Ppt on hard disk drive

Disks and Disk Scheduling Steve Muckle Monday, March 31st 2003 15-412 Spring 2003.

Anatomy of a Hard Drive On the outside, a hard drive looks like this Taken from “How Hard Disks Work” http://computer.howstuffworks.com/hard-disk2.htm Carnegie Mellon University6 Anatomy of a Hard Drive If we take the cover off, we see that there actually is a “hard disk” inside Taken from “How Hard Disks Work” http://computer.howstuffworks.com/hard-disk2.htm Carnegie Mellon University7 Anatomy of a Hard Drive A hard drive usually contains multiple/


A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e Chapter 7 Hard Drives. A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e2 Objectives Learn how the organization of data on floppy drives and hard drives.

on floppy drives and hard drives is similar Learn about hard drive technologies Learn how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how to install a hard drive Learn how to solve hard drive problems A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e3 Introduction Hard drive: most important secondary storage device Hard drive technologies have evolved rapidly –Hard drive capacities and speeds have increased –Interfaces with the computer have also changed Floppy disk will be presented before hard drives –Floppy disk is logically/


CSIT 301 (Blum)1 Disk Drives. CSIT 301 (Blum)2 Hard drive In our original view of a computer as being comprised of ALU, Control, Memory, Input and Output,

the thousands to tens of thousands are typical these days. CSIT 301 (Blum)21 Hard versus floppy disk The disks in a hard drive are fairly rigid and hence the name “harddisk. The disk in a floppy disk is made of a more flexible material. CSIT 301 (Blum)22 CSIT 301 (/part of the PC, in most cases the memory. CSIT 301 (Blum)40 Cache on the Hard Disk The hard disk has a cache/buffer. –After requesting data from the hard drive, one does not sit by idly waiting for the result. One carries on with whatever else /


Chapter 6: Physical Storage You will learn how to:  Identify hard drive types and install a hard drive in a PC and laptop  Implement hardware RAID 

will learn how to:  Identify the various types of disk drives  Describe the various connection types for disk drives  Troubleshoot disk drive issues  Install a disk drive in a PC  Install a disk drive in a laptop  Install an external hard drive  Troubleshoot problems with a disk drive installation Copyright © 2016 30 Bird Media LLC Magnetic Hard Drive Components Copyright © 2016 30 Bird Media LLC Hard drive platters Drive spindle Read/write heads Actuator SSD Cut-Away View Copyright/


A+ Guide to Hardware: Managing, Maintaining, and Troubleshooting, 5e Chapter 6 Supporting Hard Drives.

Learn about the technologies used inside a hard drive and how data is organized on the drive Learn how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how hard drives can work together in a RAID array Learn about floppy drives Learn how to select and install a hard drive Learn how to solve hard drive problems A+ Guide to Hardware3 Inside a Hard Drive Hard disk drive (HDD) or hard drive sizes –2.5" size for laptop computers/


Chapter 3: Storage. 2 Learning Objectives  Name several general properties of storage systems.  Describe how magnetic disk systems (such as hard drives)

13 Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) 14 Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)  Organized into tracks, sectors, and clusters like floppy disks  Also use cylinders (the collection of tracks located in the same location on a set of hard disc surfaces) 15 Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)  Read/write head doesn’t touch the surface of the disc Head crashes can occur Backing up is important  Most hard disks are sealed inside the drive Some hard drive systems use hard disk cartridges/


Discovering Computers 2009 Chapter 7 Storage. Chapter 7 Contents Magnetic Disks Optical Disks Tape PC Cards and Expresscard modules Miniature mobile storage.

storage capacities than flash memory  Smaller than notebook computer hard disks  A __________________, as another type of miniature hard disk, is a self-contained unit miniature hard disk pocket hard drive Magnetic Disks What are _______hard disks and ______________hard disks? p. 363 Fig. 7-14 __________ hard disk—freestanding hard disk that connects to system unit __________hard diskhard disk that you insert and remove from hard disk drive  Used to back up or transfer files externalremovable external/


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 8 Hard Drives.

