Ppt on gender inequality in india

Johannes Jütting OECD Development Centre

to such traditions despite their legal interdiction Not in men’s interest - Examples: polygamy, repudiation - Inequality provides men with material advantages that they lose upon reform Limited enforcement of reforms - Example: Widely toleration of violence against women by police in northern states of India - Wide gap in performance between the publication of a law and its effective implementation Gender equality is getting more and more attention/


World in Crisis Global Imbalances: Inequality in the World Today Dr Malcolm Fairbrother School of Geographical Sciences World in Crisis.

between 1950 and 1980: between-nation inequality began declining between-nation inequality began declining within-nation inequality began expanding within-nation inequality began expanding however, between-nation inequality depends on how you treat two key countries: China and India however, between-nation inequality depends on how you treat two key countries: China and India in other words: Do you weight by population? in other words: Do you weight by population/


1 Why do we think that education of women the nearest we have to a magic bullet in development? Richard Palmer-Jones School of International Development,

kills and maims persons Illustrate with 4 examples –Whatever happened to fertility in Nigeria?- John Caldwell, 1979 –Does gender inequality in education harm growth? - Stephen Klasen (,2002, & 2009) –Are females are better transmitters and receivers of literacy externalities? - Basu & Foster, 1998 & Basu, Narayan & Ravallion, 2001,.. –Does educating females reduce fertility, infant mortality, & gender discrimination in India? Murthi, Guido & Dreze, 1996, and Dreze and Murthi, 2001. –These ill/


Gender and equality in India AST1ICI lecture 5 Banaras ca. 1979, Bengali couple.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T10H53Ssjd8.

/wcm/connect/doit_publicity/Information+and+Publicity/Home/Coun cil+of+Ministers http://bspindia.org/kumari-mayawati.php Gender equality=general equality? Gender inequality in India has to be seen alongside the issue of caste and economic inequalities. Can gender equality be attained whilst there is still such large caste and class inequality in India? Images from a wedding ritual: Banaras ca. 2006 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr6Eh-wmqTQ/


IPG, Week 22. Workshop Aims Continue to draw connections across the module Provoke refinements in your revision strategies Think through the remaining.

first free and fair elections in 1994, still in power Decades of racial inequalities cannot be overcome quickly Women’s coalition ensured gender could not be ignored, but many black women still can’t exercise their new rights Has feminism been diluted through incorporation? Ongoing problems of sexual violence, feminization of (black) poverty, HIV/Aids, brutality of mine work India: Colonialism and Nationalism Nationalism: political/


Women’s Rights South Asia. Objectives Identify the causes and effects of gender inequality in India Analyze map statistics of countries with high and.

Women’s Rights South Asia Objectives Identify the causes and effects of gender inequality in India Analyze map statistics of countries with high and low rates of discrimination Define arranged marriage Identify the different types of violence suffered by women in South Asia and discuss cases of violence Identify Education statistics in South Asia Warm up How did the partition of the Indian subcontinent ignite conflict? T/


Mortality Inequality Sam Peltzman Booth School of Business University of Chicago 1.

Several Questions How can we measure this kind of inequality? In a metric comparable to income inequality measures? What has happened over time? And how does this compare to income inequality trends? How does inequality of lifetimes vary Across countries? Across genders? What can we say about future trends? 2 Mortality Inequality & Income Inequality Income inequality is one dimension of overall inequality Potentially misleading as measure of personal welfare Income/


Social Inequality.

and women. inequalities due to race and gender co-exist with and to some extent cut across those due to occupation but they exist in a moral and cultural environment whose basic premise is equality. Egalitarian in aspiration and hierarchical in organisation There is a fundamental difference between the equality in modern Western societies and other societies in India the basic guiding principle in social relations is inequality. Ascription and/


Integrating a gender perspective into poverty statistics United Nations Statistics Division.

non-consumption indicators of poverty Non-consumption indicators more successful in illustrating gender inequality in the allocation of resources within the household –Measured at individual level –Correspond to a shift in thinking poverty: from poverty as economic resources to avoid/49 who have experienced physical violence since age 15 by wealth quintile, India, 2005-06 Source: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, 2007. National Health Family Survey 2005-06 Example: Primary school net/


