Ppt on file system in unix command

1 UNIX System Programming Introduction. 2 Outline UNIX History UNIX Today? UNIX Processes and the Login Process Shells: Command Processing, Running Programs.

1 UNIX System Programming Introduction 2 Outline UNIX History UNIX Today? UNIX Processes and the Login Process Shells: Command Processing, Running Programs The File The Process System Calls and Library Routines 3 UNIX History Developed in the late 1960s and 1970s at Bell Labs UNICS – a pun MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computer Service) which was supposed to support 1000 on line users but only handled a /


Prof. Mario Dantas mario@inf.ufsc.br http://www.inf.ufsc.br Advanced Course on Bioinformatic and Comparative Genome Analysis UFSC – Florianopolis - June.

pipe System V IPC message queues semaphores shared memory Sockets (client/server model) p1 p2 Pipelines Output of one program becomes input to another Uses concept of UNIX pipes Example: $ who | wc -l counts the number of users logged in Pipelines can be long What’s the difference? $ cat file | command $ command < file Both of these commands send input to command from a file instead of the terminal: $ cat file | command vs. $ command < file/


Introduction to Unix (CA263) File System

command Explain and use paths, pathnames, and prompts Navigate the file system Create and remove directories Copy and delete files Configure file permissions Understanding UNIX/Linux File Systems File: basic component for data storage UNIX/Linux considers everything to be a file A file system is UNIX/Linux’s way of organizing files on mass storage devices A physical file system is a section of the hard disk that has been formatted to hold files The file system is organized in/


CIS 240 Introduction to UNIX Instructor: Sue Sampson.

not specified in the command line, the kernel assigns these files as follows:  stdinkeyboard  stdoutdisplay screen  stderrdisplay screen CIS240 – UNIX File Redirection Remember -- the UNIX file system supports: - Simple/ordinary files - Directories - Symbolic (soft) links - Special files (devices) - Named pipes (FIFO) - Hard links CIS240 – UNIX File Redirection When Executing Commands We can re-direct the input to a command from any Unix file We can re-direct the output from a command to any Unix file We/


Introduction to UNIX A User’s Perspective: Day 3: Advanced Commands & vi.

procs=‘echo “Number of processes are: ”;ps | wc –l’ Issue the command ‘procs’ – $ procs – $ alias ll=‘ls –al’ – $alias l=‘ls’ These can be placed in your.profile so they are always available Understanding Your Environment env – Values that /bash.script What Should You Know? How to Log on and off of a UNIX system Be familiar with UNIX shells Be familiar with the UNIX file system UNIX Paths, ownership and permissions Use UNIX commands Use vi Write a basic shell script Question? Anyone… anyone? THANK YOU FOR /


A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition

Portmap service: Handles RPC request to mount a partition Makes computer act like a server for NFS file access A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition Sharing Resources Using Network File System (continued) To start a service, use service command service portmap NFS security handled through entries in: /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny, and /etc/exports /home/mpalmer/shared 192.168.0.72(ro/


Spring 2004FSU COP 4342 Unix Tools1 Unix Environment What we learn this time: –Big figure of Unix environments – basic concepts and design principles of.

command saved in a file –Look at the example used in the text mac2unix Spring 2004FSU COP 4342 Unix Tools13 Converting a MAC file to Unix MAC file ends each line with carriage return (015). Unix file ends each line with linefeed (012). $ tr ‘ 15’ ‘ 12’ file.unix You can save “tr ‘ 15’ ‘ 12’” into a file, say mac2unix $ chmod +x mac2unix $ mac2unix file.unix Spring 2004FSU COP 4342 Unix Tools14 Internal and External Commands Internal commandsInternal commands/


Unix Administration CSIE.NCKU 1 email 4 As System Administrators it is important that you learn how to use electronic forms of communication. Start checking.

