Ppt on grid connected pv systems

المدرسة الوطنية للمهندسين بتونس CONNECTING RENEWABLE ENERGY WITHIN THE GRID المدرسة الوطنية للمهندسين بتونس Ahmed S. Bouazzi École Nationale d’Ingénieurs.

15496S 18415O 23328N 26292D المدرسة الوطنية للمهندسين بتونس Monthly output energy from a PV system made up of 17 panels, each panel has a peak power of 85 W, connected to the grid through a dc-ac inverter with an efficiency of 93%. The simulation was/a grid connected PV kWh price of 0.470 TND, which represents the cost covering price. COST-COVERING PRICE المدرسة الوطنية للمهندسين بتونس Cost-covering price of 1 kWh PV (TND) Energy output of 1 Wac during 20 years (kWh) Annual output of 1 kWac PV system (kWh/

Solar Voltaic Energy. Outline Overview of Solar Power How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work How Solar PV Cells are Made Solar PV –Applications –Efficiencies.

–Prevents batteries from being over charged Disconnect switches –Allows power from a PV system to be turned off Electrical meter –Measures electrical production and use –Often runs backward if system is attached to the electrical grid Total system cost = ~$8.00 / watt BATTERY Stand Alone Solar PV System Grid Connected Solar PV System Connecting PV to the Grid Net Metering When your system produces more electricity than your home uses –electricity flows backward out to/

Electricity for ICT4D: Estimating the cost of reliable electricity from grid extension and distributed energy resources Patrick Murphy Program Director,

-Agustin and Fufo-Lopez (2011) Twaha et al (2010) presented PV systems as an alternative to diesel in grid-connected distributed generation. PV was not cost competitive with grid-only solutions No consideration of an grid reliability (Resilience value of DER?) 14 Where does grid extension make sense? High population density regions close to existing grid But what if the grid isn’t reliable? (Szabo, et. al, 2013) http://re/

PV Policy Group KOM Catania, 6-7 October 2005 1 About PV in Portugal Luís Silva Pedro Paes Hybrid PV-Wind power plant.

in Portugal is expected to grow significantly in the next few years, based on grid-connected applications, either small scale systems up to 5 kWp or medium to large scale systems, including multi-megawatt power plants. PV Policy Group KOM Catania, 6-7 October 2005 14 PV in Portugal Requests for PV power YearNo. of requests (PIP)Total Power (MWp) 2001?? 2002976,97 20032740,55 20044715,28/

OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the underlying principles of active photovoltaic systems and factors that effect their efficiency. 2. List the advantages and.

5-1: A Simple PV System Stand alone Grid-Tied Hybrid There are three major classes of PV systems: Figure 5-2: Stand-Alone System with Batteries Added Figure 5-3: A Grid-Tied System Figure 5-4: A Stand-Alone Hybrid System No Pollution: Energy /Wave Figure 5-8: Electricity vs. Renewable Energy Certificates Figure 5-9: Complete PV System Junction Box – A place where the wires from the various panels come together, effectively connecting them into an array. Beginning at the solar array, these BOS components may /

New and Renewable Energy Systems  NEW -re-invented or revitalized as new technologies often using age-old principles but using new and more efficient,

through the use of a pV system.  Pv systems are economically viable – On a life cycle cost basis and taking into consideration the higher reliability of PV many small scale applications can be more economically powered by PV than with diesel systems or some other small systems. Applications of Photovoltaics  RURAL ELECTRIFICATION(EITHER GRID CONNECTED OR OFF GRID)  SOLAR HOME SYSTEMS (SHS)  WATER PUMPING AND TREATMENT SYSTEMS  HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS  COMMUNICATIONS  MID SEA BUOYS/

Customer Sited Solar PV & The Impact of Grid Interactive Systems.

Management What is meant by Grid-Tie? Solar PV system uses Inverter to generate 120V/240V electricity Output connected to house panel House uses power, balance flows to grid House needs more power than system is providing (night, cloud), draws power from the grid. Allows for partial load systems Grid Tie PV System  Typical residential system size is 3-5 kW  Grid-tie represents 90% of Solar PV market.  Simple system: modules, mounting rack, & inverter/

Photovoltaic Systems – Residential Scale Part 1 March 17, 2014.

involved in solar power development and expansion An opportunity to examine residential PV systems in Arizona 3 Residential Scale PV Systems Stand Alone PV Systems  The objective is to produce electrical power for the dwelling and for battery storage Battery-Backup Grid-Connected PV Systems  The objective is to produce uninterrupted electrical power for the dwelling Grid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV Systems  The objective is to produce a specific percentage of the electrical use/