hard drive technologies Learn how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how to install a hard drive Learn how to solve hard drive problems A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e3 Introduction Hard drive: most important secondary storage device Hard drive technologies have evolved rapidly –Hard drive capacities and speeds have increased –Interfaces with the computer have also changed Floppy disk will be presented before hard drives –Floppy disk is logically organized like a hard drive/


1. HDD Partition Setup Insert Booting Diskette to A: drive and turn on the power. Then it will be boot by floppy diskette. 1 Type FDISK and press Enter.

does DVR have to be divided partition in Hard disk. As DigiNet save data to Hard disk, DVR is not overwrite to Hard disk but automatically format drive and save data to Hard disk. 1. After installing DVR and perform DVR at the beginning, format drive D and save data. 2. Automatically format drive E, if D drive is full. 3. Rest of the drive will be proceeded as same as No.2/


Hard Disks Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning:

format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive. High-level format defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the/


An Introduction to Disk Drive Modeling Chris Ruemmler & John Wilkes Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Presented by Hang Zhao.

throughput by about 1000% First Air Bearing Heads (1962): IBMs model 1301 increases both areal density and throughput by about 1000% First Removable Disk Drive (1965): IBMs model 2310 First Removable Disk Drive (1965): IBMs model 2310 …… …… A brief history of hard disk drive Engineers over the last few decades have done at improving them in every respect: reliability, capacity, speed, power usage, and more. Engineers over/


CDROM, Floppy and Hard Disk Structure

1.5 Mb/s USB 1.1 – speed 12 Mb/s USB 3.0 – speed 5 Gb/s Hard disk drive Disk platter Read/Write head Head arm/Head slider Head actuator mechanism Spindle motor Logic board Air filter Cables & Connectors Hard Disk Fixed and removable Fast (disk rotates at 60 to 200 times per second) Currently 20 – 2 TB (may be limited by the version of/


CHAPTER 14: MASS-STORAGE STRUCTURE

leaves the data cartridge unharmed. Tertiary-Storage Devices: Cost Main memory is much more expensive than disk storage The cost per megabyte of hard disk storage is competitive with magnetic tape if only one tape is used per drive. The cheapest tape drives and the cheapest disk drives have had about the same storage capacity over the years. Tertiary storage gives a cost savings only when the/


6 Secondary Storage.

next slide for good graphic of “space” Hard Disk Performance RAIDs (Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks) RAIDs are inexpensive hard-disk drives grouped together using networks and special software. They improve hard disk performance by expanding external disk storage. The grouped disks are treated as a single large-capacity hard disk. RAIDs can outperform single disks of comparable capacities. Composed of metallic rather than plastic disks Fast information storage and retrieval Read-write head/


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e

the technologies used inside a hard drive and how data is organized on the drive Learn how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how hard drives can work together in a RAID array Learn about floppy drives Learn how to select and install a hard drive Learn how to solve hard drive problems A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e Inside a Hard Drive Hard disk drive (HDD) or hard drive sizes 2.5" size/


Introduction to Hard Disk Management

check Left click on properties You will see used and unused space and the number of bytes used and free Is it necessary to clean my drive? Disk Defragmenter consolidates fragmented files and folders on your computers hard disk, so that each occupies a single, contiguous space on the volume. As a result, your system can gain access to your files and folders and/


Chapter 9 Part III Linux File System Administration

programs and user files Different device files associated with SCSI hard disks: First SCSI hard disk drive (/dev/sda) Second SCSI hard disk drive (/dev/sdb) Third SCSI hard disk drive (/dev/sdc) Working with Hard Disks Different device files associated with SCSI hard disks (continued): Fourth SCSI hard disk drive (/dev/sdd) Fifth SCSI hard disk drive (/dev/sde) Sixth SCSI hard disk drive (/dev/sdf) And so on Hard Disk Partitioning Recall that hard disks have the largest storage capacity of any device used/


Module 5 Storage.

of flash devices are: Their storage capacity is not yet comparable to the capacity of hard disks Different card formats require different readers Storage Devices Solid state drives A solid state drive is a flash device with a storage capacity similar to a small hard drive. Solid state drives are used as replacements for hard disk drives for storing operating system, application, and data files. Some advantages of solid state/