Development and Health Differences in development within ELDCs or… Why simple development indicators may not reflect the true quality of life within a.

g: Saudi Arabian royal family, India’s caste system e.g Afghanistan 1. Regional variations Example: Brazil 1 Centre-west 2 Northeast 3 North 4 Southeast 5 Southern Brazil’s regions Regional inequalities in Brazil. South-eastSouthCentre-westNorth-eastNorth %/ are accepted, Dalit children are not given equal opportunities in many schools. In the photo, above, Dalit children are being denied lunch at a public school in Bihar. 2. by gender differences …where women are second class citizens… Individual variations/


The Feminist Economics of Trade: recent research on a two-way relationship Workshop ‘How to integrate a gender perspective into NCCR trade regulation’,

-production strategy Free trade doe not necessarily remove price discrimination, but can re-enforce segmented quantity adjustments: protection helps gender equalit y 18 Does import competition reduce gender inequality in India? In concentrated industries the residual gender wage gap increases with increasing openness to trade Explanation: competition reduces rents in those industries and male workers have obtained a higher share of these rents, though stronger bargaining power (unions/


Closing the gap in a generation Michael Marmot UCL Chair of WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health Santiago, Chile September 2008.

urgency to take action on SDH Outline Inequities and the social gradient Convergence of challenges; Addressing the challenges –/Gender Equity Political empowerment – inclusion and voice CSDH – Areas for Action Global slum upgrading Cost estimate: less than US$ 100 billion. Finance on shared basis, for instance by –international agencies and donors (45%), –national and local governments (45%), and –households themselves (10%), helped by micro-credit schemes. Slum upgrading in India Slum upgrading in Ahmadabad, India/


World in Crisis Global Imbalances: Inequality in the World Today Dr Malcolm Fairbrother School of Geographical Sciences World in Crisis.

: declining between-nation inequality outweighs increasing within-nation inequality A: declining between-nation inequality outweighs increasing within-nation inequality therefore… global inequality is now declining therefore… global inequality is now declining but only because of India and, even more so, China (and in the rest of the world inequality is increasing) but only because of India and, even more so, China (and in the rest of the world inequality is increasing) and/


Kelvin Asia Pacific United Nations style debates & role play: Resolutions ✦ Income Inequality ✦ Combatting extremism, radicalization and fundamentalism.

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing15/general_discussion/KUWAI T.pdf Global Gender Gap (click on 2014 to rank by achievement): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Gender_Gap_Report Gender Inequality in Saudi Arabia: Myth and Reality: http://ipedr.com/vol39/025-ICITE2012-/drafted by Country Delegates seeking to earn bonus marks (due by March 3 rd ) Moved by the Republic of India, seconded by the People’s Republic of China the 2016 Asia Pacific Conference: Recommends all Member States to contribute to/


Inclusive WASH: Gender. Welcome and introductions  Di Kilsby Gender and Training Advisor at International Womens Development Agency  Dr Juliet Willetts.

in India, Bangladesh, Iraq, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Mexico, Argentina and Kenya. Gender in WASH >Do you think gender is important in WASH? Why? >Answer the poll question! Focusing on gender is important for WASH because… Benefits of a gender focusRisks of not making gender/: Tanzania Gender Networking Program  So it is important that we consider the gender implications of everything we do. Gender at different levels Gender inequality needs to be addressed at all levels – family, community, in organisations, /


AP World Review May 2011.

based on selective literacy. Compared to noncivilized societies, what are the major drawbacks of civilization? Often have inequality in social structure and gender as well as disease and war. Early Man Beginnings of Humans Other Types of Early Man Hominids: 3/Incursion of Islam into Southeast Asia almost entirely as a result of establishment of trade routes from Muslim ports in India Sufi mystics and traders carried Islam to port cities within Southeast Asia from port cities Islam disseminated to other /


Gender, Sexuality and HIV: So What?

10: Participatory Learning and Action with Truck Drivers in India. [CARE, 2007] Programming Implications Effectively addressing sexuality offers opportunities to enhance effective HIV programming. To do so, programming needs to Be grounded in specific social context; Consider all dimensions of sexuality; Identify and respond to existing gendered sexual norms and inequalities; and Invest in research and capacity-building on gender, sexuality and stigma & discrimination By not fully/


Embodied labours: migrants in Greater Londons service sector May 2008 Linda McDowell School of Geography, University of Oxford.