1 Backup system for solar on-grid installation 1 1pcs XTM4000-48 inverter charger, nominal power 3.5KVA, 30min. Power 4KVA AC DC Load2 (secured power)

: AC Coupled PV array / no power limit Before Xtender, you can have what you want On-grid inverter (current source) Public grid Battery bank Load 1(not secured power) The grid connected inverter is directly connected to the AC-output of the Xtender. When grid is connected to the AC-input, the excessive solar power can go to the public grid. If there is no grid (islanded system), the injection inverter/

Photovoltaics Physics Technology Components and Systems Applications Clemson Summer School May 27 th 2014 Dr. Karl Molter Hochschule Trier www.hochschule-trier.de/go/molter.

Dr. Karl Molter- molter@hochschule-trier.de 70 May 27th 2014Clemson Summer School 2014 Dr. Karl Molter- molter@hochschule-trier.de 71 Components of a Grid-connected PV-System Solar- Generator inverter (virtual load) DC AC protection- Diode loadutility- grid Grid The grid is involved as a temporary energy storage Efficiency (STC): 5% - 20% Efficiency: 90 - 98% Overall practical operating efficiency usually between 5% and 13% May/

1 ANNEXURE PROJECT TITLE : A Novel Power Management Control Strategy for Renewable Energy Power System SUBMITTED BY : N.SAHUL HAMEED V.DINESH BABO P.PURSOTHAMAN.

applications were proposed to deal with specific issues such as high efficiency, low cost, and safety. 6 INTRODUCTION : PV SYSTEM  The PV power system can be classified into two types: stand- alone PV system and grid-connected PV system.  In remote or isolated regions where power grid can not extend to, stand-alone PV schemes have found a fairly wide application to meet the need for small but essential electric load. Functional/

Engineering Photovoltaic Systems I Part I Original Presentation by J. M. Pearce, 2006 Updated by J.M. Pearce and R. Andews, 2010

cloudy days and at night. Three Types of Systems Stand-alone systemsSystems which use photovoltaics technology only, and are not connected to a utility grid. Hybrid systemsSystems which use photovoltaics and some other form of energy, such as diesel generation or wind. Grid-tied systemsSystems which are connected to a utility grid. Stand Alone PV System Water pumping Examples of Stand Alone PV Systems PV powers stock water pumps in remote locations in Wyoming/

Residential/Commercial Solar PV installations

for “good design”, so the applicant must make sure that the efficiency for the system has been reviewed and discussed with the designer. A licensed contractor is required for the grid connection systems. Other drawings required Both a one-line block diagram is required showing the critical components of the solar PV system (right) and a three-line drawing which indicates the sizes of conductors, fuses/


AT OR NEAR THE PROSUMERS LOCATION ROAD TO ENERGYVILLE J. POORTMANS 25-06-2013 www.epia.org Connecting the Sun 18 © IMEC 2012 IMPACT ON REQUIRED PV-COSTS ROAD TO ENERGYVILLE J. POORTMANS 25-06-2013 Levelized cost of electricity = Investment cost / for energy storage + Grid parity is a milestone, not the end goal PV installed close to consumer to limit excess PV- capacity Local storage needs to integrated with the PV system Cost of local storage evolves to 10 c/kWh ðPV investment cost needs to reduced/

Ancillary Services of Distributed Power Generation Systems Marco Liserre Ancillary Services of Distributed Power Generation Systems Marco.

The amount of reactive power is inversely proportional to the grid impedance A large inductance will help in mitigating voltage sags although it is not recommendable during normal operation Voltage support provided by the DPGS at load level Ancillary Services of Distributed Power Generation Systems Marco Liserre liserre@ieee.org PV system with shunt-connected multifunctional converter The voltage sags compensation requires a large-rated/

DNV GL © 2014 7-10-2014 SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER DNV GL © 2014 7-10-2014 Bas Vet ENERGY PV potentieel in Nederland & Zonne-energie voorspelling 1.

32 TWh19 TWh51 TWh Roof potential results:  400 km 2 potential PV surface Not included:  PV efficiency increase  Shading by trees and buildings  Infrastructure, ground mounted systems, water, etc. DNV GL © 2014 7-10-2014 Potential in the/(wind & PV) Central production Heavy industry Inter- connection Renewable (wind) HV LV Decentralized Centralized MV 658 13 151617 Commercial Greenhouse cultivation Industry 121110 18 Rural domestic 7 Shortage/ Surplus 19 9 14 20 grid loss LV: grid loss MV: grid loss HV/

Residential PhotoVoltaic (Solar Electric) Systems © ARJ 2003.