Chapter 5 Supporting Hard Drives

Hardware: Managing, Maintaining, and Troubleshooting, Sixth Edition Chapter 5 Supporting Hard Drives Objectives Learn about the technologies used inside a hard drive and how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how to select and install a hard drive Learn about tape drives and floppy drives A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Hard Drive Technologies and Interface Standards Hard disk drive (HDD) or hard drive sizes 2.5" size for laptop computers 3.5" size for/


CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Storage Devices. CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Floppy drive and diskettes Hard drive (IDE and SCSI) USB flash drive (aka pen drive) Storage Devices.

: 1 computer KB = 1,024 bytes (2 to the 10 th power) 1 human KB = 1,000 bytes CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Disk Partitions CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Free Space Setting up Hard Drives Step 1 – Add hard drive to computer Add the hard drive: Low-level formatting has already been done at the factory (lays out the physical tracks and sectors). There are no partitions yet/


A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition

Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition Chapter 6 Supporting Hard Drives Objectives Learn about the technologies used inside a hard drive and how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how to select and install a hard drive Learn about tape drives and floppy drives A+ Guide to Managing & Maintaining Your PC, 8th Edition Hard Drive Technologies and Interface Standards Hard disk drive (HDD) or hard drive sizes 2.5" size for laptop computers 3.5/


CSIT 301 (Blum)1 Hard Drives Continued. CSIT 301 (Blum)2 Power Connectors The larger is the so-called Molex connector. The smaller is called the mini.

CSIT 301 (Blum)16 Bay cooler CSIT 301 (Blum)17 Retail vs. OEM Retail –Hard Disk Drive, Installation Instructions, Drivers and/or Overlay Software, Mounting Hardware, Interface Cable, Warranty Card OEM (original equipment manufacturer) –Hard Disk Drives and Jumpers (maybe) CSIT 301 (Blum)18 Geometry Review A platter is divided into concentric circles called tracks. The tracks are further divided into arcs called sectors. –A sector/


“Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks”. CONTENTS Storage devices. Optical drives. Floppy disk. Hard disk. Components of Hard disks. RAID technology. Levels.

whole data with the help of parity bit. Minimum 2 HDD is required RAID3 level RAID 3 level specifies data stripping with dedicated parity disk. This means RAID 3 level generates parity and dedicated one of its hard disk drive for storing the parity information. Minimum 3 HDD is required for building RAID3 level. RAID 3: XOR Exit Hamming Code, Enter XOR (eXclusive OR/


Iomega® REV™ 35/90GB Drives SCSI – USB – ATAPI – SATA - FireWire

Backup Large File Users A/V; graphics; CAD/CAM Verticals Medical Imaging Home Entertainment PVR Professional Video Education REV™ Usages Backup Recovery Archiving REV™ is ideal for backing up your hard disk drives on both server and desktops. Due to the real-time verification of data through advanced ECC (error correction code) the REV™ ensures data is written reliably and quickly. Recovery REV/


© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Implementing Hard Drives Chapter 10.

2003 –Can convert basic to dynamic –Converting dynamic to basic causes all data to be lost –Regular drives are known as basic disks –Dynamic disks are divided into volumes instead of partitions © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Dynamic Disks Spanning volumes (one hard drive) –D: drive is spanned to include unallocated space –Effect is more space on D: volume C: Volume 10 GBD/


Chapter 5 Supporting Hard Drives

Hardware: Managing, Maintaining, and Troubleshooting, Sixth Edition Chapter 5 Supporting Hard Drives Objectives Learn about the technologies used inside a hard drive and how a computer communicates with a hard drive Learn how to select and install a hard drive Learn about tape drives and floppy drives A+ Guide to Hardware, Sixth Edition Hard Drive Technologies and Interface Standards Hard disk drive (HDD) or hard drive sizes 2.5" size for laptop computers 3.5" size for/


Disk Drives CSIT 301 (Blum).

