Ppt on endangered species free download

Threatened and Endangered Species. Extinction Extinction is both a natural and a human mediated process There are temporal and spatial dimensions to extinction.

Section 4(a)(3)(A) of the ESA requires that, to the maximum extent prudent and determinable, NMFS designate critical habitat concurrently with a determination that a species is endangered or threatened. Recovering Endangered Species Recovery targets must incorporate both the size of the population for “recovery” and the number of populations of the targeted size Often these data are not used in the/


ANNOUNCEMENTS.

more likely to become extinct. Specialization Blackfooted ferret Warbler and turtles, nesting sites Low biotic potential Elephants, whales, sharks Non-adaptive behavior Opossum and armadillo Carolina parakeet Saving Endangered Species Species approach Manage for that species specific problem Wood duck (nesting sites), birds of prey (DDT) Zoo approach Short term only Oryx, cheetah Ecosystem approach Only long term fix Wildlife biology management CITES Convention/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

Case Study p. 237 Fig. 12-12 p. 238 Section 5-6 Key Ideas What is the threat from poaching and hunting? Case study: Bushmeat What are other threats to endangered species? CNN Video Bushmeat: such as gorilla head Source of protein for local populations Sometimes sold internationally Other Extinction Threats Hunting and Poaching Predators and Pest Control Exotic Pets and Decorative/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

makes it illegal for Americans to engage in commerce associated with or hunt / kill / collect endangered or threatened species. Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act Biodiversity hotspots in relation to the largest concentrations of rare and potentially endangered species in the U.S. Figure 11-18 Endangered Species Because of scarcity of inspectors, probably no more than 1/10th of the illegal wildlife trade in the/


Endangered Means There’s Still Time.

, or sea cow Sometimes speed boats run over the manatees Human Activities Sometimes speed boats run over the manatees Other Endangered Species Some endangered species that aren’t mammals and birds Other Endangered Species Plants like insect-eating pitcher plant are endangered Other Endangered Species Bunched Cory Cactus in the Southwest deserts Endangered Means There’s Still Time All living things are connected and depend on each other for survival/


Endangered Species The rare scare….

people in the US participate in wildlife related recreation including observing, feeding and photographing wildlife. Laws That Protect Endangered Species Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act Makes it illegal to import, export, or take bald or golden eagles to/the Department of the Interior for the sea otter, walrus, polar bear, dugong, and manatee Endangered Species Act This Act prohibits the importation, exportation, taking, and commercialization in interstate or foreign commerce of fish and /


Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach.

for landscaping and enjoyment Prevention: research and education 16 White Rhinoceros Killed by a Poacher 17 ENDANGERED SPECIES Endangered species – population is declining to very low levels; if continues will go extinct Threatened species – population is declining rapidly because of human impacts Endangered Natural Capital: Species Threatened with Premature Extinction 19 Endangered Species Often we try to protect “charismatic megafauna” but many others in danger too. US examples: Sea/


ENDANGERED SPECIESENDANGERED SPECIES P RESENTED BY :- AMANPREET S INGH www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com.

5. Schizymenia ecuadoreana 4. Xyris andina 3. Hoplestigma pierreanum 2. Ochyraea tatrensis 1. Astelia waialealae 7 Endangered Species Making There Comeback Bald Eagle Regent Honeyeater Black Footed Ferret Giant Panda Humpback Whale Yangtze Alligator Gray Wolf Top/, and ancient forests to purify their air, clean their water, and supply them with food. Ways You Can Help Endangered Species Conserve Habitats.  Recycle, Reduce, And Reuse. Make Space For Our Wildlife.  Join An Organization. Stop hunting /


Biodiversity and Conservation

closes island to protect mating bald eagles. Benefits Costs International Cooperation Lesson 7.3 Protecting Biodiversity International Cooperation Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1975): Bans international trade in body parts of endangered species. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992): International treaty to conserve biodiversity and ensure its responsible use and distribution Ivory products, made from elephant tusks/


Conservation.

a specific category of threatened species, and may include critically endangered species. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species uses the term endangered species as a specific category of imperilment, rather than as a general term. Under the IUCN Categories and Criteria, endangered species is between critically endangered and vulnerable. Also critically endangered species may also be counted as endangered species and fill all the criteria. IUCN Red List Endangered species The more general term used/


EPA’s Endangered Species Protection Program Frequently Asked Questions & State/Tribal Perspective Jaslyn Dobrahner, EPA Region 8 Jim Gray, ND Dept. of.