High Efficiency Appliances. Window Treatment. Roof Treatments. Time of use rates. Shade. Architecture. Types of PV System Grid-Tie. Grid-Tie with Battery Backup. Stand Alone. Choosing a PV System What Do you need it to do ? How much power do you need ? What is the/requirements such as power-tools, heaters etc. Non sine-wave inverters can ONLY be used in standalone systems, they can NEVER be connected to feed power back to the utility. BATTERIES Store DC electricity for later use Components Batteries Use ONLY/

Open Field Message Bus (OpenFMB) Kickoff Meeting

Development of the OpenFMB (~2007) Initially, we focused on the problem of connecting to multiple devices to backhaul data. Node-based solution (high volume) with multiple radios to connect to MV sensors, AMI, DA, and others. (~2012) But use /or more standards-based message busses and common semantic models. Duke Energy Test Areas: Integrated Grid Ecosystems Pilot (2012) Substation Solar PV Energy Storage Dist. Mgmt System PMU (6) Weather stations (7) Sherrill’s Ford, Rankin, McAlpine Substations Customer /


Standards VDE 0126 Automatic Disconnection Facility for PV Installations Others KEMA K150 Small Grid-connected Photovoltaic Systems JIS C 8962 Power Conditioners for Small PV Power Generating Systems ÖNORM/ÖVE 2750 Austrian Guideline - PV Power Generation Systems NEN1010 Grid-connected PV Systems AS3000, AS4777 Australian - Connection of Energy Systems CSA F381 Canadian - Power Conditioning Systems EWEC 2006, Athens ~ SWT connected to Autonomous systems. Connection Topologies (I): DC-Coupled Energy Use/

Introduction To Photovoltaic Systems. Introduction To PV Systems Historical Development Timeline for Solar Energy.

PV Systems PV Systems Convert solar radiation into electricity PV systems use wafers, typically made of crystalline silicon No moving parts, noise or emissions Definition: a Photovoltaic (PV) system is an electrical system consisting of and array of one or more PV modules, conductors, electrical components, and one or more loads. Introduction To PV Systems Here some pictures s of a module, conductors, and assorted electrical components. Introduction To PV Systems Utility Connected or Grid-tied systems/

Www.solart-system.hu Solar Photovoltaics Status Report M.Sc. Miklós Pálfy Solart-System.

.com  2007. Genesis PV module production plant founded in Környe. (~100 MEuro investment) www.solart-system.hu SANYO www.solart-system.hu KORAX www.solart-system.hu Heliogrid www.solart-system.hu Applications  Off grid systemsGrid connected, on grid systems  Quasiautonomous power supplies  Consumer products www.solart-system.hu Off grid systems www.solart-system.hu 0,5/1,4kWp Solar Wind off grid system www.solart-system.hu 10 kWp on grid system at SZIE www.solart/

PV System Components Advanced Engineering The Technology Landstown High School.

an existing electrical line close to your property, it was cheaper to have a PV system (including batteries and a backup generator) than to connect to the grid. As technology advanced, grid-connected PV with net metering became possible. NET METERING In net metering, when the PV system produces excess electricity, it is sent to the grid system, turning the meter backwards. If you are using more power than is being/


as backup power or grid-connected PV/load management 18 What does this work say? Unless a customer with residential solar is given nothing for their net generation and has reasonably high connection fees, there is not an economic reason to go off-grid Using storage to shift PV energy from day to night tends to slightly reduce system emissions and slightly increase system generation costs 19 Questions/

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS Photovoltaic (PV) modules are solid-state devices that convert sunlight, the most abundant energy source on the planet, directly into.

box is attached at the back of the module for convenient wiring to other modules or other electrical equipment. PV arrays The modules in a PV system are usually connected in arrays. An array with M P parallel branches each with M S modules in series is shown /solar panel or array and converts the power to a voltage or current level 48 MPPT charge controllers are desirable for off-grid power systems, to make the best use of all the energy generated by the panels. The benefits of MPPT regulators are greatest /

Solar Cells Basic Concepts Materials and Device Structures Technical Issues System Design Modified Lecture based on the Original Presentation by J. M.