CSIT 301 (Blum) Bay cooler CSIT 301 (Blum) Retail vs. OEM Retail OEM (original equipment manufacturer) Hard Disk Drive, Installation Instructions, Drivers and/or Overlay Software, Mounting Hardware, Interface Cable, Warranty Card OEM (original equipment manufacturer) Hard Disk Drives and Jumpers (maybe) CSIT 301 (Blum) Geometry Review A platter is divided into concentric circles called tracks. The tracks are further divided into arcs called sectors. A/


Hard Disk Storage.

no power is supplied to the computer. Hard disk drives contain rigid, disk-shaped platters, usually constructed of aluminum or glass. Unlike floppy disks, the platters can’t bend or flex—hence the term hard disk. In most drives you can’t remove the platters, which is why they are sometimes called fixed disk drives. Definition of a Hard Disk Hard disk drives are sometimes referred to as Winchester drives. This term dates back to 1973/


© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+ ® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs Fourth Edition Hard Drive.

Historical/Conceptual © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Mike Meyers’ CompTIA A+ ® Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs Fourth Edition The Platter-based Hard Drive A traditional hard disk drive (HDD) is composed of individual disks or platters. The platters are made up of aluminum and coated with a magnetic medium. Two tiny read/write heads service each platter. © 2012 The McGraw-Hill/


Computer Forensic Evidence Collection and Management Chapter 9 Computer Systems Disk and File Structure.

stored. The four main components of a hard disk are: −Platters −Head arms −Chassis −Head actuator The capacity of a computer hard disk drive and the files it contains can be confusing. The capacity of the disk drive that is to be imaged will be concern to the forensic examiner. Disk Drive Overview (Cont.) Most computer hard disk drives are permanently stored in an internal hard drive bay at the form of the compute/


IAcademy Introduction to Computers Introduction to IT Lecture 5 Hard Disk Drive Flash Memory Could Storage. This lecture and its associated materials have.

item from memory to the processor (also called transfer rate) Memory access time – nanoseconds Storage access time - milliseconds iAcademy Hard Disks A hard disk (or hard disk drive) contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information – Fixed disk – Portable iAcademy Hard Disks Hard disks can store data using longitudinal recording or perpendicular recording Perpendicular recording can provide storage capacities about 10 times greater/


Ch 81 Organizing and Managing Your Hard Disk. Ch 82 Overview Learn how to organize a hard disk efficiently and logically to serve your specific needs.

should be performed on a regular basis to make programs run faster and better. Ch 886 Defragmenting Your Hard Disk Run Defragmenter program from: è Tools menu (Disk Drive Property Sheet) è Start Menu Ch 887 Defragmenting Your Hard Disk Disk Defragmenter program: è Moves data on disks so files are contiguous è Can be run without closing all programs è Better/faster/safer to close all programs prior to running program Ch/


HDD INSTALLATION AND SETUP. HDD Introduction Hard disk is the most popular storage device used to store various kinds of data in most computers. Hard.

and so either term is sometimes used to the whole unit. Hard disk drive basic Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes. They were originally called as “fixed disks”, but later became known as “hard disks” to distinguish them from “floppy disks”. Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the/


Copyright © 2002 Heathkit Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Unit 8 Hard Drive Technologies.

Assemblies 39 SATA Interface Power Contacts Power Contacts Power Supply Cable Connector Power Supply Cable Connector Cable Assemblies Cable Assemblies Drive Socket Assembly Drive Socket Assembly 40 SATA Interface Manufacturer Test Pins Manufacturer Test Pins Cable Assemblies Cable Assemblies Drive Socket Assembly Drive Socket Assembly 41 SATA Hard Disk Drive Test Pins Power Adapter Plug Signal Connector Power Connector Copyright © 2002 Heathkit Company, Inc. All rights reserved/


HARD DISK. Unutrasnjost  The best way to understand how a hard disk works is to take a look inside. (Note that OPENING A HARD DISK RUINS IT, so this.

mechanism in the upper-left corner. The arm is able to move the heads from the hub to the edge of the drive. The arm and its movement mechanism are extremely light and fast. The arm on a typical hard-disk drive can move from hub to edge and back up to 50 times per second -- it is an amazing thing to watch! Nekada/


Hard Drive. Drive Capacity MeasurementContainsUsually Used for Measuring Size Of KB (kilobytes 1,024 bytesFloppy drives MB (megabytes)1,024 KBDCs, small.