Whitefish, MT 2006 Western Region Pesticide Mtg., Whitefish, MT Objectives 1.Increase your knowledge of the new Endangered Species Protection Program (ESPP). 2.Provide a state/tribal perspective of the ESPP. 2006 Western Region Pesticide /Mtg., Whitefish, MT What are we enforcing? FIFRA X X Endangered Species Act Endangered Species Protection Program Administered by ‘the Services’ NOT a legally binding regulation Endangered species product labeling 2006 Western Region Pesticide Mtg., Whitefish, MT What will/


The Endangered Species Act of 1973

habitat designation C. Protection -- Listing process is needed before protection through ESA can be set in motion B. Critical habitat designation C. Protection A. Listing Listing – selecting species to be put on the endangered species list. 5 criteria for listing as defined by law: present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational/


Endangered Species The South China Tiger

is securing unswerving long-term commitment from the world to save this species.” Dr. Barney Long Asian Species Expert Citations "Threatened & Endangered Species." Threatened and Endangered Species. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. Link: http://marinebio.org/oceans/threatened-endangered-species.asp "Speak Out Against Attacks on the Endangered Species Act." Speak Out Against Attacks on the Endangered Species Act. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. Link: https/


Endangered Species US Fish and Wildlife Service. Endangered Species Endangered Species Act Passed in 1983 Purpose Conserve Endangered and Threatened Species.

8 Birds 3 Mammals 7 Reptiles 10 Plants 1 Amphibian 22 Endangered 5 Threatened 2 Candidates 6 with Designated Critical Habitat Endangered Species Bald Eagle (endangered ) AdultImmature Immature- molting to adult Aplomado Falcon (endangered) Whooping Crane(endangered) Brown Pelican (endangered) Attwater’s Prairie Chicken Least Tern (endangered) (endangered) Piping Plover (threatened) Eskimo Curlew (endangered) Leatherback Sea Turtle (threatened) HawksBill Turtle (threatened) Green Sea Turtle (threatened/


 Our planet-earth (biosphere) contains more than 20 million species of organisms. But, of which only 1.4 million species have been identified so far.

, whichultimately causes degradation of wildlife habitats. 2. Commercial activities: Though international ban ontrading the products of endangered species, smuggling of wildlife products continues. Since the trading of such wildlife products is highly profit, poaching makes/ culture. This facility has been created within the NBPGR. Advantages of Ex-situ Conservation 1. Survival of endangered species is increasing due to special care and attention. 2. In captive breeding, animals are assured food, water/


Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Species diversity Species Diversity = the number or variety of species.

Cummings Warming has been the greatest in the Arctic The polar bear is being considered for the endangered species list Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Biodiversity loss has a/as Pearson Benjamin Cummings International conservation efforts UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973) (CITES) – protects endangered species by banning international transport of their body parts Convention on Biological Diversity (/


Biodiversity and Endangered Species. Chapter Overview Questions How do scientists account for the development of life on earth? What is biological evolution.

The ______ of _______ _________. Example, how much would it cost to protect a forest from cutting, move an endangered species to a new habitat, or restore a statue damaged by air pollution? ______________ _________ and _________ study devoted to / Multidisciplinary science that deals with the _____ of ________ and how to maintain the earth’s ecosystems. _________ used to help Endangered Species: In Situ: ________ the animal where it ____ but _________ it. – Ex. Elephants; make laws that prevent _______ and/


LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17 TH MILLER/SPOOLMAN Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach.

forests and coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries—sites of new species—being destroyed Extinction Rates Are Rising Rapidly (2) Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms (1) Endangered species So few members that the species could soon become extinct Threatened species (vulnerable species) Still enough members to survive, but numbers declining -- may soon be endangered Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms (2) Characteristics Big Slow Tasty Valuable parts/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 8.

Passenger pigeon Great aukDodoDusky seaside sparrow Aepyornis (Madagascar) Some Prematurely Extinct Species Endangered and Threatened Species Endangered species could soon become extinct over some or all of its range Endangered species could soon become extinct over some or all of its range Threatened species still abundant, but likely to become endangered Threatened species still abundant, but likely to become endangered Fig. 8-3, p. 156 Florida manatee Northern spotted owl (threatened/


Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Species diversity Species Diversity = the number or variety of species.