cell structure. Examples of Photovoltaic Systems Three Types of Systems Stand-alone systems - those systems which use photovoltaics technology only, and are not connected to a utility grid. Hybrid systems - those systems which use photovoltaics and some other form of energy, such as diesel generation or wind. Grid-tied systems - those systems which are connected to a utility grid. Stand Alone PV System Water pumping Examples of Stand Alone PV Systems PV powers stock water pumps in remote/


AN ECONOMICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR A HYBRID SYSTEM OF GRID CONNECTED, SOLAR PV AND ELECTRICAL STORAGE SYSTEM Mohammad H Balali University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA December 2015 Under the Supervision of Professor Hamid Seifoddini Under the Supervision of Professor Adel Nasiri 2 Overview Energy Sources Energy Storage Problem Definition Non-Renewable/Renewable Energy Sources Energy Storage Systems Literature Review Non-Linear/Linear Programming Methodology Problem Formulating Numerical/

What is PV System? Photovoltaic (PV) system is an electrical system consisting of array of one or more PV modules, conductors, electrical components,

together which is called an array to get any power configuration Cells. Connect Cells To Make Modules Types of PV Systems Types of PV Systems Stand-alone system it is independent of all sources & used in remote applications. Grid connected system it is connected with grid and store its surplus power into grid by concept of net metering. Hybrid system it receives a portion of its power from more than one sources like/

Green Connected World Network Energy Product Line Introduction.

leakage sensor  RC: Video  Controller  RC: Wireless command inspection, camera IT equipment 21 Smart PV Solution: Simple, Full Digitization, Automatic O&M Full digitalization Simple Module and mounting rackSmart PV controller Container transformer Booster station Grid connection PV plant PV array Data transmission Data processing Cloud Pipe Device Cloud Grid system Data collection Simplified system architecture No need for housing or DC junction boxes No need for fuses or/

© Q3 Energieelektronik GmbH Page 1 Monitoring and Operation of PV-Battery Systems Daniel Föhr, M.Eng. Product Manger Energy Systems Q3 Energieelektronik.

providing balancing energy: If they are able to obtain and delivery energy in times of grid overload.  In combination with a bidirectional connection a lucrative market model for the expiring EEG.  E.g. municipal utilities are eager to regulate their power within their own grid.  PV-battery systems can also act as a virtual power plant Source: next-kraftwerke.de Short term trading with virtual/

1. Solar Photovoltaic Theory

) Back surface is P-type. All back surface is aluminum electrode with full reflection. 1-1-2. Various type of PV cell PV Module (Single crystal, Poly crystalline Silicon) Single crystal Poly crystalline 128W (26.5V , 4.8A) 120W (25.7V / ( Off grid ) Inverter and controller 1.2kW system 1-1-3. Installation example Stationary power station (Grid connected ) e8 & PPA project in Tuvalu 30kW array 10kW array Site: Funafuti Tuvalu Installation: Feb. in 2008 Capacity: 40kW Purpose: Grid connected power supply for/

Dr. Walter Marin, PhD Power Electronic

MW-sized solar plant commissioned by our customer. Solar System Configuration STAND ALONE SYSTEM GRID CONNECTED SYSTEM Solar Panel: Non Constant Input Negative Voc temperature coefficent Positive Jsc temperature coefficent Stand Alone Configuration MPPT System Controller True Sine Wave Converter MPPT Solar System Controller MPPT Solar System Controller is a battery charger and load controller for stand alone PV (photovoltaic) systems. This controller features a smart tracking algorithm that maximizes/

Modulation and current/voltage control of the grid converter

.1-2005 "IEEE Standard Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distribut ed Resources with Electric Power Systems", 2005. IEC Standard 61727, “Characteristic of the utility interface for photovoltaic (PV) systems,”, 2002. IEC Standard 61400-21 “Wind turbine generator systems Part 21: measurements and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines”, 2002. IEC Standard 61000-4-7, “Electromagnetic Compatibility, General Guide on Harmonics and/

“The Electric Grid and DG: Operational Considerations”

have contributed to specific aspects of the framework Need comprehensive approach: connecting all puzzle pieces Integrated Grid Framework Timeline for Three Components DER Penetration Scenario 2Q 2014 Power System Impact 3Q 2014 3Q 2014 Overall Benefit/Cost Aggressive Timeline that Leverages Existing Work Distribution Feeder Hosting Capacity PV Systems Baseline – No PV PV Penetration 1 PV Penetration 2 PV Penetration 3 Beyond… Process is repeated 100’s of times/

Engineering Photovoltaic Systems I Part I Original Presentation by J. M. Pearce, 2006

days and at night. Three Types of Systems Stand-alone systems - those systems which use photovoltaics technology only, and are not connected to a utility grid. Hybrid systems - those systems which use photovoltaics and some other form of energy, such as diesel generation or wind. Grid-tied systems - those systems which are connected to a utility grid. Stand Alone PV System Water pumping Examples of Stand Alone PV Systems PV powers stock water pumps in remote locations/

S.A.A 06/071 LECTURE 4 PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM. S.A.A 06/072 Introduction.. 3 common configuration of PV systems: –Grid-connected PV system –Stand-alone PV.