(megabytes)1,024 KBDCs, small hard drives, cartridge drives, small tape drives GB (gigabytes1,024 MB Hard drives, large capacity cartridge drives, some tape drives, and DVDs TB (terabytes)1,024 GBVery large hard drives and some tape drives Hard Drive Architecture Voice coil actuator Read/write heads Spindle Platters Side 0 Side 1 (underside) Side 1 (underside) Side 2 Side 3 (underside) Side 3 (underside) Actuator arms Disk Drive Geometry Track Sector Cylinder Traditional/


Disks Overview of Mass-Storage Structure In this section we present a general overview of the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices.

head of a floppy-disk drive generally sits directly on the disk surface, so the drive is designed to rotate more slowly than a hard-disk drive to reduce the wear on the disk surface. The storage capacity of a floppy disk is typically only 1.44 MB or so. Removable disks are available that work much like normal hard disks and have capacities measured in gigabytes. A disk drive is attached to a/


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC Fifth Edition Chapter 9 Optimizing and Protecting Hard Drives.

making backups About viruses and other computer infestations, and how to protect against them How to troubleshoot hard drives 3 A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition Managing Hard Drives Use Windows utilities to protect, optimize, and maintain hard drives  Defrag and Windows Disk Defragmenter  ScanDisk  Disk Cleanup  Disk compression  Disk caching  Making backups Access utilities from command prompt or Windows desktop 4 A+ Guide to Managing/


CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Storage Devices. CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Floppy drive and diskettes Hard drive (IDE and SCSI) USB flash drive (aka pen drive) Storage Devices.

: 1 computer KB = 1,024 bytes (2 to the 10 th power) 1 human KB = 1,000 bytes CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Disk Partitions CIS 191 - Lesson 2 Free Space Setting up Hard Drives Step 1 – Add hard drive to computer Add the hard drive: Low-level formatting has already been done at the factory (lays out the physical tracks and sectors). There are no partitions yet/


Raymond Washington Secondary Storage Chapter 8. Traditional Floppy Disk The Traditional Floppy Disk is the 1.44 MB 3 1/2 - inch disk. They came out about.

known IBM’s Microdrive and Toshibas MK5002. Well known IBM’s Microdrive and Toshibas MK5002. Internal Hard Disk Also known as fixed disk disk is located inside system unit. Also known as fixed disk disk is located inside system unit. Is designated as the C drive. Is designated as the C drive. Is use to store programs and large data files. Is use to store programs and large/


CSIT 301 (Blum)1 Disk Drives. CSIT 301 (Blum)2 Hard disk accessing Seek time is the time required to position the head to the selected cylinder. –Typical.

CSIT 301 (Blum)24 Bay cooler CSIT 301 (Blum)25 Retail vs. OEM Retail –Hard Disk Drive, Installation Instructions, Drivers and/or Overlay Software, Mounting Hardware, Interface Cable, Warranty Card OEM (original equipment manufacturer) –Hard Disk Drives and Jumpers (maybe) CSIT 301 (Blum)26 Geometry Review A platter is divided into concentric circles called tracks. The tracks are further divided into arcs called sectors. –A sector/


4.1 © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Exam 70-290 Managing and Maintaining a Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Environment Lesson 4: Organizing a Disk for Data.