Cummings Warming has been the greatest in the Arctic The polar bear is being considered for the endangered species list Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Biodiversity loss has a/as Pearson Benjamin Cummings International conservation efforts UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1973) (CITES) – protects endangered species by banning international transport of their body parts Convention on Biological Diversity (/


UBND TỈNH ĐIỆN BIÊN SỞ GIÁO DỤC & ĐÀO TẠO ĐIỆN BIÊN CUỘC THI THIẾT KẾ BÀI GIẢNG ĐIỆN TỬ E- LEARNING Bài giảng: UNIT 10: ENDANGERED SPECIES PART A: READING.

completely You must answer the question before continuing Submit Clear A) Endangered Species and Conservation Measures B)Endangered Species and their Benefits C)The Global Extinction Crisis D) Endangered Species Extinction: Causes and Conservation Measures Quiz Your Score{score} Max Score/answer the question before continuing Submit Clear 3. There are a number of ways to help save endangered species Correct - Click anywhere to continue Incorrect - Click anywhere to continue You answered this correctly! You /


 1966 Whooping Crane inspires Congress to pass Endangered Species Preservation Act to protect critical habitats  1969 Whale conservation led to Endangered.

Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service may impose administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions for failure to comply with the Endangered Species Act.  Civil penalties can reach $27,500 per day per violation.  Criminal violations of the Act – for/ including the tail. It weighs from ten to fifteen pounds.  The hybrid spider monkey is classified as an endangered species due to the fact that it only exists in severely fragmented subpopulations, and that there has been continuing decline in/


Chapter 22 Sustaining Wild Species Chapter 22 Sustaining Wild Species.

Valley 5 Southern California 6 Florida Panhandle 4 5 2 6 3 1 Fig. 22.23, p. 575 6 Hotspots for Endangered Species Charcoal Roadblock 4min http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cnPlj d_jJg&feature=player_embedded http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=tJ5nfgYJhD4 What/ Land Owners Done to Avoid the ESA? Some land owners have managed their land so less endangered species use it Some land owners have managed their land so less endangered species use it * The Bald Eagle was the first organism to be protected under the ESA */


Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach The last word in ignorance is the person who says of an animal or plant: “What good is it?”… If.

of biodiversity by reducing the rate of speciation for some species. We are creating a speciation crisis. Extinction Rates Are Rising Rapidly Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms Endangered species So few members that the species could soon become extinct Threatened species (vulnerable species) Still enough members to survive, but numbers declining -- may soon be endangered Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms The International Union for the/


7 Biodiversity and Conservation CHAPTER. Lesson 7.1 Our Planet of Life There are more known species of insects than any other form of life. Among known.

2.5  C global temperature increase could put 20–30% of plant and animal species at increased risk of extinction. The Endangered Species Act Lesson 7.3 Protecting Biodiversity U.S. law that protects biodiversity, passed in /ensure its responsible use and distribution Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1975): Bans international trade in body parts of endangered species. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992): International treaty to conserve biodiversity/


BiodiversitySection 1 CHAPTER 10 BIODIVERSITY. BiodiversitySection 1 Endangered Species Mini-Presentations Right now visit: You will.

that need large or special habitats, and those that are exploited by humans. BiodiversitySection 1 Species Prone to Extinction An endangered species is a species that has been identified to be in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part/Poaching One product of the IUCN has been an international treaty called CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species). The CITES treaty was the first effective effort to stop the slaughter of African elephants being killed by poachers /


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 9.

health, even if some of the cause-and- effect relationships have not been fully established, scientifically. International Treaties Help to Protect Species  1975: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Signed by 172 countries Bans hunting, capturing, & selling of threatened or endangered species Enforcement varies by country & difficult  Convention on Biological Diversity (BCD) Focuses on ecosystems Ratified by 190 countries (not the U.S/


7 Biodiversity and Conservation CHAPTER. Lesson 7.1 Our Planet of Life There are more known species of insects than any other form of life. Among known.

island to protect mating bald eagles. Lake Wallenpaupack closes island to protect mating bald eagles. Benefits Costs International Cooperation Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1975): Bans international trade in body parts of endangered species. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992): International treaty to conserve biodiversity and ensure its responsible use and distribution Convention on International Trade in/


LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT 17 TH MILLER/SPOOLMAN Chapter 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach.

forests and coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries—sites of new species—being destroyed Speciation crisis Extinction Rates Are Rising Rapidly (2) Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms (1) Endangered species So few members that the species could soon become extinct Threatened species (vulnerable species) Still enough members to survive, but numbers declining -- may soon be endangered Endangered and Threatened Species Are Ecological Smoke Alarms (2) Characteristics Big Slow Tasty/


Biodiversity and Endangered Species. Chapter Overview Questions How do scientists account for the development of life on earth? What is biological evolution.