# of people on the system. 4 mv progs/* /usr/steve/backup : move all the files from progs sub-directory into the directory /usr/steve/backup. When you are moving multiple files the destination must be a directory. Unix Administration CSIE.NCKU 9 Some commands 4 ls *.c | wc -l : similar to a) should count the number of files with filenames which end in.c 4 who | sort/


TDC368 UNIX and Network Programming Camelia Zlatea, PhD Week 9:  Introduction to UNIX Shells  C-Shell.

commands to remember. set savehist=20 # number to save across sessions. set system=`hostname` # name of this system. set prompt = "$system:> " # command prompt. set autologout=20 alias l ls alias info ‘(who am i; date )’ UNIX Network Programming – TDC368-901Page 5 Spring 2003 Introduction to UNIX Shells  File/[*] all arguments  Example: #!/bin/csh -f # The greetings script # This script greets a user whose name is typed in at the command line. echo $0 to you $1 $2 $3 set d = ‘date’ set dd = $d[1-3] echo/


Introduction to UNIX A User’s Perspective: Day 1 – The File System.

= Left h = Right i = Insert x = Delete Shift-U = Undo ESC when in trouble ;) The Windows/UNIX difference Capable of getting under the hood – Windows – Difficult The Registry – Nuff said! – UNIX – Manageable Configuration files Fundamental knowledge expandable What we will Cover Today Definition of UNIX (2 slides!) UNIX File System Basic Commands Ownership & Permissions Shells UNIX What is it? Multi-user System File based system Extensible Honed for networking Portable – runs on anything/


1 CSCD 496 Computer Forensics Lecture 10 More Unix for Forensics Winter 2010.

Forensics Winter 2010 2 Introduction Last time looked at file systems in Unix/Linux systemsFiles, file systems, partitions Today –Native Unix commands useful for forensics investigations –Examine places for evidence – Unix/Linux 3 Where to look for files Where would you look for user information in Linux/Unix? 4 Where to look for files Where would you find user files Linux/Unix? /etc/passwd User Id, encrypted password or *, User Number, Group number, Users Name, Login/


Understanding Operating Systems Sixth Edition

chapter, you should be able to describe: The goals of UNIX designers The significance of using files to manipulate devices The strengths and weaknesses of having competing versions of UNIX The advantages of command-driven user interfaces The roles of the Memory, Processor, Device, and File Managers in UNIX Understanding Operating Systems, Sixth Edition Overview Unlike many OS, UNIX isn’t limited to specific computers using a particular microprocessor/


Chapter Ten Networking with UNIX. Objectives Describe the origins and history of the UNIX operating system Identify similarities and differences between.

access code to the source UNIX systems make great Internet servers One characteristic of all UNIX systems is a user- definable command interpreter Chapter Summary The UNIX system was among the first operating systems to include a hierarchical file system Each UNIX process represents an instance of a running executable program in core memory UNIX commands can be likened to ordinary sentences Most UNIX commands are lowercase alphabetic characters Chapter Summary Command names are usually acronyms or/


UNIX for Programmers and Users” Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, GRAHAM GLASS, KING ABLES Slides partially adapted from Kumoh National University of Technology.

input to other commands as in-line text, $ cat << eof > line 1 > line 2 > line 3 > eof line 1 line 2 line 3 $ _ UNIX Shells Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-495426 FILENAME SUBSTITUTION( WILDCARDS ) - All shells support a wildcard facility that allows you to select files that satisfy a particular name pattern from the file system. - The wildcards and/


Operating System (OS)  A computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. controlling and allocating memorycontrolling.

of a process telnetConnect to a remote system using the Telnet protocol Basic UNIX commandsCommands in UNIX are case- sensitive.  File name cannot have space in- between, otherwise UNIX will separate into different files. VI: UNIX text editor  Vi is a screen-oriented text editor computer program written by Bill Joy in 1976 for an early BSD release. VI: UNIX text editor  Insert mode [i]  Command mode [:] Ex.:q exit from viEx.:q/


UNIX Chapter 00 A “ Quick Start ” into UNIX Operating System Mr. Mohammad Smirat.

now. $ who jlp tty0 sep 20 10:05 you tty2 sep 22 10:34 Printing Files Two command to print files in UNIX systems. On System V UNIX the command lp is used to print a file and lpr command is used on System BSD UNIX. With the lpr command, you need the option –P to specify the printer name to print on and –n option to determine the number of copies to be/