Data Storage Figure 4-13 A logical drive on an extended partition (Skill 3) A logical drive has been created on Disk 1 4.19 © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Exam 70-290 Managing and Maintaining a Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Environment Lesson 4: Organizing a Disk for Data Storage Upgrading a Disk from Basic to Dynamic  By default, the hard disk on a Windows Server 2003 computer/


CSIT 301 (Blum)1 Disk Drives. CSIT 301 (Blum)2 Hard drive In our original view of a computer as being comprised of ALU, Control, Memory, Input and Output,

the thousands to tens of thousands are typical these days. CSIT 301 (Blum)22 Hard versus floppy disk The disks in a hard drive are fairly rigid and hence the name “harddisk. The disk in a floppy disk is made of a more flexible material. CSIT 301 (Blum)23 CSIT 301 (/part of the PC, in most cases the memory. CSIT 301 (Blum)41 Cache on the Hard Disk The hard disk has a cache/buffer. –After requesting data from the hard drive, one does not sit by idly waiting for the result. One carries on with whatever else /


Implementing Hard Drives. Partitioning and Formatting Process.

file. Troubleshooting Three broad categories Three broad categories 1. Installation Errors 2. Data Corruption 3. Dying Hard Drives Troubleshooting Installation Connectivity Connectivity Hard drive error Hard drive error No fixed disks present No fixed disks present HDD controller failure HDD controller failure NO boot device available NO boot device available Drive not found Drive not found Solutions include Solutions include Checking the cables to make sure they connected properly Checking/


1 Chapter Overview Automating Installations Using Windows Setup Manager Using Disk Duplication to Deploy Windows XP Professional Performing Remote Installations.

file allocation table (FAT), FAT32, or NTFS file system Assigning drive letters to partitions and volumes Adding and removing hard disks and changing the disk storage type If you have the proper permissions, the Disk Management snap-in lets you manage disks locally and on remote computers. 36 Setting Up a New Hard Disk 1. Initialize the disk with a storage type. Initialization defines the fundamental structure of a/


Computer Architecture CST 250 Hard Disk Prepared by: Omar Hirzallah.

Computer Architecture CST 250 Hard Disk Prepared by: Omar Hirzallah Contents Hard disk drive Schematic picture Disk organization File organization Hard disk characteristics Hard disk controllers SAS & SATA Encoding Schemes (MFM & RLL) HARD DISK DRIVE: Initially when hard disks were developed in 1960s, they were named as Winchester drives. This name was not having any technical or scientific meaning, it was just a slang term. WHAT IS A HARD DISK? A hard disk is really a set of stacked "disks," each of/


1 Computer Hardware Unit B. 2 Objectives Introduce Storage Technology Compare Storage Technologies Compare Storage Media and Devices Explore Floppy Disk.

and damage the surface of the disk. 16 Hard Disk Drives, Cont’d. Disk access time. –Factors: seek time, rotational delay, data movement time Can use multiple partitions. Disk cache—strategy for speeding up system performance. Hard drive standards (EIDE, SCSI, Fibre Channel, USB). 17 Hard Disk Drives, Cont’d. Portable hard drive systems Offer large storage capacities and portability. –Either entire drive or just hard disk cartridge is transported. 18 Hard Disk Drives, Cont’d. Storage systems for/


HARD DISKS. INTRODUCTION TO HARD DISKSHard disk is the core fundamental component of the Computer system.  A mass storage device that stores the permanent.

HARD DISKS 1973-0.14GBytes Hard disk 1979-2.3GBytes Hard disk 1.7Mbit/sq. 7.7Mbit/sq. HISTORY OF THE HARD DISKS 1989-60 Gbytes 2006-60GBytes 60Mbit/sq 100-300Mbit/sq HISTORY OF THE HARD DISKS  Evolution of the hard disk is driven by the capacity and not by the performance. BASICS OF THE HARD DISKS  A hard disk drive is a sealed unit that a PC uses for nonvolatile data storage.  A hard disk drive contains rigid, disk/


A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 15 Windows 9x/Me Commands and Startup Disk.

to manage memory Learn to use different commands at the command prompt Learn how to use a Windows 9x/Me startup disk to prepare a hard drive for first use and to troubleshoot a failed boot A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e3 Introduction Reasons/ is turned on and runs through POST –Startup BIOS checks CMOS RAM for location of OS –Program in boot record is found (hard drive or disk) –Boot record program locates Io.sys file (boot loader) –Io.sys is loaded into memory –Control passes to Io.sys A/


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