The ______ of _______ _________. Example, how much would it cost to protect a forest from cutting, move an endangered species to a new habitat, or restore a statue damaged by air pollution? ______________ _________ and _________ study devoted to / Multidisciplinary science that deals with the _____ of ________ and how to maintain the earth’s ecosystems. _________ used to help Endangered Species: In Situ: ________ the animal where it ____ but _________ it. – Ex. Elephants; make laws that prevent _______ and/


Wildlife, Fisheries, and Endangered Species Unit 3 AP Environmental Science (Chapter 14)

known mammals at risk  12% of birds  28% of reptiles  30% of amphibians  37% of freshwater fish  35% of invertebrates  70% of plants Current Status of Endangered Species  The term endangered species as defined by the Endangered Species Act of 1973  “Any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range…”  With the exception of insect pests  The term threatened/


© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 6 Wild Species and Biodiversity.

of our stewardship task Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) removes (kills) 2.5 million animals/yr © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cougar on the roof © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Protecting endangered species Government policies protecting animals are essential to prevent extinction Even when cultural standards change Laws and policies ensure protection Lacey Act (1900): forbids interstate commerce in illegally killed wildlife Protects/


Chapter 22 Sustaining Wild Species Chapter 22 Sustaining Wild Species.

provide habitat. B. Species-by-Species Approach Identify most at-risk species Identify most at-risk species Understand the species Understand the species Focus on protecting them Focus on protecting them The Species ApproachThe Ecosystem Approach Goal Protect species from premature extinction Strategies Identify endangered species Protect their critical habitats Tactics Legally protect endangered species Manage habitat Propagate endangered species in captivity Reintroduce species into suitable habitats Goal/


1 Objectives Definitions – species, habitat, and biodiversity Levels of biodiversity – habitat, species, and genetic Measurement of biodiversity by sampling;

during migration Climate change affecting food sources Culling and hunting Money can be made from whales Live whales– as a tourist attraction Dead whales– food, oil, making cosmetics (using blubber) Endangered species can be protected from extinction by Education – raising awareness Breeding animals in captivity (e.g. zoos) and returning to natural habitat to create new population Protecting (conserving) natural habitats Creating/


Managing for Wildlife Diversity: Rare and Endangered Wildlife Jim Ozier Sr. Wildlife Biologist Nongame & Endangered Wildlife Program Georgia Department.

” does not typically extend to habitat. Individuals can still be taken “incidentally” through otherwise legal habitat alteration. However… What is an “Endangered Species?” A species or subspecies of plant or animal that is officially listed for protection under the federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Endangered = “any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range…” Threatened = “any/


 Our planet-earth (biosphere) contains more than 20 million species of organisms. But, of which only 1.4 million species have been identified so far.

, whichultimately causes degradation of wildlife habitats. 2. Commercial activities: Though international ban ontrading the products of endangered species, smuggling of wildlife products continues. Since the trading of such wildlife products is highly profit, poaching makes/ culture. This facility has been created within the NBPGR. Advantages of Ex-situ Conservation 1. Survival of endangered species is increasing due to special care and attention. 2. In captive breeding, animals are assured food, water/


Chapter 22 Sustaining Wild Species Chapter 22 Sustaining Wild Species.

provide habitat. B. Species-by-Species Approach Identify most at-risk species Identify most at-risk species Understand the species Understand the species Focus on protecting them Focus on protecting them The Species ApproachThe Ecosystem Approach Goal Protect species from premature extinction Strategies Identify endangered species Protect their critical habitats Tactics Legally protect endangered species Manage habitat Propagate endangered species in captivity Reintroduce species into suitable habitats Goal/


Sustaining Wild Things - Species

and aquatic systems Tactics Tactics Protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areas Manage protected areas to sustain native species Restore degraded ecosystems Legally protect endangered species Manage habitat Propagate endangered species in captivity Reintroduce species into suitable habitats U.S. Public Lands – Habitat Protected through Government Action Multiple Land Use National Forest System – allow logging/


Chapter 11 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach.

You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access “JoinIn Clicker Content” from the PowerLecture main menu for Living in the Environment.  Should the Endangered Species Act be modified to protect and sustain the nations overall biodiversity? a. No. Protecting entire habitats will only further interfere with the rights of landowners. a. No. Protecting entire habitats/


Chapter 11 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach.

hunt / kill / collect endangered or threatened species. Case Study: The U.S. Endangered Species Act  Biodiversity hotspots in relation to the largest concentrations of rare and potentially endangered species in the U.S. Figure 11-18 Endangered Species  Because of scarcity of /the illegal wildlife trade in the U.S. is discovered. Figure 11-19 Endangered Species  Congress has amended the ESA to help landowners protect species on their land.  Some believe that the ESA should be weakened or repealed/


MetaLib: hidden treasures & endangered species Mario Kowalak (University Library, FU Berlin) IGeLU Conference, 8 – 10 Sept. 2013, Freie Universität Berlin.