Guide To UNIX Using Linux Third Edition

range of editing tasks – this offers flexibility in terms of file manipulation Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition Reviewing UNIX/Linux File Types Regular files, also known as ordinary files Create information that you maintain and manipulate, and include ASCII and binary files Directories System files for maintaining file system structure Guide to UNIX Using Linux, Third Edition Reviewing UNIX/Linux File Types (continued) Special files Character special files relate to serial I/O devices Block/


UNIX for Non-Programmers Lecturer: Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Phone: 818-677-4954 “UNIX for Programmers and Users” Third Edition,

: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-495413 Organization of the manual pages The typical division of topics in manual pages (sections) is as follows: 1.Commands and Application Programs. 2.System Calls 3.Library Functions 4.Special Files 5.File Formats 6.Games 7.Miscellaneous 8.System Administration Utilities UNIX for Non-Programmers Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-495414 Using man/


Why UNIX? Superior Initial Design –Multi-user, Multiprogramming, Protected mode, Many Support many Devices –Written to optimize the use of memory and maximize.

is the part of the OS always in memory Includes –File system –Device manager –memory management –process scheduler –well defined interface GUI: Point and click (many wrappers to the X- Window interface) Shells: command line Users GUIsShells Hardware Kernel Shells A command-line interface that allows users to directly access operating system capabilities There are more than one shells possible in UNIX: csh, bash, tsch, ksh, etc Text/


Introduction to Unix System Programming

the termination code of their last child process via one of their special variables. bash stores the termination code of the last command in the variable $?: Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954 $ cat myexit.c /only supported by System V. named pipes have a larger buffer capacity, typically about 40K. - Named pipes exist as special files in the file system and may be created in one of two ways:  by using the UNIX mknod utility  by using the “mknod()” system call Prof./


BIL101:Introduction to Computers and Information Systems Introduction to Unix Fundamental Commands The Linux User’ Guide by Larry Greenfiled Edited and.

. It has been said that the only standard thing about all UNIX systems is the message- of-the-day telling users to clean up their files. The fundamental commands of the Unix operating system are included in the chapter. Everything told for Unix here is applicable to the Linux operating system also. Unix Commands: When you first log into a unix system, you are presented with something that looks like the following: /home/


1 Introduction to Unix: Fundamental Commands Ass. Prof. Emin Korkut.

Unix commands, type end-of-file character (Hold down the key labelled "Ctrl and press "d, then let go of both.). The end-of-file character is also denoted by EOF for short. 7 Helping Yourself The man(manual) command displays reference pages for the command. man will also display information on a system call, a subroutine, a file format, and more. For now, youre probably only interested in/


Network+ Guide to Networks 5th Edition

file system Solaris native file system UFS (UNIX file system) Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition Network File Systems Analogous to Windows shares Attach shared file systems (drives) From Windows, other UNIX servers Share files with users on other computers UNIX and Linux popular remote file system type Sun Microsystems’ NFS (Network File System) Open source application implementing Windows SMB, CIFS file system protocols Samba Network+ Guide to Networks, 5th Edition A UNIX and Linux Command Sampler/


CSCI 330 T HE UNIX S YSTEM File operations. OPERATIONS ON REGULAR FILES 2 CSCI 330 - The UNIX System Create Edit Display Contents Display Contents Print.

lines that are common in two sorted files Syntax: comm [options] file-1 file-2 The output contains three columns: Column1 contains lines unique to file-1 Column 2 contains lines unique to file-2 Column 3 contains lines common to both files 17 CSCI 330 - The UNIX System COMPARING FILES: DIFF The command diff compares two files line by line Syntax: diff [options] file-1 file-2 If file-1 and file-2 are the/


CSCI 330 T HE UNIX S YSTEM Bash Programming. B ASIC S HELL P ROGRAMMING A script is a file that contains shell commands data structure: variables control.