Inequalities and Public PolicyWithin-household Inequalities and Public Policy –Gender, Ethnicity, Migration and Service Employment –Class and Gender, Employment and FamilyClass and Gender, Employment and Family Theme 3: Policy Responses to Gender Inequalities –Addressing Gender Inequality through Corporate GovernanceAddressing Gender Inequality through Corporate Governance –Tackling Inequalities in/, previously in the army, early 20s) Migrants in WCH I am from Afghanistan. I came through India and Russia/


Dr. Maheshwar Singh Associate Professor National Law University, Delhi

women, this approach does give some insight into the acuteness of the problem of gender inequality in matters of life and death. The planning commission of India (an apex body for planned development chaired by the Prime Minister of Indian has /by society and the state Important constitutional and Legal Provisions for women empowerment and equality In India The Potential for promoting women’s equality and gender justice is buttressed by the rich legal sources including a powerful constitution and major /


Social Protection Policies in the Context of Rising Inequalities and Social Sustainability in India Ravi Srivastava Professor of Economics, JNU, New Delhi.

in levels of living, interpersonal and inter- regional inequalities have increased sharply in India. Rapid growth has necessitated faster rates of exploitation of forest and mineral resources and acquisition of land, threatening livelihoods in rural and tribal areas. Large scale militant (naxalite) movements in/ rankings in almost all measures of human development. India’s rankings on food, nutrition, gender and poverty issues in the last decade have either remained stagnant or have worsened. India is home/


Indian Statistical Institute

the report of this Technical Group. Inequality Situations in India The trend in the inequality as judged by the Gini Index is just the opposite. While the urban India showed almost an increasing trend in inequality the situation in rural India was oscillating, but did not show / National Programme for Education of Girls (NPEGL), implemented in the last decade of the last century or in the beginning of this century. NPEGL also had some role in reducing the gender gap in literacy. Year M F All 1981 56.50 29/


United Nations Statistics DivisionRegional Workshop on Integrating a Gender Perspective in the Production of Statistics, Amman, Jordan, 1-4 December 2014.

gender statistics United Nations Statistics DivisionRegional Workshop on Integrating a Gender Perspective in the Production of Statistics, Amman, Jordan, 1-4 December 2014 A. Use of non-consumption indicators of poverty Non-consumption indicators more successful in illustrating gender inequality in/ Workshop on Integrating a Gender Perspective in the Production of Statistics, Amman, Jordan, 1-4 December 2014 Source: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India, 2007. National Health /


SOC101Y Introduction to Sociology Professor Robert Brym Lecture #13 Global Inequality 23 Jan 13.

gender inequality.  Participation rate of women in the paid labour force. The lower the rate, the higher the level of gender inequality.  Prevalence of female genital mutilation. The higher the prevalence, the higher the level of gender inequality. Indicators of Gender Inequality Main Determinants of Gender Inequality Worldwide: Multiple Regression Analysis Variation in gender inequality Effect of variation in/(considered less valuable than China and India) Dependency Theory III Neo-colonialism established/


Global Inequality Jan Luiten van Zanden UU/Groningen/Stellenbosch.

: China, Japan, India (‘Great Divergence debate’) The ‘problem’ of Africa Recent trends in research From research focused/in “How Was Life?” book DimensionIndicator(s) Economic standard of livingGDP per capita Inequality Income inequality; Real unskilled wages Health StatusLife Expectancy; Height Education and SkillsEducational attainment Personal securityHomicide, Incidence of warfare Civic Engagement and Governance Political institutions Environmental QualitySO2; CO2; Species abundance Gender Inequality/


GLOBAL INEQUITIES AND HEALTH PROFESSION MIGRATION Janet Hatcher Roberts Anita A. Davies International Organization for Migration Geneva, Switzerland.