06/072 Introduction.. 3 common configuration of PV systems: –Grid-connected PV system –Stand-alone PV –Load connected directly to PV; PV water pumping system. Figure 1 shows a grid connected system in which PVs supplying power to a building. PV deliver dc power to power conditioning unit that convert dc to ac and send power to the building. Figure 2 shows PV water pumping where wires from array are connected directly to the motor running a pump/

IC MPPT Technique The incremental conductance method is developed under the fact of slope of the PV array power curve is zero at the MPP IC MPPT Algorithm.

Step Size," 2006 Hairul Nissah Zainudin, Saad Mekhilef, “Comparison Study of Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques for PV Systems”, Cairo University, Egypt, December 19-21, 2010, Paper ID 278. M. E. Ropp and S. Gonzalez, “Development of a MATLAB/Simulink model of a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 195–202, Mar. 2009. B. Verhoeven et/

0 Identifying Distributed Energy Resources Research Priorities Through Emerging Value Networks 2005 Update Prepared for the Energy Systems Integration.

CHP Market Assessment Report). Assuming a 70% capacity factor, provides 82TWh/year PV technical potential covering all rooftops that have PV access ~ 6,000 million sq. ft. (Grid Connected PV Market Potential, NCI 2004). = 60 GW @ 20% CF = 105 TWh Total CHP + PV = 187 TWh Assume that all loads could be supplied with a DER system Total California load = ~277 TWh Assume that all loads are supplied/

MERC (Net Metering for Rooftop Solar Systems) Regulations, 2015 One Day Workshop on Grid Connected Solar Roof-top Projects in Maharashtra by MEDA Anant.

(considering 20% roofs are available/suitable) Back ground of MERC (Net Metering for Rooftop Solar Systems) Regulations, 2015 1.As per the directives of the Commission vide Order in Case No. 86 of 2013, A committee was formed to study technical issues in providing Grid connectivity to small Solar PV projects ( < 1 MW) 2.The committee submitted its report 25 July, 2014. The report/

ECE 576 – Power System Dynamics and Stability Prof. Tom Overbye University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1 Lecture 27: Renewable.

contained in photons of light into an electrical voltage and current Solar cells are diodes, creating dc power, which in grid applications is converted to ac by an inverter For terrestrial applications, the capacity factor is limited by night, relative movement/ cease to energize the Area EPS for faults on the Area EPS circuit to which it is connected.” (note EPS is electric power system) 65 Distributed PV System Modeling An issue is tripping on abnormal frequency or voltage conditions – IEEE Std 1547 says, /

1 Energy Storage Technology and its Application in Power System Xuehao Hu Deputy Chief Engineer of China Electric Power Research Institute Nov. 29, 2006.

is obvious, but the disadvantage is that it needs high investment 46 For PV power generation, especially for stand- alone PV system in remote area and not integrated with large power grid, energy storage facilities (lead-acid battery is often used for its cheap cost) are usually used For roof-top and grid connected PV power generation, energy storage may be or may not be used 47/

Off-Grid Hybrid Power Systems Components and Architectures

/PV system Village Scale Power Systems Larger, village scale power systems use centrally located power plants and distribute AC power to the connected homes. Single point of service and maintenance Usually use larger or multiple generation units to improve operation performance and benefit from quantities of scale benefits Act very much like small power utilities Provide “grid” style power Village System Architecture (DC) Micro-grid System Architecture (AC) Micro-Grid/

EE535: Renewable Energy: Systems, Technology & Economics

attractive Economics In grid-connected systems, the excess energy generated during the day can be exported to the grid, or stored Equally, in grid-connected systems, any shortfall can be imported from the grid or a storage device Government subsidies an tariffs and have a major impact on solar PV economics (e.g. Germany) Grid Connected vs Stand-Alone PV Panels DC/AC Grid Connect PV System user Storage PV Panels Regulator Stand-alone PV System user Options to/