XAMPLE : REMOVING TEMP FILES #! /bin/bash trap cleanup; exit 2 cleanup () { /bin/rm -f /tmp/tempfile.$$.? } for i in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 do echo "$i.iteration" touch /tmp/tempfile.$$.$i sleep 1 done cleanup 65 CSCI 330 - The Unix System R ESTORING DEFAULT HANDLERS trap without a command list will remove a signal handler Use this to run a signal/


Chapter 15 UNIX and Linux Operating Systems Understanding Operating Systems, Fourth Edition.

are not allowed within path names Understanding Operating Systems, Fourth Edition57 Directories in UNIX and Linux Table 15.4: List of files stored in the directory journal from the system illustrated in Figure 15.7. The command ls -l (short for “listing-long”) was used to generate this list Understanding Operating Systems, Fourth Edition58 Directories in UNIX and Linux (continued) “long listing” of files in a directory shows eight pieces of information for/


Using Unix. Goals Understand the roles of an operating system.Understand the roles of an operating system. Understand the difference between command-line.

first.“Soft Boot” – restarting the computer without turning it off first. Unix Developed by Bell Labs in 1969Developed by Bell Labs in 1969 Command-Line OSCommand-Line OS Offered File SharingOffered File Sharing Offered Process-SharingOffered Process-Sharing Introducing Unix Commands Issue commands from a command prompt: /:Issue commands from a command prompt: /: Unix is case sensitive!Unix is case sensitive! Commands are typed in lowercase: cp (copy) is NOT the same as Cp or CPCommands/


1 Chapter-3 Introduction to Unix: Fundamental Commands.

certain time period. uptime Displays the current users of the system and when they logged in. If given the parameters am i (as in: who am i), it displays the current user. who 39 There are two major commands used in unix for listing files, cat, and more. What’s in the File? cat cat shows the contents of the file. cat [-nA] [file1 file2... fileN] cat is not a/


CSCI 330 T HE UNIX S YSTEM Dr. Reva Freedman Department of Computer Science Northern Illinois University Spring 2009.

OMMAND L INE S TRUCTURE % command [-options] [arguments] 15 CSCI 330 - The UNIX System Command prompt Command name Arguments can be: 1. More information 2. Object identifiers 3. Names of files UNIX is case sensitive Must be a space between the command, options and arguments No space between the plus or minus sign and the option letter Fields enclosed in [ ] are optional Command modifier; usually one character preceded by + or/


CSCI 330 T HE UNIX S YSTEM The file system. T HE U NIX FILE SYSTEM hierarchical organization of files contains directories and files basic commands to.

, home directory, shell passwords is listed in separate file: /etc/shadow group info is stored in file /etc/group groupid, group name additional group members To find out group information, use the command named: groups user-id Example: % groups z036473 student csci 18 CSCI 330 - The UNIX System S ECURITY L EVELS There are three levels of security in UNIX: system, directory and file System security controlled by the super user Directory/


Unix and C Programming Dr. Cong Xing Dept. of Math & CMPS.

built-in, needs to be installed) Unix manual $ man -- manual page for the command Logging out $ logout or $ exit or $ ^D One of the above has to work Spelling Unix or UNIX? The latter is traditional, the former acceptable Unix File System File Traditionally: a collection of related data Unix extends the traditional meaning of file To Unix, everything is a file (e.g., printer, disk drive,….) File types Ordinary files: common computer files Special files: device file/


1 Basic Unix And Basic Shell Scripting. 2 Course Objectives The participant will learn Unix Introduction Unix file related commands Unix text manipulation.

2 open will display the manual for the system call open. 21 Commands In Unix OptionDescription –k searches a set of database files containing short descriptions of system commands for keywords and displays the result on the standard output. -fgives one line introduction to the command (only complete word matches are displayed). 22 Basic commands in Unix $ date The command prints or sets the system date and time $ date –r TestFile It displays/


Bioinformatics Spring Break Workshop Basic Unix Disclaimer: This set of slides is for educational use only. It contains original content as well as content.

directory used to hold temporary files.  var : Files that contain information that varies frequently; most commonly, mail directories. Basic Unix Mark A. Pauley © 2004 - 2011 17 Unix Commands - pwd, ls and who  More useful commands:  pwd – Prints the working directory  ls – Lists the contents of the current directory  who – Lists the users currently on the system Basic Unix Mark A. Pauley © 2004 - 2011 18 In-class Practice  Now you/


CIS 14A - Operating Systems (UNIX) Markus Geissler, MBA Nghiep Nguyen, MSEE.

