VIKAS NANDA PRESENTED BY: KANINIKA PAUL(PG/FET/116203)

oil droplets against re-coalescence resulting in physical stability to the emulsion during processing and storage. -whey protein -gelatin -sodium caseinate Continued…….. ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES Chemical : (a) coacervation (b)/Extrusion Objective -was then to retain the dense structure of the hard-candy matrix while reducing the particle size to within acceptable limits/flavor Method employed for encapsulation Physical factors of the capsule Controlled Flavour Release by diffusion by degradation by swelling/


Stability testing of Finished Pharmaceutical Products

market re: - Formulation Container/closure system Manufacturing process simulates production process FPP Stability Container/Closure Should be the container proposed/hardness, pH failure to pass dissolution testing for 12 dosage units “Significant Change” Exceptions : Some physical changes may be expected under accelerated conditions: softening of suppositories (those intended to melt at 37◦C), melting of creams (but not phase separation), adhesion loss of transdermals. Also, for gelatin capsules or gelatin/


CHAPTER 1 MICROBIOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH SCIENCES. What is Microbiology? Biology Bio Living organisms Logy Study of Microbiology Micro very small.

of Anthrax Discover that Bacillus anthracis produces spores, capable of resisting hard conditions Many contributions to the germ theory of disease. Developed methods /wall structure Glycocalyx (slime layers and capsules) Glycocalyx A thick layer located outside their cell wall Slimy, gelatinous material produced by cell membrane and/various taxa according to international rules (Binomial) 3. Identification is the process of determining whether an isolate belongs to one taxa or unidentified species Microbial/


Pathology of Cardiovascular System Dr. Mohamad Nidal Khabaz.

in GAS capsule and in the connective tissue of the joints, Ab produced agaist GAS capsule will start / movements. Subcutaneous nodule: painless, hard nodules beneath skin, over bony prominence, tendons and joints. Subcutaneous nodule: painless, hard nodules beneath skin, over bony/sequelae Progress to a chronic fibrosing process. Progress to a chronic fibrosing process. Acute Pericarditis: Morphology In uremia/ or pedunculated gelatinous mass covered by endothelium Myxoma: is commonest heart tumor in adults,/


BREAST CANCER DR NWAJIOBI C.E DR NWAJIOBI C.E CONSULTANT SURGEON CONSULTANT SURGEON.

a posterior capsule. Behind the breast of the superficial fascia is condensed to form a posterior capsule. Strands/; - Usually a palpable lump (abt 3.5cm in diameter), hard & irregular (or as mammographic density). Histologically, tumor cells are spheroidal/patchy circumscribed, and gelatinous, secretes mucin, may be coloured grey or reddish Histologically, tumor cells/ for Screening Breast Cancer Screening process be acceptable & subject to confirmation. Screening process be acceptable & subject to confirmation/


Technology of Making Tablets

the bulk of the final product in dosage forms such as tablet, capsule, etc., the speed of disintegration, rate of dissolution,release of drug/ As listed in the Table, Commonly used binding agents include: starch, gelatin and sugars (sucrose, glucose, dextrose, and lactose). Examples of Binders Carboxymethylcellulose/ weight weight variation content uniformity tablet thickness tablet hardness tablet disintegration drug dissolution in-process controls verification after the production Weight variation limit /


Jell-O Dominique Washington. Humble Origins Peter Cooper, inventor of the Tom Thumb steam locomotive and founder of Cooper Union College, took out the.

Cooper Union College, took out the first U.S. patent for a gelatin dessert in 1845. What is Jell-O Jell-O is sweetened, flavored, and colored gelatin. Gelatin is processed collagen. Collagen is a structural protein in animals connective tissue, skin, /ice cream, sour cream, meat aspics, and cake frostings. In the pharmaceutical industry, gelatin is used to make the outer shells for hard and soft capsules; Gelatin is also used in preparing the silver halide emulsions in the production of photographic paper /


Non-sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding

accreditation organization; provides quality and safety standards for voluntary accreditation. Continuous quality improvement (CQI) – the process of written procedures in the PCAB standards designed to identify problems and recommend solutions. Created by Jennifer /Capsules A solid dosage form consisting of a gelatin shell that encloses the medicinal preparation, which may be a powder, granule, or liquid. Hard-shell capsules standard sizes are 5,4,3,2,1,0,00,000 (smallest to largest). Hard-shell capsules/


GENERAL SURGERY FOR DENTAL STUDENTS

to restore the patient’s blood volume by saline, gelatin (e.g. Haemaccel), dextran or human albumin 4./cleaning; 2 •  appropriate packing for the sterilisation of disinfection process in order to avoid reduced penetration of the active agent. / in neurofibrornatosis (von -Recklinghausen’s disease, Fibromas are either hard or soft, depending on the proportion of fibrous to the/: have been found occasionally in the pancreas, under the renal capsule and in the breast . •  Retropenitoneal lipoma :. Large lipomas /


GENERAL SURGERY FOR DENTAL STUDENTS BY Dr. AHMAD K. SHAHWAN PH.D. GENERAL SURGERY.

to restore the patient’s blood volume by saline, gelatin (e.g. Haemaccel), dextran or human albumin 4.5/ neurofibrornatosis (von - Recklinghausen’s disease, Fibromas are either hard or soft, depending on the proportion of fibrous to the/ been found occasionally in the pancreas, under the renal capsule and in the breast. Retropenitoneal lipoma :. Large lipomas /scarring. Wound healing is the summation of a number of processes which follow injury including coagulation, inflammation, matrix synthesis and /


GENERAL SURGERY FOR DENTAL STUDENTS BY Dr. AHMAD K. SHAHWAN PH.D. GENERAL SURGERY.

to restore the patient’s blood volume by saline, gelatin (e.g. Haemaccel), dextran or human albumin 4.5/ neurofibrornatosis (von - Recklinghausen’s disease, Fibromas are either hard or soft, depending on the proportion of fibrous to the/ been found occasionally in the pancreas, under the renal capsule and in the breast. Retropenitoneal lipoma :. Large lipomas /scarring. Wound healing is the summation of a number of processes which follow injury including coagulation, inflammation, matrix synthesis and /


Pharmaceutics General.

be classified as: Natural: Acacia, tragacanth, agar, pectin, gelatin, methyl-, carboxy-methyl-cellulose. Synthetic EAs: d Non-ionic/Cimetidine HCl, water & phenol, phenol is: Preservative The process by which a substance accumulates on the surface of a body/. CaCO3. A person comes to the pharmacist complaining of hard stool after every 2 – 3 days, what should be/ of chewable tablets > suspension. Absorption of solution > suspension > capsules > tablets > enteric coated tablets. To diminish the absorption from/


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