Solar and Wind Power.

back-up by a diesel, gasoline or propane generator set? Classified Most new PV systems being installed in the United States are grid-connected residential systems without battery back-up. Many grid-connected AC systems are also being installed in commercial or public facilities. Two types: • Grid-connected AC system with no battery or generator back-up. • Grid-connected AC system with battery back-up. Photo Voltaics Photo Voltaics Photo Voltaics Solar Modules The/

1 | Program Name or Ancillary Texteere.energy.gov The Parker Ranch installation in Hawaii SOLAR PROGRAM: SYSTEMS INTEGRATION Solar Energy Technology Program.

output of PV systems. Improve the forecast of the solar resource to better integrate solar into electric utility systems. Grid Integration Distributed Generation Transmission High Penetration Smart Grid Integration Balance of Systems System Components R/Connected Distributed Solar and Storage Systems Serving as beneficial distribution system assets allowing greater amounts of solar to be integrated into the utility grid 8 | Program Name or Ancillary Texteere.energy.gov Solar Energy Grid Integrations Systems/

Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Smart Grids

losses are low. Power-transmission capability per cable is higher. Power Electronics for Smart Grids Photovoltaic Technology PV systems as an alternative energy resource Pros: High reliability Reasonable cost User-friendly design Power Electronics for Smart Grids Photovoltaic Inverters Reduced version of the centralized inverter single string of PV modules is connected to the inverter No losses on string diodes separate MPPTs increases the overall efficiency/

1 Copyright © 2009, Hitachi, Ltd., All rights reserved. 1 Hitachi’s experience in developing Smart Grids Shin-ichi INAGE Renewable Energy & Smart Grid.

Service Information Smart Grids Trial at Rokkasho Village 7 Copyright © 2009, Hitachi, Ltd., All rights reserved. 7 Photovoltaic ( Hitachi ) PCS PV(100kW) Hub Battery (250kW) Charge/ Discharge NAS Battery (NGK) Inter-connection Point Multi family housing PHV Futamata Window Power Generation Site ( JWD ) PHV Charger Smart House ( Toyota ) Control Center Smart House ( JWD ) Smart house ( Panasonic ) Over view of PV Overview of Solar Power System (100kW) 8/

COPYRIGHT © 2012 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11 A Systems Perspective for Managing Commercial Portfolios of Research and Technology for the Solar.

to leapfrog past centralized systems to distributed systems ­Closely tied to suitability for powering high value end-use applications ­PV has potential to ride network effects of applications it can support, just as RAM and ICs in general ride network effects of Internet, cell phone applications, and expansion of computing power ­Every new connection to an antique grid is a lost opportunity In Developed World/

The Polish Experience in PV Applications on the Example of 6 Years 1.1 kW System Operation at the Szczecin University of Technology ANNA MAJCHRZYCKA, ZBIGNIEW.

&III quater I&IVquater Hours Radiation intensity, kW/m 2 Polish regions with different conditions for solar energy utilization Data of commissioned: February 1999 Location Direction S Angle of inclination44° Grid connected PV system at Szczecin University of Technology G R I D INVERTER Photovoltaic panel Data monitoring and collecting Data monitoring and collecting Description of/

Session 17 Grid Tied PV Systems – Part 6 Three-Phase Systems Siting and Mechanical Considerations October 29, 2015.

Session 17 Grid Tied PV Systems – Part 6 Three-Phase Systems Siting and Mechanical Considerations October 29, 2015 Session 17 content Grid-Connected PV Systems o Wrap-up of Residential PV System Example o Design Considerations for Large Scale Systems 2 Learning Outcomes An examination of the impact of size (scale) on photovoltaic system design 3 Grid-Tied PV – Larger Scale Systems o At most power plants, AC electricity is generated in 3-phase format o/

Capacity and market potential for grid-connected systems by 2010, Heiko Unzalu, EPIA Economist, Frankfurt, 22 December 2005 Capacity and market potential.

.Market Development II.Production III.Pricing IV.Conclusion Table of contents Capacity and market potential for grid-connected systems by 2010, Heiko Unzalu, EPIA Economist, Frankfurt, 22 December 2005 III.Pricing Price Composition of a PV System in 2005 15% 70% 15% Installation BOS Module Capacity and market potential for grid-connected systems by 2010, Heiko Unzalu, EPIA Economist, Frankfurt, 22 December 2005 Average: -5% All %-numbers after/

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