into two windows –Statements displayed in opposite window on other end of communication My “talking” appears here Your “talking” appears here The mailx Command n Send electronic mail from UNIX system –Syntax: mailx [username] Type subject line Type message Press Ctrl-D to send message –Example: mailx geisslm Type subject line and message –Example: mailx geisslm < message.fil Sends file message.fil to user geisslm/


Introduction to UNIX donna Bair-Mundy. What is UNIX? Applications OperatingSystem Hardware.

to programs User instructions to operating system When to run a program Creating and naming directories Copying files between directories or onto disks Setting access permissions Unix operating system % ls myfile.txt yourfile.txt % Command-line interface Utilities—programs to list files, tell who is on the system, what processes are running, etc. Editors—use to create HTML files for Web portals Unix environment - now host terminals terminals Hi/


Brief introduction to UNIX A. Emerson CINECA, High Performance Systems.

A. Emerson CINECA, High Performance Systems Contents Using Unix commandscommand syntax Getting Started –Getting help, identity, logging out Files and directories −Making, renaming, deleting and copying. −Examining file contents. Further file handling −File compression and making archives. −File permissions Miscellaneous −Jobs and processes −Editing with vi. Unix commands - usage Unix commands are normally used in the form: Where the options are generally included with the – sign. Example ls -l –a /usr/


Introduction to UNIX Manuel Ruiz, Bioinformatics School, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 21-26 november 2011.

groups of information. /home/mruiz Logging In Enter login name and password ! Enter login name and password ! System password file: /etc/passwd (usually). System password file: /etc/passwd (usually). You can change password using the command: passwd. You can change password using the command: passwd. Some shell commands Most Important command: man (manual pages). Most Important command: man (manual pages). Help: unix commands, C functions. Help: unix commands, C functions. Usage: man Usage: man/


A Short Introduction to Unix. Bioinformatics Requires Powerful Computers One definition of bioinformatics is "the use of computers to analyze biological.

Unix tutorials: Unix for Beginners http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Teaching/Unix/ Getting Started in Unix http://www2.ucsc.edu/cats/sc/help/unix/start.shtml Unix Guru Universe http://www.ugu.com/sui/ugu/show?help.beginners Getting Started With The Unix Operating System/as you would place folders in a filing cabinet. Do not accumulate thousands of files with cryptic names in your Home directory File & Directory Commands This is a minimal list of Unix commands that you must know for file management: ls (list) mkdir/


Introducing UNIX EMBnet www.embnet.org slide 1 Introducing the UNIX Operating System.

username project seq2seq1seq3 seq4 letterprot Any process is located somewhere in the filesystem The command pwd will tell you where. username@embnet ~> pwd /home/username ~ is a unix shortcut meaning your home directory Introducing UNIX EMBnet www.embnet.org slide 12 Looking at the file system / binusretchome username project seq2seq1seq3 seq4 letterprot ls lists the files in a directory or directories username@embnet ~> ls protletterproject username@embnet ~> project/


Unix. Unix Intro. We use the Unix labs for CSCI213 Your backgrounds and knowledge vary, some of you are: –already Unix proficient, :-) –just starting.

(‘ binary’ ) packages directory for Sun’s compilers etc pub public files (some general info. etc) usr /usr/bin more shell commands /usr/include “header” files for libraries Unix file system Each individual user has own directory ( traditionally, individual directories were subtrees of /usr, but more likely your directories will be located in another part of the file system ). Files and directory access –read( for directory this means you can get/


A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition Chapter 8 Exploring the UNIX/Linux Utilities.