Fr Guyana UK Italy Source: worldmapper.org Global Inequity: Poverty Distribution of Poverty in the World www.worldmapper.org USA Canada Nigeria Ethiopia Egypt Kenya India Indonesia Bangladesh Philippines China Japan Russian Federation Australia Pakistan/ and sustain health systems capacity building and facilitate exchange and return of diaspora: a balanced approach: gender, professionals not just doctors; community based Promote and support ethical recruitment and retention strategies, agreements, guidelines/


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-11 Economic and Social Development Department Gender, Climate.

remain fallow  work on publicly funded construction projects  buy less nutritious rice from the government Common responses Different options (India) Women  face discrimination, limited landholding, less access to information and institutional support Men  have access to information on /practices on both intra and inter household food security best policies and practices to reduce gender inequalities in access to rural resources, services, decision making Food and Agriculture Organization of the United/


25 January 20051 Addressing Gender Inequality: an International prospective Pierella Paci Regional Gender Coordinator Europe and Central Asia Region The.

economic and social rights Corruption Index 25 January 200511 2. Inequality remains pervasive Gender disparities are found in all regions and countries Are especially large in: –Low income countries –Low income households 25 January 200512 Gender gaps in education are often largest in low-income countries Male/Female Enrollment Ratios, 6-14 years old Morocco Pakistan India Tanzania Kazakstan Brazil Indonesia Egypt Turkey 0.0 0.5 1/


Extent and Dimensions of Gender Bias in India Premananda Bharati, Manoranjan Pal and Bholanath Ghosh Indian Statistical Institute 203 BT Road, Kolkata.

to Median – 2 SD  Median – 2 SD < Median – 2 SD Wasting Literacy rate in India: 1951-2011 Increase in Literacy Gender differences are also commonly seen in case of intra-household food distribution in different caste groups, but not in the tribal communities. Study on food distribution among tribal populations in India did not show gender inequality in food distribution at household level while it exists among the caste communities. The study/


Gender inequities in Kerala Dr. Jayasree.A.K. Gender inequities in Kerala Beyond women’s education The constraints on women’s economic, social and political.

Gender inequities in Kerala Dr. Jayasree.A.K Gender inequities in Kerala Beyond women’s education The constraints on women’s economic, social and political participation in all levels Lack of power and control over resources Leads to inequity in health Inequities observed Between genders within gender Among Age groups Socio-economic groups Socio-cultural groups Tribal Sexuality Geographical areas Tribal coastal Maternal Mortality Ratio Still high 66 per lakh (India-178) as against/


Sanjay Ranade, Head, Department of Communicaton and Journalism, University of Mumbai 1 Studying Indian States India, Economic Development and Social Opportunity,

has played a crucial role in the reduction of social inequalities based on caste, gender, and (to some extent) class.  Political organization has also been important in enabling disadvantaged groups to take an active part in the general processes of economic/Basic Equality, Social Security and Health Care  One part of the task of reducing social and economic inequalities in India involves the expansion of social security provisions, broadly understood as social arrangements to protect all members of /


“Towards Social Justice in Health”

Realizing health rights & entitlements within a time frame. Achieving equity in health through public policy & action Addressing inequalities in access to the distal determinants of health Right to Health Movement : India 2001 Primary Health Care and Health for All Redefining Community Participation by Civil Society in India 2000-2008 Right to health campaign Right Equity Gender Right to Information People’s Tribunals On Right to Health Regional/


Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) UK

required. Such an approach can meet multiple objectives such as nutrition, gender equality and sustainability. Most current policy responses focus on supply side (/ interventions needs to be put in place in a number of scales. Apart from nutrition intervention, others may focus on addressing inequities and strengthening legal commitments and /article/748/food-aid#Themajorplayersinthefoodaidgame) RIGHT TO FOOD: Case Study India Right to food: India Food Security Bill Establishing food as a legal right, the/


Chapter 9: Gender Inequality

income SOURCE: UNDP 2011a. 24 Violence against women Violence against women is institutionalized in varying ways around the world. Dowry disputes in India Sharia law in Islamic countries Foot-binding in China Genital mutilation in many countries Forced prostitution (sex trafficking) Culture of misogyny A less data-driven measure of gender inequality is the way in which violence against women continues the world over. Sadly, violence against women is/


UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INEQUALITIES

has an important role to play in tackling these forms of discrimination and promoting greater equality, inclusion, and diversity. Gender Gender differences in health and mortality are complex and not/inequalities Towards equity in Health The heterogeneity in the scale and interplay of the substantial challenges to health care in the states and districts needs contextually relevant solutions. India has made much progress in the past few years, with several innovative pilot programmes and initiatives in/


What is Social Stratification?

any work performed under threat of punishment and undertaken involuntarily. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Napa Agriculture, mining, prostitution, and / Inc. All rights reserved. Marriage and Family Symbolic Interaction Gender, Housework, and Child Care Gender Division of Labor Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. /: Perpetuating Social Inequality Correspondence Principle Family Background Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Concerned with the individual and small-group issues in education: Teacher-/


Women in India How free? How equal?. Women’s freedom and equality At some time or the other, we have all heard the comment, ‘Gender is a Western concept.

not a homogenous group – women belonging to privileged and dominant classes and castes enjoy many freedoms and opportunities that are denied to men from subordinate and disprivileged groups. Gender inequality is not the only inequality in India – women are unfree and unequal, but so are dalits, members of subordinate castes and communities, landless people, displaced people, migrants, the homeless, disabled people and many other groups/


A.P. WORLD HISTORY: THEMES. S.C.R.I.P.T.E.D. SOCIAL STRUCTURES  Economic, Social Classes  Gender Roles, Relations  Inequalities  Family, Kinship 

Inequalities especially Gender EARLY MODERN ERA 1450 – 1750 CE 1450 – 1750 CE Rise of gunpowder empires Rise of gunpowder empires An Age of Absolutism An Age of Absolutism Rise of Western Europe Rise of Western Europe Religious Strife Religious Strife World Shrinks World Shrinks All continents included in world network All continents included in/The American Century, Retreat of Europe Rise of Pacific Rim, India Rise of Pacific Rim, India Collapse of European empires Collapse of European empires Jihad vs. /


Innovation Systems and Inequality: Indian Experience K J Joseph Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram Lakhwinder Singh Punjabi University,

for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram Background Globalisation and Inequality Origin and Rise of Inequality Structuralist-Evolutionary Approach Development Strategy and Inequality Co-evolution of NIS and Inequality in India Phase I-Growth With Equity-Reducing injustice Import/literacy has improved but still gender gap is 0.7 Gender gap in wages is also very high Access to Health Continuous improvements in Health Indicators, but gini coefficient shows stagnation in the post- liberalisation period Piling/


Integrating a gender perspective into poverty statistics Workshop on Integrating a Gender Perspective into National Statistics, Kampala, Uganda 4 - 7 December.

allocation of resources –Fewer resources may be allocated to women Yet, difficult to measure intrahousehold inequality using consumption as an indicator of individual welfare. Non-consumption indicators more successful in illustrating gender inequality in the allocation of resources within the household –Measured at individual level –Correspond to a shift in thinking: from poverty as economic resources to avoid deprivation to poverty as actual level of deprivation/


Growth and Inequality in India and Brazil Cebrap-IHD project on Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India December 2013.

on Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India December 2013 Growth and inequality in India and Brazil2 Gini Coefficient of Household Income (Brazil) and Household Expenditure (India), 1993 - 2009 Growth and inequality in India and Brazil3 4 Comparative analysis Quantitative cross-section – Using national sample surveys to investigate patterns of inter-household inequalities in consumption/income or interpersonal inequalities in earnings – Key dimensions education, sex, caste, race, gender, region, sector/


Contribution of Governance and Administration Cluster in Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Presentation to Portfolio Committee on Public.

Poverty and Hunger *SMS 50% Quota *Interventionist Policies and Programmes Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women *IBSA *OECD *UNCAC *APRM Develop a /inequality remain part of major challenges facing South Africa  Using the gini-coefficient, inequality worsened from 0.64 to 0.66 in 2008  Statistics indicates that while absolute and relative poverty have declined, inequality/, DoE and PALAMA.  During a session of the JMC held in India in December 2006, it was agreed that a Human Resource Development (HRD/


Gender in Medical Education Mala Ramanathan Associate Professor AMCHSS.

social inequities = recognizing gender inequities as well Medical Education Medical Education reiterates these values with respect to the relationships between –the patients and professionals, –the professionals such as the doctor and the nurse –the teacher and the taught This is a reflection of the fact that Medicine as a discipline is male centric, in terms of –Language –Knowledge base –World view Medical Education in India Changing/


Definitions of religion 1) Substantive: Focus of the content or substance of religious belief as a belief in God or the supernatural. Weber defines religion.