2013 Product placement & marketing strategies: more than metasearch …! Archive? OPAC for e-resources? „Only“ metasearch tool? Virtual reading room! ;-) How to use MetaLib? 8 MetaLib: hidden treasures … MetaLib: hidden treasures & endangered species / M. Kowalak +++ IGeLU Conference – FU Berlin, Sept. 9th 2013 Product placement & marketing strategies: more than metasearch …! Integration of e-resources Resource discovery („Find databases“) Metasearch Personalization Integrated link resolver Creative/


LIVING THINGS Endangered Species. Thailand survivor The annual Red List of species threatened with extinction has been published by IUCN-The World Conservation.

19 in 2000). Significant numbers are drowning after being caught accidentally on baited longline hooks. Photo by Tony Palliser Endangered Species Golden bamboo lemur The golden bamboo lemur was first described by Western science in 1987. It is known to / people called Picts. They both tattooed and painted themselves with indigo. Latin meaning of Briton is painted men. Endangered Species Golden bamboo lemur The golden bamboo lemur was first described by Western science in 1987. Monkeys and other primates are/


Diversity, Rainforests, and extinctions

areas. The Slender-billed Grackle (Cassidix palustris)(above) once inhabited a single marsh near Mexico City. The marsh was filled about 1910, spelling extinction for this bird. Many endangered species fall into this category. (species, or animals and plants that are restricted to a relatively small area, such as an island, are inherently vulnerable to extinction.) Last seen 1910 2. Specialization of habitat/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 9.

,000 times the earlier rate during this century. Three Types of Extinction  Local extinction  Ecological extinction  Biological extinction Ecological Smoke Alarms  Endangered species  Threatened species  The first to go large, slow, tasty, or have valuable parts  Some behaviors make species prone to extinction Species Prematurely Extinct Fig. 9-2, p. 178 Aepyornis (Madagascar) Passenger pigeonGreat aukDodoDusky seaside sparrow Calculating Extinction Rates  Extinction takes a long/


Chapter 14: Wildlife, Fisheries, and Endangered Species

.g. Atlantic salmon fisheries cause water pollution and loss of genetic diversity The Current Status of Endangered Species The # of species listed as threatened or endangered increasing IUCN maintains a list known as the Red List 20% of all know mammals at/ of amphibians 3% of fish 12.5% of plants recently extinct or endangered The Current Status of Endangered Species The term endangered species as defined by the ESA “Any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its/


Made by Chekalkina Katya, 10-1. Endangered species An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it.

Red List refers to a specific category of threatened species, and may include critically endangered species. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species uses the term endangered species as a specific category of imperilment, rather than as a general term. Under the IUCN Categories and Criteria, endangered species is between critically endangered and vulnerable. Also critically endangered species may also be counted as endangered species and fill all the criteria The more general term/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

1 year in prison. Between 1973 and 2011, the number of U.S. species on the official endangered and threatened species lists increased from 92 to more than 1,320. The U.S. Endangered Species Act Since 1982, the ESA has been amended to give private landowners economic incentives to help save endangered species living on their lands. Some believe that the ESA should be weakened or/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

, even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established, scientifically. International Treaties Can Help Protect Species International treaties have helped reduce the trade of endangered and threatened species. The 1975 Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) Lists 900 species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products Signed by 172 countries Enforcement is difficult Probably only/


Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach

to the environment and to human health, even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established, scientifically. International Treaties Help to Protect Species 1975: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Signed by 172 countries Click for link to CITES Convention on Biological Diversity (BCD) Focuses on ecosystems Ratified by 190 countries (not the U.S.) Click/


Protecting endangered plant and animal species. The processes leading to the natural loss of species: 1. natural death, 2. population pressure, 3. destruction.

the use / recycle natural resources Ban or restrict activities that cause harm to the nature, e.g. hunting Act of Endangered Species The nature/scale of remedial measures needed to reverse current trends: 1. International efforts through the activities of groups such /the conservation of bird life through the preservation of the Mai Po marshes, iii. controls to prevent the import of endangered species, iv. additional steps Hong Kong could take in this areas. 4. Chinaa role: a developing interest in areas /


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