Portmap service: –Handles RPC request to mount a partition –Makes computer act like a server for NFS file access A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition 47 Sharing Resources Using Network File System (continued) To start a service, use service command – service portmap NFS security handled through entries in: –/etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny, and /etc/exports /home/mpalmer/shared 192.168.0.72/


UNIX CSC 352, Fall 2015 The University of Arizona William H. Mitchell CSC 352 Fall 2015, Unix Slide 1.

home. Lets ascend to the root. To save space well use a semicolon to put two commands on the same command line. % cd..; pwd /home/whm % cd..; pwd /home % cd..; pwd / CSC 352 Fall 2015, Unix Slide 116 Paths, continued Lets see whats in the root of the file system. % pwd / % ls -F bin/ extensions/ local/ scratch/ boot/ gems/ lost+found/ selinux/ build/ home/ media/ specifications/


Day 1 Introduction to Unix. What is Unix? Unix is a computer operating system What does an O/S do? –Manage hardware and software resources, e.g. processor,

% kill %1 % jobs % kill %2 % jobs Day 4 File System Organization Creating our own commands Unix File Organization Unix is organized in directories and files. Commands are actually executable files. Organization is hierarchical, that is, the entire file system is a rooted tree, with the root being / (the root directory) % cd / % ls Unix File Organization: Main root directories /bin: most frequently used standard utilities. /usr: system files, and the games directory. /usr/bin: less frequently used/


Summer 2015 SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY CONFIDENTIAL 1 Introduction to UNIX / Linux - 4 Dr. Jerry Shiao, Silicon Valley University.

The UNIX File SystemFile Types and Representation.  File Attributes  File Organization and Management.  File Storage in UNIX File System.  File Command and Primitives The UNIX File Security  File Protection From Unauthorized Access User Login. Encrypt File. User Access Privileges.  File and Directory Access Privileges  Special Access Bits SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY CONFIDENTIAL 3 Copyright @2005 Pearson Addison-Wesley. Introduction UNIX/Linux Course The UNIX File System UNIX File Concept  File is/


Introduction to Unix/Linux Chapter One The Essence of UNIX.

operating systems in general and the UNIX operating system in particular Describe Linux as it relates to UNIX Explain the function of UNIX shells Describe the options for connecting to a UNIX system Define the syntax used for entering UNIX commands 3 Objectives (cont.) Use the date, cal, who, man, whatis, and clear commands Perform basic command-line editing operations Enter multiple commands on a single command line Recall a command from the command history Log in to/


Introduction to Unix Operating System โดย อ. ณัฐกร เฉยศิริ

) Bourne Again Shell (bash) Unix Command A command is a program that tells the Unix system to do something. Usually has the form: command [options] [arguments] Commands are case sensitive. command and Command are not the same. Options and syntax for a command are listed in the man page Navigation and Directory Control Commands File Maintenance Commands Miscellaneous commands Unix file type Regular file. A common file which contains data in text or binary. Directory file. A file that contains name of/


CIS 118: Unix Intro Slide 1 Today’s topics ’Unix history ’Unix philosophy ’Unix standards ’Unix future ’Future classes.

to the billions Microsoft spent on Windows 95/98/NT. CIS 118: Unix Intro Slide 9 Unix Basics: I ’Logging in and out of Unix. ’Unix command syntax. ’Changing your password. ’Unix file types. ’Unix directory tree. ’Moving around within the directory tree. CIS 118: Unix Intro Slide 10 Logging in to Unix ’Before you can begin to use the system you will need to have been given a user name and a/


Unix Accounts. 17/09/20152 Unix Accounts To access a Unix system you need to have an account. Unix account includes: username and password userid and.

corresponds to this primary group. A single account can belong to many groups (but has only one primary group). 17/09/20157 Home Directory A home directory is a place in the file system where the account files are stored. A directory is like a Windows folder. Many unix commands and applications make use of the account home directory (as a place to look for customization/


Copyright 2007, University of Alberta Introduction to Unix Jon Johansson AICT University of Alberta April 30, 2007.

: 1.Connect to remote sites 2.Moving data between machines use cluster.srv.ualberta.ca Copyright 2007, University of Alberta Agenda What is Unix? Your Unix environment The file system directory structure SSH Unix commands Compilers UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries LINUX is a trademark or a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds Copyright 2007, University of Alberta/


Introduction to UNIX Operating System. Unix Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with small caps) is a computer operating.

Bourne shell is default shell of Unix operating systems and is the most simplest shell in Unix systems. Examples: cd; ls execute one after another. (date;who;pwd)> logifile will redirect all the output from three commands to a filenamed logfile. sort file | lp will first sort a file and then print it. alias [options] [name[=command]] will let you create your own commands. i.e. alias ll="ls -la/


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