(BJP) a Hindu fundamentalist group in India, who believe India should be Hindu rather than secular lines. Fundamentalism Cosmopolitanism -Defend traditional beliefs in the literal truth of scriptures and/society had used to legitimate social class inequality. -Weber: Society has become more rational and humans act less in terms of emotion and tradition; religion/time & have more time for religion. Church could be a source for gender identity. Caring for family increases for religiosity. Women and the New Age./


Inequality: Where are we? Oslo May, 2011 Jaime Saavedra Poverty Reduction and Equity THE WORLD BANK.

reduced child mortality over last two decades……… Source: DHS, STATcompiler But inequalities across and within countries are large Large differences across quintiles (although convergence in India, Indonesia and Peru) Source: DHS, STATcompiler But no convergence between / outside one’s control E.g. race, gender, parental education, wealth, geographic location). In terms of school attendance, African countries are comparable with many countries in LAC region – in coverage and HOI Africa and Latin America (late/


Gender Equality in Education: the Role of Schools Jyotsna Jha Adviser, Commonwealth Secretariat, London Nottingham, 17 October, 2008.

refers to equality of (and ensuring the desired level of) Entitlements, Opportunities, Experiences and Outcomes in education for both boys and girls. Gender equality in education is also one of the MDG and EFA commitments; difficult to measure though. Gender equality in education critical for elimination of other forms gender inequalities. Gender equality in education: The role of educational institutions What is the role of educational institutions imparting education/


Development and The Social Construction of Gender in India Anja Kovacs Room 2.73 16 March 2007.

and political power Women and the Hindu Right (Feminist) Agency? But at whose expense? Women and arrack in Andra Pradesh Additional References Kapadia, Karin (2002). Translocal modernities and transformations of gender and caste. In Karin Kapadia (ed.), The violence of development: The politics of identity, gender and social inequalities in India. London: Zed. Raheja, Gloria Goodwin and Ann Grodzins Gold (1994). Listen to the herons words: reimaging/


Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) UK

Qualitative indicators dealing with vulnerability, Inequality, empowerment and human rights. BUT the global measures of inequality and poverty are fraught with difficulties. In terms of inequality, the development discourse refers to gender and malnutrition mostly in LEDCs countries. Adverse political and/ South, the UNDP now reports on the “Rise of the South” with significant advances in countries like Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey. (See http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports//


Gerd-Hanne Fosen Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research EFA Global Monitoring Report 2 0 0 9 Overcoming inequality: why governance matters.

 Wealth: children from rich and poor backgrounds move in different worlds.  Other inequalities:  gender  location (rural v. urban)  minorities  language  disability Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009 12 Net attendance rate and primary attainment among the poorest and the richest 20% Richest 20% Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso Ethiopia Ghana Haiti India Indonesia Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Rwanda Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso/


Gender, Medicines, and the Road to Equity #AreWeThereYet? Emily Delmotte Management Sciences for Health March 7, 2014 Global Health Mini-University.

MDG Taskforce Report, 2012; Gender, women, and primary health care renewal, 2010; Wager, 2013; Stephens, 2013 Image source: © 2009 Gabrielle Elkaim, Courtesy of Photoshare Why Focus on Gender? Sex vs. gender Gender inequities can result in differential access to and /default Differential access to health education in rural India may have resulted in delayed recognition of TB symptoms and delayed presentation of care among women Reference: Khan, 2000; Atre, 2004 Availability Studies in the US have found that /


Haryana, India J.C. Katyal Vice Chancellor. South Asia (SA) Region As per the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), SA comprises of.

stressed agriculture, high levels of rural poverty, gender inequality and social exclusion, natural resources degradation, depletion of land and water and a growing rural urban divide South Asia - Farmers Farmers living in different realities and facing different futures: small and/ limited (typically to WWF), unable to offer real time solutions. Use of digital solutions only on margins Operational holdings in India Holding size (ha) and category Area (%)Holdings (%) < 0.5, near landless7.042 0.5-1.0, /


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